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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180916

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors in which altered central metabolism appears to be a major driver of tumorigenesis, and many PPGL genes encode proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: While around 40% of PPGL cases carry a variant in a known gene, many cases remain unexplained. In unexplained patients showing clear evidence of a familial burden or multiple tumors, we aimed to identify causative factors using genetic analysis of patient DNA and functional analyses of identified DNA variants in patient tumor material and engineered cell lines. PATIENTS AND SETTING: Patients with a likely familial cancer burden of pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas and under investigation in a clinical genetic and clinical research setting in university hospitals. RESULTS: While investigating unexplained PPGL cases, we identified a novel variant, c.1151C>T, p.(Pro384Leu), in exon 14 of the gene encoding dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST), a component of the multi-enzyme complex 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Targeted sequence analysis of further unexplained cases identified a patient carrying a tumor with compound heterozygous variants in DLST, consisting of a germline variant, c.1121G>A, p.(Gly374Glu), together with a somatic missense variant identified in tumor DNA, c.1147A>G, p.(Thr383Ala), both located in exon 14. Using a range of in silico and functional assays we show that these variants are predicted to be pathogenic, profoundly impact enzyme activity and result in DNA hypermethylation. CONCLUSIONS: The identification and functional analysis of these DLST variants further validates DLST as an additional PPGL gene involved in the TCA cycle.

2.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(12): R433-R450, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112800

RESUMO

This review describes human and rodent-derived cell lines and xenografts developed over the last five decades that are suitable or potentially suitable models for paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma research. We outline the strengths and weaknesses of various models and emphasize the recurring theme that, despite the major challenges involved, more effort is required in the search for valid human and animal cell models of paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma, particularly those relevant to cancers carrying a mutation in one of the succinate dehydrogenase genes. Despite many setbacks, the recent development of a potentially important new model, the RS0 cell line, gives reason for optimism regarding the future of models in the paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma field. We also note that classic approaches to cell line derivation such as SV40-mediated immortalization and newer approaches such as organoid culture or iPSCs have been insufficiently explored. As many existing cell lines have been poorly characterized, we provide recommendations for reporting of paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma cell lines, including the strong recommendation that cell lines are made widely available via the ATCC or a similar cell repository. Basic research in paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma is currently transitioning from the analysis of genetics to the analysis of disease mechanisms and the clinically exploitable vulnerabilities of tumors. A successful transition will require many more disease-relevant human and animal models to ensure continuing progress.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

4.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

6.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1803-1811, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the performance of the recently extended Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA version 5) in a Dutch prospective cohort, using a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313 breast cancer (BC)-associated variants (PRS313) and other, nongenetic risk factors. METHODS: Since 1989, 6522 women without BC aged 45 or older of European descent have been included in the Rotterdam Study. The PRS313 was calculated per 1 SD in controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between the PRS313 and incident BC risk. Cumulative 10-year risks were calculated with BOADICEA including different sets of variables (age, risk factors and PRS313). C-statistics were used to evaluate discriminative ability. RESULTS: In total, 320 women developed BC. The PRS313 was significantly associated with BC (hazard ratio [HR] per SD of 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.40-1.73]). Using 10-year risk estimates including age and the PRS313, other risk factors improved the discriminatory ability of the BOADICEA model marginally, from a C-statistic of 0.636 to 0.653. CONCLUSIONS: The effect size of the PRS313 is highly reproducible in the Dutch population. Our results validate the BOADICEA v5 model for BC risk assessment in the Dutch general population.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

8.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(11): 687-705, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555420

RESUMO

The European Collaborative on Personalized Early Detection and Prevention of Breast Cancer (ENVISION) brings together several international research consortia working on different aspects of the personalized early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In a consensus conference held in 2019, the members of this network identified research areas requiring development to enable evidence-based personalized interventions that might improve the benefits and reduce the harms of existing breast cancer screening and prevention programmes. The priority areas identified were: 1) breast cancer subtype-specific risk assessment tools applicable to women of all ancestries; 2) intermediate surrogate markers of response to preventive measures; 3) novel non-surgical preventive measures to reduce the incidence of breast cancer of poor prognosis; and 4) hybrid effectiveness-implementation research combined with modelling studies to evaluate the long-term population outcomes of risk-based early detection strategies. The implementation of such programmes would require health-care systems to be open to learning and adapting, the engagement of a diverse range of stakeholders and tailoring to societal norms and values, while also addressing the ethical and legal issues. In this Consensus Statement, we discuss the current state of breast cancer risk prediction, risk-stratified prevention and early detection strategies, and their implementation. Throughout, we highlight priorities for advancing each of these areas.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1427-1428, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576986

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2708-2716, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383162

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is approximately twice as high in first-degree relatives of female breast cancer cases than in women in the general population. Less than half of this risk can be attributed to the currently known genetic risk factors. Recessive risk alleles represent a relatively underexplored explanation for the remainder of familial risk. To address this, we selected 19 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which at least three siblings were affected, while no first-degree relatives of the previous or following generation had breast cancer. Germline DNA from one of the siblings was subjected to exome sequencing, while all affected siblings were genotyped using SNP arrays to assess haplotype sharing and to calculate a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 160 low-risk variants. We found no convincing candidate recessive alleles among exome sequencing variants in genomic regions for which all three siblings shared two haplotypes. However, we found two families in which all affected siblings carried the CHEK2*1100delC. In addition, the average normalized PRS of the "recessive" family probands (0.81) was significantly higher than that in both general population cases (0.35, P = .026) and controls (P = .0004). These findings suggest that the familial aggregation is, at least in part, explained by a polygenic effect of common low-risk variants and rarer intermediate-risk variants, while we did not find evidence of a role for novel recessive risk alleles.

11.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1355-1365, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current interpretation guidelines for germline variants in high-risk cancer susceptibility genes consider predicted loss-of-function (LoF) variants, such as nonsense variants and variants in the canonical splice site sequences ofBRCA2, to be associated with high cancer risk. However, some variant alleles produce alternative transcripts that encode (partially) functional protein isoforms leading to possible incorrect risk estimations. For accurate classification of variants it is therefore essential that alternative transcripts are identified and functionally characterized. METHODS: We systematically evaluated a large panel of human BRCA2 variants for the production of alternative transcripts and assessed their capacity to exert BRCA2 protein functionality. Evaluated variants included all single-exon deletions, various multiple-exon deletions, intronic variants at the canonical splice donor and acceptor sequences, and variants that previously have been shown to affect messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing in carriers. RESULTS: Multiple alternative transcripts encoding (partially) functional protein isoforms were identified (e.g., ∆[E4-E7], ∆[E6-E7], ∆E[6q39_E8], ∆[E10], ∆[E12], ∆E[12-14]). Expression of these transcripts did attenuate the impact of predicted LoF variants such as the canonical splice site variants c.631+2T>G, c.517-2A>G, c.6842-2A>G, c.6937+1G>A, and nonsense variants c.491T>A, c.581G>A, and c.6901G>T. CONCLUSION: These results allow refinement of variant interpretation guidelines for BRCA2 by providing insight into the functional consequences of naturally occurring and variant-related alternative splicing events.

12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 312, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949161

RESUMO

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Apoptose , Relógios Circadianos , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
J Med Genet ; 57(2): 96-103, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic germline variants in subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB, SDHC and SDHD) are broadly associated with disease subtypes of phaeochromocytoma-paraganglioma (PPGL) syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the role of variant type (ie, missense vs truncating) in determining tumour phenotype. METHODS: Three independent datasets comprising 950 PPGL and head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) patients were analysed for associations of variant type with tumour type and age-related tumour risk. All patients were carriers of pathogenic germline variants in the SDHB, SDHC or SDHD genes. RESULTS: Truncating SDH variants were significantly over-represented in clinical cases compared with missense variants, and carriers of SDHD truncating variants had a significantly higher risk for PPGL (p<0.001), an earlier age of diagnosis (p<0.0001) and a greater risk for PPGL/HNPGL comorbidity compared with carriers of missense variants. Carriers of SDHB truncating variants displayed a trend towards increased risk of PPGL, and all three SDH genes showed a trend towards over-representation of missense variants in HNPGL cases. Overall, variant types conferred PPGL risk in the (highest-to-lowest) sequence SDHB truncating, SDHB missense, SDHD truncating and SDHD missense, with the opposite pattern apparent for HNPGL (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SDHD truncating variants represent a distinct group, with a clinical phenotype reminiscent of but not identical to SDHB. We propose that surveillance and counselling of carriers of SDHD should be tailored by variant type. The clinical impact of truncating SDHx variants is distinct from missense variants and suggests that residual SDH protein subunit function determines risk and site of disease.

15.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 29(1): e13173, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a comprehensive assessment of the psychometrics of the "Psychosocial Aspects in Hereditary Cancer" (PAHC) questionnaire in French, German and Spanish. METHODS: Women consecutively approached in Cancer Genetic Clinics completed the PAHC, distress and satisfaction questionnaires at pre-testing (T1) and after test result disclosure (T2). In addition to standard psychometric attributes, we assessed the PAHC ability to respond to change (i.e. improvement or deterioration from T1 to T2) in perceived difficulties and computed minimal important differences (MID) in PAHC scores as compared with self-reported needs for additional counselling. RESULTS: Of 738 eligible counselees, 214 (90%) in France (Paris), 301 (92%) in Germany (Cologne) and 133 (77%) in Spain (Barcelona) completed the PAHC. A six-factor revised PAHC model yielded acceptable CFA goodness-of-fit indexes and good all scales internal consistencies. PAHC scales demonstrated expected conceptual differences with distress and satisfaction with counselling. Different levels of psychosocial difficulties were evidenced between counselees' subgroups and over time (p-values < .05). MID estimates ranged from 8 to 15 for improvement and 9 to 21 for deterioration. CONCLUSION: The PAHC French, German and Spanish versions are reliable and valid for evaluating the psychosocial difficulties of women at high BC risk attending genetic clinics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , França , Testes Genéticos , Alemanha , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diferença Mínima Clinicamente Importante , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5296, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757951

RESUMO

Heterozygous carriers of germ-line loss-of-function variants in the DNA repair gene PALB2 are at a highly increased lifetime risk for developing breast cancer. While truncating variants in PALB2 are known to increase cancer risk, the interpretation of missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) is in its infancy. Here we describe the development of a relatively fast and easy cDNA-based system for the semi high-throughput functional analysis of 48 VUS in human PALB2. By assessing the ability of PALB2 VUS to rescue the DNA repair and checkpoint defects in Palb2 knockout mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, we identify various VUS in PALB2 that impair its function. Three VUS in the coiled-coil domain of PALB2 abrogate the interaction with BRCA1, whereas several VUS in the WD40 domain dramatically reduce protein stability. Thus, our functional assays identify damaging VUS in PALB2 that may increase cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Animais , DNA Complementar , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
18.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029926, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES AND SETTING: Advances in multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility has increased the complexity of counselling, requiring particular attention to counselees' psychosocial needs. Changes in psychosocial problems before and after genetic testing were prospectively compared between genetic test results in women tested for breast or ovarian cancer genetic susceptibility in French, German and Spanish clinics. PARTICIPANTS AND MEASURES: Among 752 counselees consecutively approached, 646 (86%) were assessed after the initial genetic consultation (T1), including 510 (68%) affected with breast cancer, of which 460 (61%) were assessed again after receiving the test result (T2), using questionnaires addressing genetic-specific psychosocial problems (Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC)-six scales). Sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected. RESULTS: Seventy-nine (17.2%), 19 (4.1%), 259 (56.3%), 44 (9.6%) and 59 (12.8%) women received a BRCA1/2, another high/moderate-risk pathogenic variant (PV), negative uninformative, true negative (TN) or variant of uncertain significance result (VUS), respectively. On multiple regression analyses, compared with women receiving another result, those with a VUS decreased more in psychosocial problems related to hereditary predisposition (eg, coping with the test result) (ß=-0.11, p<0.05) and familial/social issues (eg, risk communication) (ß=-0.13, p<0.05), almost independently from their problems before testing. Women with a PV presented no change in hereditary predisposition problems and, so as women with a TN result, a non-significant increase in familial/social issues. Other PAHC scales (ie, emotions, familial cancer, personal cancer and children-related issues) were not affected by genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS: In women tested for breast or ovarian cancer genetic risk in European genetics clinics, psychosocial problems were mostly unaffected by genetic testing. Apart from women receiving a VUS result, those with another test result presented unchanged needs in counselling in particular about hereditary predisposition and familial/social issues.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/psicologia , Humanos , Psicologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Mastectomia Profilática , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mortalidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Mastectomia Profilática/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
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