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2.
Neurogenetics ; 20(3): 145-154, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209758

RESUMO

Both copy number losses and gains occur within subtelomeric 9q34 region without common breakpoints. The microdeletions cause Kleefstra syndrome (KS), whose responsible gene is EHMT1. A 9q34 duplication syndrome (9q34 DS) had been reported in literature, but it has never been characterized by a detailed molecular analysis of the gene content and endpoints. To the best of our knowledge, we report on the first patient carrying the smallest 9q34.3 duplication containing EHMT1 as the only relevant gene. We compared him with 21 reported patients described here as carrying 9q34.3 duplications encompassing the entire gene and extending within ~ 3 Mb. By surveying the available clinical and molecular cytogenetic data, we were able to discover that similar neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) were shared by patient carriers of even very differently sized duplications. Moreover, some facial features of the 9q34 DS were more represented than those of KS. However, an accurate in silico analysis of the genes mapped in all the duplications allowed us to support EHMT1 as being sufficient to cause a NDD phenotype. Wider patient cohorts are needed to ascertain whether the rearrangements have full causative role or simply confer the susceptibility to NDDs and possibly to identify the cognitive and behavioral profile associated with the increased dosage of EHMT1.

3.
J Med Genet ; 56(8): 526-535, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced chromosomal rearrangements associated with abnormal phenotype are rare events, but may be challenging for genetic counselling, since molecular characterisation of breakpoints is not performed routinely. We used next-generation sequencing to characterise breakpoints of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the molecular level in patients with intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies. METHODS: Breakpoints were characterised by a paired-end low depth whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy and validated by Sanger sequencing. Expression study of disrupted and neighbouring genes was performed by RT-qPCR from blood or lymphoblastoid cell line RNA. RESULTS: Among the 55 patients included (41 reciprocal translocations, 4 inversions, 2 insertions and 8 complex chromosomal rearrangements), we were able to detect 89% of chromosomal rearrangements (49/55). Molecular signatures at the breakpoints suggested that DNA breaks arose randomly and that there was no major influence of repeated elements. Non-homologous end-joining appeared as the main mechanism of repair (55% of rearrangements). A diagnosis could be established in 22/49 patients (44.8%), 15 by gene disruption (KANSL1, FOXP1, SPRED1, TLK2, MBD5, DMD, AUTS2, MEIS2, MEF2C, NRXN1, NFIX, SYNGAP1, GHR, ZMIZ1) and 7 by position effect (DLX5, MEF2C, BCL11B, SATB2, ZMIZ1). In addition, 16 new candidate genes were identified. Systematic gene expression studies further supported these results. We also showed the contribution of topologically associated domain maps to WGS data interpretation. CONCLUSION: Paired-end WGS is a valid strategy and may be used for structural variation characterisation in a clinical setting.

4.
Clin Genet ; 94(6): 575-580, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221343

RESUMO

We report findings from a male fetus of 26 weeks' gestational age with severe isolated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) on amniotic fluid cells revealed a 1.06-Mb duplication in 19q13.42 inherited from the healthy father. This duplication contains 34 genes including ZNF331, a gene encoding a zinc-finger protein specifically imprinted (paternally expressed) in the placenta. Study of the ZNF331 promoter by methylation-specific-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed that the duplicated allele was not methylated in the fetus unlike in the father's genome, suggesting both copies of the ZNF331 gene are expressed in the fetus. The anti-ZNF331 immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that ZNF331 was expressed at higher levels in renal and placental tissues from this fetus compared to controls. Interestingly, ZNF331 expression levels in the placenta have previously been reported to inversely correlate with fetal growth parameters. The original observation presented in this report showed that duplication of ZNF331 could be a novel genetic cause of isolated IUGR and underlines the usefulness of CMA to investigate the genetic causes of isolated severe IUGR.

5.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 39(302): 36-39, 2018 May - Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747770

RESUMO

The life expectancy of people with trisomy 21 has increased over recent decades. More than half live over 55 years today, compared to just 9 years in 1929. This progress is thanks to easier access to care and improved medical diagnoses as well as greater physical and psychological stimulation. Continued monitoring remains essential but it becomes less systematic as children grow up, despite the risk of certain complications increasing from puberty. Consultations devoted to trisomy 21 aim to facilitate access to care through an adapted care pathway.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Síndrome de Down , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Basic Clin Androl ; 28: 5, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760927

RESUMO

Background: Robertsonian translocations (RobT) are common structural chromosome rearrangements where carriers display a majority of chromosomally balanced spermatozoa from alternate segregation mode. According to some monotony observed in the rates of balanced segregation, is sperm FISH analysis obsolete for RobT carriers? Methods: Retrospective cohort research study on 23 patients analyzed in our center from 2003 to 2017 and compared to the data of 187 patients in literature from 1983 to 2017.Robertsonian translocation carriers were divided in six groups according to the chromosomes involved in the translocation: 9 patients from our center and 107 from literature carrying 45,XY,der(13;14) karyotype, 3 and 35 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(14;21), 5 and 11 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(13;15), 4 and 7 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(14;15), 1 and 4 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(13;22),and 1 and 10 patients respectively with 45,XY,der(14;22). Results: Alternate segregation mode is predominant in our group of Robertsonian translocation carriers with 73.45% ±8.05 of balanced spermatozoa (min 50.92%; max 89.99%). These results are compliant with the data from literature for all translocations types (p > 0.05) and are consistent among the different types of Robertsonian translocations (p > 0.05) except for der(13;15) that exhibit lower balanced spermatozoa rates (p < 0.05 versus der(13;14), der(14;21), (13;21) and der(15;22)). Normozoospermic patients also display a significantly (p < 0.01) higher rate of balanced sperm cells than patients with abnormal seminograms whatever the defect implied. Conclusions: According to the discrepancies observed between der(13;15) and all the other Rob T carriers, the differences observed among patients presenting normal and abnormal sperm parameters and the input in genetical counselling, sperm FISH does not seem obsolete for these patients. Moreover, it seems important to collect more data for rare RobT.

7.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

8.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263841

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms with heterogeneous degrees of severity, including intellectual disability (ID), absent or delayed speech, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It results from a deletion of the distal part of chromosome 22q13 that in most cases includes the SHANK3 gene. SHANK3 is considered a major gene for PMS, but the factors that modulate the severity of the syndrome remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated 85 patients with different 22q13 rearrangements (78 deletions and 7 duplications). We first explored the clinical features associated with PMS, and provide evidence for frequent corpus callosum abnormalities in 28% of 35 patients with brain imaging data. We then mapped several candidate genomic regions at the 22q13 region associated with high risk of clinical features, and suggest a second locus at 22q13 associated with absence of speech. Finally, in some cases, we identified additional clinically relevant copy-number variants (CNVs) at loci associated with ASD, such as 16p11.2 and 15q11q13, which could modulate the severity of the syndrome. We also report an inherited SHANK3 deletion transmitted to five affected daughters by a mother without ID nor ASD, suggesting that some individuals could compensate for such mutations. In summary, we shed light on the genotype-phenotype relationship of patients with PMS, a step towards the identification of compensatory mechanisms for a better prognosis and possibly treatments of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders.

9.
J Med Genet ; 54(7): 502-510, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) represent a significant healthcare burden since it is the primary cause of chronic kidney in children. CNVs represent a recurrent molecular cause of CAKUT but the culprit gene remains often elusive. Our study aimed to define the gene responsible for CAKUT in patients with an 1q23.3q24.1 microdeletion. METHODS: We describe eight patients presenting with CAKUT carrying an 1q23.3q24.1 microdeletion as identified by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). Clinical features were collected, especially the renal and urinary tract phenotype, and extrarenal features. We characterised PBX1 expression and localisation in fetal and adult kidneys using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We defined a 276-kb minimal common region (MCR) that only overlaps with the PBX1 gene. All eight patients presented with syndromic CAKUT. CAKUT were mostly bilateral renal hypoplasia (75%). The most frequent extrarenal symptoms were developmental delay and ear malformations. We demonstrate that PBX1 is strongly expressed in fetal kidneys and brain and expression levels decreased in adult samples. In control fetal kidneys, PBX1 was localised in nuclei of medullary, interstitial and mesenchymal cells, whereas it was present in endothelial cells in adult kidneys. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that PBX1 haploinsufficiency leads to syndromic CAKUT as supported by the Pbx1-null mice model. Correct PBX1 dosage appears to be critical for normal nephrogenesis and seems important for brain development in humans. CMA should be recommended in cases of fetal renal anomalies to improve genetic counselling and pregnancy management.


Assuntos
Haploinsuficiência/genética , Fator de Transcrição 1 de Leucemia de Células Pré-B/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/anormalidades , Rim/embriologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Síndrome
10.
Genet Med ; 19(6): 701-710, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27906199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether duplication of the ARID1A gene is responsible for a new recognizable syndrome. METHODS: We describe four patients with a 1p36.11 microduplication involving ARID1A as identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization . We performed comparative transcriptomic analysis of patient-derived fibroblasts using RNA sequencing and evaluated the impact of ARID1A duplication on the cell cycle using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Functional relationships between differentially expressed genes were investigated with ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Combining the genomic data, we defined a small (122 kb), minimally critical region that overlaps the full ARID1A gene. The four patients shared a strikingly similar phenotype that included intellectual disability and microcephaly. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the deregulated expression of several genes previously linked to microcephaly and developmental disorders as well as the involvement of signaling pathways relevant to microcephaly, among which the polo-like kinase (PLK) pathway was especially notable. Cell-cycle analysis of patient-derived fibroblasts showed a significant increase in the proportion of cells in G1 phase at the expense of G2-M cells. CONCLUSION: Our study reports a new microduplication syndrome involving the ARID1A gene. This work is the first step in clarifying the pathophysiological mechanism that links changes in the gene dosage of ARID1A with intellectual disability and microcephaly.Genet Med advance online publication 01 December 2016.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Duplicação Gênica , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome
11.
Hum Reprod ; 31(6): 1164-72, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094479

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does DNAH1 status influence intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes for patients with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite a highly abnormal morphology, sperm from MMAF patients with DNAH1 mutations have a low aneuploidy rate and good nuclear quality, leading to good embryonic development following ICSI and a high pregnancy rate. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Teratozoospermia represents a heterogeneous group including a wide range of phenotypes. Among all these qualitative defects, a flagellar phenotype called MMAF is characterized by a mosaic of morphological abnormalities of the flagellum, including coiled, bent, irregular, short or/and absent flagella, mainly due to the absence of the axonemal central pair microtubules. We previously demonstrated that homozygous mutations in the DNAH1 gene, encoding an inner arm heavy chain dynein, are frequently found in patients with MMAF (28% of the patients from the initial cohort). Numerous studies have reported an increased rate of aneuploidy and a poor sperm nuclear quality related to sperm flagellar abnormalities, which could impede ICSI outcome. Moreover, success rates after ICSI may be influenced by the type of ultrastructural flagellar defects and/or by the gene defects carried by the patients. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study included 6 infertile males with MMAF due to deleterious homozygous DNAH1 mutations and their respective spouses, who underwent 9 ISCI cycles, with 16 embryos being transferred. ICSI results were compared with two control populations of 13 MMAF men without DNAH1 mutations and an aged-matched control group of 1431 non-MMAF couples. All ICSI attempts took place between 2000 and 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Clinical and biological data were collected from patients treated for infertility at the CPSR les Jasmins in Tunis (Tunisia). We compared the ICSI outcomes obtained with couples including DNAH1 mutated and nonmutated patients and non-MMAF couples. For the analysis of the chromosomal status, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on sperm cells from 3 DNAH1-mutated patients and from 29 fertile control subjects. Sperm chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using aniline blue staining and TUNEL assays, respectively, on sperm cells from 3 DNAH1-mutated men and 6 fertile controls. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: There was a significantly increased proportion of disomy XY and 18 in sperm from DNAH1 mutated patients compared with fertile controls (1.52 versus 0.28%, P = 0.0001 and 0.64 versus 0.09%, P = 0.0001). However, there were no statistically significant differences among sperm from the two groups in their frequencies of either 13, 21, XX or YY disomy or diploidy. Measures of DNA compaction and fragmentation demonstrated a good nuclear sperm quality among DNAH1 mutated men. The overall fertilization, pregnancy and delivery rates of couples including DNAH1 mutated men were of 70.8, 50.0 and 37.5%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in any of these parameters compared with the two control groups (P > 0.05). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: A limitation of this study is the small number of DNAH1-mutated patients available and the low number of genes identified in MMAF. Further genetic studies are warranted to identify other MMAF-inducing genes to better characterize the genetic etiology of the MMAF phenotype and to improve the management of patients diagnosed with flagellar defects. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: MMAF patients with DNAH1 mutations have low aneuploidy rates and good nuclear sperm quality, explaining the high pregnancy rate obtained with these patients. Good ICSI results were obtained for both MMAF groups (DNAH1 mutated and nonmutated), suggesting that patients presenting with asthenozoospermia due to flagellar defects have a good ICSI prognosis irrespective of their genotype. The majority of MMAF cases currently remain idiopathic with no genetic cause yet identified. In depth genetic analysis of these patients using next generation sequencing should reveal new causal genes. Subsequent genotype phenotype analyses could improve advice and care provided to MMAF patients. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: None of the authors have any competing interest. This work is part of the project 'Identification and Characterization of Genes Involved in Infertility (ICG2I)', funded by the program GENOPAT 2009 from the French Research Agency (ANR) and the MAS-Flagella project, financed by the French ANR and the Direction Générale de l'Offre de Soins (DGOS).


Assuntos
Axonema/genética , Dineínas/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Mutação , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Adulto , Axonema/ultraestrutura , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Flagelos/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Masculino , Recuperação de Oócitos , Indução da Ovulação , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(1): 116-29, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420639

RESUMO

Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(2): 498-503, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545049

RESUMO

Several studies have recently reported that 22q12.1 deletions encompassing the MN1 gene are associated with craniofacial anomalies. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that MN1 haploinsufficiency may be solely responsible for craniofacial anomalies and/or cleft palate. We report here the case of a 4-year-old boy presenting with global developmental delay and craniofacial anomalies including severe maxillary protrusion and retromicrognathia. Array-CGH detected a 2.4 Mb de novo deletion of chromosome 22q12.1 which did not encompass the MN1 gene thought to be the main pathological candidate in 22q12.1 deletions. This observation, combined with data from other patients from the Database of Chromosomal Imbalance and Phenotype in Humans Using Ensemble Resources (DECIPHER), suggests that other gene(s) in the 22q12.1 region are likely involved in craniofacial anomalies and/or may contribute to the phenotypic variability observed in patients with MN1 deletion.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
14.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(10): 526-30, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26365529

RESUMO

We report on a female fetus with macrocephaly and macroglossia harbouring 13q31.1 microdeletion encompassing three genes: SPRY2, NDFIP2 and RBM26. NDFIP2 protein is involved in ubiquitination and in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. SPRY2 protein is part of Sprout protein family and inhibits the Ras/MAPK pathways. Ras/MAPK pathway plays important role in complex cellular programs including cell differentiation and proliferation. Germline mutations in genes encoding protein involved in the MAPK cascade is responsible for a wide family of developmental disorders known as RASopathies. Some RASopathies, such as Costello syndrome, present a phenotype with (relative) macrocephaly as perinatal features. However, prenatal-onset macroglossia are generally absent in this syndrome but rather suggestive of the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome for which molecular testing were negative. Phenotype-genotype correlation with patients from DECIPHER defines NDFIP2 and SPRY2 as a possible candidate genes for a RASopathy potentially responsible for the clinical features in the fetus. Finally, this original case of 13q31.1 microdeletion underlines the importance of array-CGH in prenatal diagnosis with sonographic signs such as macroglossia and/or macrocephaly. In this case, genetic investigation should be not limited to the search of well-known genetic causes and other genomic microdeletions should be considered as alternative diagnoses for macroglossia.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Deleção de Genes , Macroglossia/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Feto/patologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Macroglossia/diagnóstico , Megalencefalia/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Gravidez , Síndrome
15.
Mol Autism ; 6: 19, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25844147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements can be associated with an abnormal phenotype, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genome-wide microarrays reveal cryptic genomic imbalances, related or not to the breakpoints, in 25% to 50% of patients with an abnormal phenotype carrying a microscopically balanced chromosomal rearrangement. Here we performed microarray analysis of 18 patients with ASD carrying balanced chromosomal abnormalities to identify submicroscopic imbalances implicated in abnormal neurodevelopment. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ASD carrying apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities were screened using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Nine rearrangements were de novo, seven inherited, and two of unknown inheritance. Genomic imbalances were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: We detected clinically significant de novo copy number variants in four patients (22%), including three with de novo rearrangements and one with an inherited abnormality. The sizes ranged from 3.3 to 4.9 Mb; three were related to the breakpoint regions and one occurred elsewhere. We report a patient with a duplication of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region, contributing to the delineation of this rare genomic disorder. The patient has a chromosome 4p inverted duplication deletion, with a 0.5 Mb deletion of terminal 4p and a 4.2 Mb duplication of 4p16.2p16.3. The other cases included an apparently balanced de novo translocation t(5;18)(q12;p11.2) with a 4.2 Mb deletion at the 18p breakpoint, a subject with de novo pericentric inversion inv(11)(p14q23.2) in whom the array revealed a de novo 4.9 Mb deletion in 7q21.3q22.1, and a patient with a maternal inv(2)(q14.2q37.3) with a de novo 3.3 Mb terminal 2q deletion and a 4.2 Mb duplication at the proximal breakpoint. In addition, we identified a rare de novo deletion of unknown significance on a chromosome unrelated to the initial rearrangement, disrupting a single gene, RFX3. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the utility of SNP arrays for investigating apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities in subjects with ASD or related neurodevelopmental disorders in both clinical and research settings.

16.
Neurosci Lett ; 585: 144-8, 2015 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25434872

RESUMO

Melatonin secretion is usually increased during the daytime and decreased at night in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and consequently is not a pertinent marker of the circadian phase of the clock in these cases. No data on temperature rhythm is available in SMS, another reliable marker of circadian clock activity. For this reason, we assessed the 24h profiles of core temperature, sleep-wake cycle, hormones (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and plasma and urine 6sulfatoxy-melatonin, the main hepatic melatonin metabolism in a 31-year-old man diagnosed with a SMS. All circadian rhythms, especially temperature rhythm showed a phase-advance, associated with reverse melatonin secretion. Plasma and urine 6sulfatoxy-melatonin profiles showed normal melatonin catabolism and confirmed the reversed melatonin secretion. Taking in consideration the reverse melatonin secretion and the phase-advanced temperature rhythm, which is driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, we hypothesize that the central clock is more sensitive to afternoon than to morning melatonin. This different responsiveness to melatonin according to the time of the day (i.e. chronaesthesia) corroborates the phase response curve of melatonin secretion to exogenous melatonin.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Melatonina/sangue , Sono , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/sangue
17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 174(1): 75-83, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24985125

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitation in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, with onset in childhood. Frequent identifiable causes of ID originate from chromosomal imbalances. During the last years, array-CGH has successfully contributed to improve the diagnostic detection rate of genetic abnormalities in patients with ID. Most array-CGH studies focused on patients with moderate or severe intellectual disability. Studies on genetic etiology in children with mild intellectual disability (ID) are very rare. We performed array-CGH analysis in 66 children with mild intellectual disability assessed in a population-based study and for whom no genetic etiology was identified. We found one or more copy number variations (CNVs) in 20 out of 66 (~30 %) patients with a mild ID. In eight of them (~12 %), the CNVs were certainly responsible for the phenotype and in six they were potentially pathogenic for ID. Altogether, array-CGH helped to determine the etiology of ID in 14 patients (~21 %). CONCLUSION: Our results underscore the clinical relevance of array-CGH to investigate the etiology of isolated idiopathic mild ID in patients or associated with even subtle dysmorphic features or congenital malformations.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Masculino , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos
18.
PLoS Genet ; 10(9): e1004580, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25188300

RESUMO

SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/genética
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(6): 1530-6, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24648389

RESUMO

We report on a young child with intellectual disability and unilateral coronal craniosynostosis leading to craniofacial malformations. Standard karyotype showed an apparently balanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 15 [t(2;15)(q21;q21.3)], inherited from his mother. Interestingly, array-CGH 180K showed a 3.64 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 15 in the region 15q21.3q22.2, close to the chromosome 15 translocation breakpoints. This deletion leads to haploinsufficiency of TCF12 gene that can explain the coronal craniosynostosis described in the patient. Additional FISH analyses showed a complex balanced maternal chromosomal rearrangement combining the reciprocal translocation t(2;15)(q21;q21.3), and an insertion of the 15q22.1 segment into the telomeric region of the translocated 15q fragment. The genomic imbalance in the patient is likely caused by a crossing-over that occurs in the recombination loop formed during the maternal meiosis resulting in the deletion of the inserted fragment. This original case of a genomic microdeletion of TCF12 exemplifies the importance of array-CGH in the clinical investigation of apparently balanced rearrangements but also the importance of FISH analysis to identify the chromosomal mechanism causing the genomic imbalance.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Deleção de Genes , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Translocação Genética
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