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1.
Neurobiol Dis ; 134: 104628, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669732

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory dysfunction during or after seizures may contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Disruption of lower brainstem cardiorespiratory systems by seizures is postulated to impair respiratory and cardiac function. Here, we explore the effects of brainstem seizures and stimulation on cardiorespiratory function using a rat model of intrahippocampal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced acute recurrent seizures. Cardiac and respiratory monitoring together with local field potential recordings from hippocampus, contralateral parietal cortex and caudal dorsomedial brainstem, were conducted in freely moving adult male Wistar rats. Seizures were induced by intrahippocampal injection of 4-AP. Increased respiratory rate but unchanged heart rate occurred during hippocampal and secondarily generalized cortical seizures. Status epilepticus without brainstem seizures increased respiratory and heart rates, whereas status epilepticus with intermittent brainstem seizures induced repeated episodes of cardiorespiratory depression leading to death. Respiratory arrest occurred prior to asystole which was the terminal event. Phenytoin (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), administered after 4-AP intrahippocampal injection, terminated brainstem seizures and the associated cardiorespiratory depression, preventing death in five of six rats. Focal electrical stimulation of the caudal dorsomedial brainstem also suppressed cardiorespiratory rates. We conclude that in our model, brainstem seizures were associated with respiratory depression followed by cardiac arrest, and then death. We hypothesize this model shares mechanisms in common with the classic sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) syndrome associated with spontaneous seizures.

2.
Neuropharmacology ; : 107855, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Up to a third of patients with epilepsy suffer from recurrent seizures despite therapeutic advances. RESULTS: Current epilepsy treatments are limited by experiential data from treating different types of epilepsy. For example, we lack evidence-based approaches to efficacious multi-drug therapies or identifying potentially serious or disabling adverse events before medications are initiated. Despite advances in neuroscience and genetics, our understanding of epilepsy pathogenesis and mechanisms of treatment-resistance remains limited. For most patients with epilepsy, precision medicine for improved seizure control and reduced toxicity remains a future goal. CONCLUSION: A third of epilepsy patients suffer from ongoing seizures and even more suffer from adverse effects of treatment. There is a critical need for more effective and safer therapies for epilepsy patients with frequent comorbitidies, including depression, anxiety, migraine, and cognitive impairments, as well as special populations (e.g., women, elderly). Advances from genomic sequencing techniques may identify new genes and regulatory elements that influence both the depth of the epilepsies' roots within brain circuitry as well as ASD resistance. Improved understanding of epilepsy mechanisms, identification of potential new therapeutic targets, and their assessment in randomized controlled trials are needed to reduce the burden of refractory epilepsy.

3.
Epilepsia ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To screen a library of potential therapeutic compounds for a woman with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome due to a Y302C GABRB3 (c.905A>G) mutation. METHODS: We compared the electrophysiological properties of cells with wild-type or the pathogenic GABRB3 mutation. RESULTS: Among 1320 compounds, multiple candidates enhanced GABRB3 channel conductance in cell models. Vinpocetine, an alkaloid derived from the periwinkle plant with anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to modulate sodium and channel channels, was the lead candidate based on efficacy and safety profile. Vinpocetine was administered as a dietary supplement over 6 months, reaching a dosage of 20 mg three times per day, and resulted in a sustained, dose-dependent reduction in spike-wave discharge frequency on electroencephalograms. Improved language and behavior were reported by family, and improvements in global impression of change surveys were observed by therapists blinded to intervention. SIGNIFICANCE: Vinpocetine has potential efficacy in treating patients with this mutation and possibly other GABRB3 mutations or other forms of epilepsy. Additional studies on pharmacokinetics, potential drug interactions, and safety are needed.

4.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 106596, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711868

RESUMO

Careful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal and visual memory function. Diagnostic tests, including intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (WADA), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional neuroimaging (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), can more accurately lateralize and localize epileptogenic cortex and predict memory outcomes from surgery. Longitudinal studies have shown that memory may even improve in seizure-free patients. From 70 years of experience with epilepsy surgery, we now have a richer understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and surgical predictors of memory decline-and improvement-after TLR. "Special Issue: Epilepsy & Behavior's 20th Anniversary".

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23772-23782, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685634

RESUMO

The alpha rhythm is the longest-studied brain oscillation and has been theorized to play a key role in cognition. Still, its physiology is poorly understood. In this study, we used microelectrodes and macroelectrodes in surgical epilepsy patients to measure the intracortical and thalamic generators of the alpha rhythm during quiet wakefulness. We first found that alpha in both visual and somatosensory cortex propagates from higher-order to lower-order areas. In posterior cortex, alpha propagates from higher-order anterosuperior areas toward the occipital pole, whereas alpha in somatosensory cortex propagates from associative regions toward primary cortex. Several analyses suggest that this cortical alpha leads pulvinar alpha, complicating prevailing theories of a thalamic pacemaker. Finally, alpha is dominated by currents and firing in supragranular cortical layers. Together, these results suggest that the alpha rhythm likely reflects short-range supragranular feedback, which propagates from higher- to lower-order cortex and cortex to thalamus. These physiological insights suggest how alpha could mediate feedback throughout the thalamocortical system.

6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1008, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden death in children is a tragic event that often remains unexplained after comprehensive investigation. We report two asymptomatic siblings who died unexpectedly at approximately 1 year of age found to have biallelic (compound heterozygous) variants in PPA2. METHODS: The index case, parents, and sister were enrolled in the Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Registry and Research Collaborative, which included next-generation genetic screening. Prior published cases of PPA2 variants, along with the known biology of PPA2, were also summarized. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing in both siblings revealed biallelic rare missense variants in PPA2: c.182C > T (p.Ser61Phe) and c.380G > T (p.Arg127Leu). PPA2 encodes a mitochondrially located inorganic pyrophosphatase implicated in progressive and lethal cardiomyopathies. As a regulator and supplier of inorganic phosphate, PPA2 is central to phosphate metabolism. Biological roles include the following: mtDNA maintenance; oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ATP; reactive oxygen species homeostasis; mitochondrial membrane potential regulation; and possibly, retrograde signaling between mitochondria and nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Two healthy and asymptomatic sisters died unexpectedly at ages 12 and 10 months, and were diagnosed by molecular autopsy to carry biallelic variants in PPA2. Our cases add additional details to those reported thus far, and broaden the spectrum of clinical and molecular features of PPA2 variants.

7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 166: 341-353, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731921

RESUMO

Cingulate epilepsy manifests with a broad range of semiologic features and seizure types. Key clinical features may elucidate ictal involvement of certain subregions of the cingulate gyrus. Ictal and interictal electroencephalogram findings in cingulate epilepsy vary and are often poorly localized, adding to the diagnostic challenge of identifying the seizure onset zone for presurgical cases, particularly in the absence of a lesion on imaging. Recent advances in multimodal imaging techniques may contribute to ictal localization and further our understanding of neural and epileptic pathways involving the cingulate gyrus. Beyond medication and surgical resection, new techniques including stereotactic laser ablation, responsive neurostimulation, and deep brain stimulation offer additional approaches for the treatment of cingulate epilepsy.

8.
Epilepsy Res ; 157: 106213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610338

RESUMO

Central failure of respiration during a seizure is one possible mechanism for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Neuroimaging studies indicate volume loss in the medulla in SUDEP and a post mortem study has shown reduction in neuromodulatory neuropeptidergic and monoaminergic neurones in medullary respiratory nuclear groups. Specialised glial cells identified in the medulla are considered essential for normal respiratory regulation including astrocytes with pacemaker properties in the pre-Botzinger complex and populations of subpial and perivascular astrocytes, sensitive to increased pCO2, that excite respiratory neurones. Our aim was to explore niches of medullary astrocytes in SUDEP cases compared to controls. In 48 brainstems from three groups, SUDEP (20), epilepsy controls (10) and non-epilepsy controls (18), sections through the medulla were labelled for GFAP, vimentin and functional markers, astrocytic gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and adenosine A1 receptor (A1R). Regions including the ventro-lateral medulla (VLM; for the pre-Bötzinger complex), Median Raphe (MR) and lateral medullary subpial layer (MSPL) were quantified using image analysis for glial cell populations and compared between groups. Findings included morphologically and regionally distinct vimentin/Cx34-positive glial cells in the VLM and MR in close proximity to neurones. We noted a reduction of vimentin-positive glia in the VLM and MSPL and Cx43 glia in the MR in SUDEP cases compared to control groups (p < 0.05-0.005). In addition, we identified vimentin, Cx43 and A1R positive glial cells in the MSPL region which likely correspond to chemosensory glia identified experimentally. In conclusion, altered medullary glial cell populations could contribute to impaired respiratory regulatory capacity and vulnerability to SUDEP and warrant further investigation.

9.
eNeuro ; 6(6)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604814

RESUMO

Slow oscillations and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been implicated in memory consolidation. Closed-loop acoustic stimulation has previously been shown to enhance slow oscillations and spindle activity during sleep and improve verbal associative memory. We assessed the effect of closed-loop acoustic stimulation during a daytime nap on a virtual reality spatial navigation task in 12 healthy human subjects in a randomized within-subject crossover design. We show robust enhancement of slow oscillation and spindle activity during sleep. However, no effects on behavioral performance were observed when comparing real versus sham stimulation. To explore whether memory enhancement effects were task specific and dependent on nocturnal sleep, in a second experiment with 19 healthy subjects, we aimed to replicate a previous study that used closed-loop acoustic stimulation to enhance memory for word pairs. The methods used were as close as possible to those used in the original study, except that we used a double-blind protocol, in which both subject and experimenter were unaware of the test condition. Again, we successfully enhanced slow oscillation and spindle power, but again did not strengthen associative memory performance with stimulation. We conclude that enhancement of sleep oscillations may be insufficient to enhance memory performance in spatial navigation or verbal association tasks, and provide possible explanations for lack of behavioral replication.

10.
Neurology ; 93(15): e1485-e1494, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between serum serotonin (5-HT) levels, ictal central apnea (ICA), and postconvulsive central apnea (PCCA) in epileptic seizures. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated video EEG, plethysmography, capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2), and ECG for 49 patients (49 seizures) enrolled in a multicenter study of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Postictal and interictal venous blood samples were collected after a clinical seizure for measurement of serum 5-HT levels. Seizures were classified according to the International League Against Epilepsy 2017 seizure classification. We analyzed seizures with and without ICA (n = 49) and generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) with and without PCCA (n = 27). RESULTS: Postictal serum 5-HT levels were increased over interictal levels for seizures without ICA (p = 0.01), compared to seizures with ICA (p = 0.21). In patients with GCS without PCCA, serum 5-HT levels were increased postictally compared to interictal levels (p < 0.001), but not in patients with seizures with PCCA (p = 0.22). Postictal minus interictal 5-HT levels also differed between the 2 groups with and without PCCA (p = 0.03). Increased heart rate was accompanied by increased serum 5-HT levels (postictal minus interictal) after seizures without PCCA (p = 0.03) compared to those with PCCA (p = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that significant seizure-related increases in serum 5-HT levels are associated with a lower incidence of seizure-related breathing dysfunction, and may reflect physiologic changes that confer a protective effect against deleterious phenomena leading to SUDEP. These results need to be confirmed with a larger sample size study.

11.
Neurobiol Dis ; 134: 104612, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533065

RESUMO

Our understanding of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), one of the most common form of drug-resistant epilepsy in humans, is derived mainly from clinical, imaging, and physiological data from humans and animal models. High-throughput gene expression studies of human MTLE have the potential to uncover molecular changes underlying disease pathogenesis along with novel therapeutic targets. Using RNA- and small RNA-sequencing in parrallel, we explored differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus and cortex of MTLE patients who had undergone surgical resection and non-epileptic controls. We identified differentially expressed genes in the hippocampus of MTLE patients and differentially expressed small RNAs across both the cortex and hippocampus. We found significant enrichment for astrocytic and microglial genes among up-regulated genes, and down regulation of neuron specific genes in the hippocampus of MTLE patients. The transcriptome profile of the small RNAs reflected disease state more robustly than mRNAs, even across brain regions which show very little pathology. While mRNAs segregated predominately by brain region for MTLE and controls, small RNAs segregated by disease state. In particular, our data suggest that specific miRNAs (e.g., let-7b-3p and let-7c-3p) may be key regulators of multiple pathways related to MTLE pathology. Further, we report a strong association of other small RNA species with MTLE pathology. As such we have uncovered novel elements that may contribute to the establishment and progression of MTLE pathogenesis and that could be leveraged as therapeutic targets.

12.
Brain ; 142(11): 3502-3513, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501850

RESUMO

Dynamic interactions between remote but functionally specialized brain regions enable complex information processing. This intercortical communication is disrupted in the neural networks of patients with focal epilepsy, and epileptic activity can exert widespread effects within the brain. Using large-scale human intracranial electroencephalography recordings, we show that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are significantly coupled with spindles in discrete, individualized brain regions outside of the epileptic network. We found that a substantial proportion of these localized spindles travel across the cortical surface. Brain regions that participate in this IED-driven oscillatory coupling express spindles that have a broader spatial extent and higher tendency to propagate than spindles occurring in uncoupled regions. These altered spatiotemporal oscillatory properties identify areas that are shaped by epileptic activity independent of IED or seizure detection. Our findings suggest that IED-spindle coupling may be an important mechanism of interictal global network dysfunction that could be targeted to prevent disruption of normal neural activity.

13.
Neuropharmacology ; : 107746, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469994

RESUMO

Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). CDKL5 is fundamental for correct brain development and function, but the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurologic dysfunction in CDD are incompletely understood. Here we show a dysregulation of hippocampal and cortical serotonergic (5-HT) receptor expression in heterozygous Cdkl5 knockout (KO) female mice, suggesting that impaired 5-HT neurotransmission contributes to CDD. We demonstrate that targeting impaired 5-HT signaling via the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline rescues CDD-related neurodevelopmental and behavioral defects in heterozygous Cdkl5 KO female mice. In particular, chronic treatment with sertraline normalized locomotion, stereotypic and autistic-like features, and spatial memory in Cdkl5 KO mice. These positive behavioral effects were accompanied by restored neuronal survival, dendritic development and synaptic connectivity. At a molecular level, sertraline increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and restored abnormal phosphorylation levels of tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) and its downstream target the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Since sertraline is an FDA-approved drug with an extensive safety and tolerability data package, even for children, our findings suggest that sertraline may improve neurodevelopment in children with CDD.

14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 98(Pt A): 73-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ictal (ICA) and postconvulsive central apnea (PCCA) have been implicated in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) pathomechanisms. Previous studies suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) may influence breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate if chronic use of these drugs alters central apnea occurrence in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy admitted to epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) in nine centers participating in a SUDEP study were consented. Polygraphic physiological parameters were analyzed, including video-electroencephalography (VEEG), thoracoabdominal excursions, and pulse oximetry. Outpatient medication details were collected. Patients and seizures were divided into SRI, BZD, and control (no SRI or BZD) groups. Ictal central apnea and PCCA, hypoxemia, and electroclinical features were assessed for each group. RESULTS: Four hundred and seventy-six seizures were analyzed (204 patients). The relative risk (RR) for ICA in the SRI group was half that of the control group (p = 0.02). In the BZD group, ICA duration was significantly shorter than in the control group (p = 0.02), as was postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) duration (p = 0.021). Both SRI and BZD groups were associated with smaller seizure-associated oxygen desaturation (p = 0.009; p ≪ 0.001). Neither presence nor duration of PCCA was significantly associated with SRI or BZD (p ≫ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Seizures in patients taking SRIs have lower occurrence of ICA, and patients on chronic treatment with BZDs have shorter ICA and PGES durations. Preventing or shortening ICA duration by using SRIs and/or BZD in patients with epilepsy may play a possible role in SUDEP risk reduction.

15.
Pediatr Neurol ; 97: 38-42, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathologic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 cause CDKL5 deficiency disorder, a genetic syndrome associated with severe epilepsy and cognitive, motor, visual, and autonomic disturbances. This disorder is a relatively common genetic cause of early-life epilepsy. A specific severity assessment is lacking, required to monitor the clinical course and needed to define the natural history and for clinical trial readiness. METHODS: A severity assessment was developed based on clinical and research experience from the International Foundation for CDKL5 Research Centers of Excellence consortium and the National Institutes of Health Rett and Rett-Related Disorders Natural History Study consortium. An initial draft severity assessment was presented and reviewed at the annual CDKL5 Forum meeting (Boston, 2017). Subsequently it was iterated through four cycles of a modified Delphi process by a group of clinicians, researchers, industry, patient advisory groups, and parents familiar with this disorder until consensus was achieved. The revised version of the severity assessment was presented for review, comment, and piloting to families at the International Foundation for CDKL5 Research-sponsored family meeting (Colorado, 2018). Final revisions were based on this additional input. RESULTS: The final severity assessment comprised 51 items that comprehensively describe domains of epilepsy; motor; cognition, behavior, vision, and speech; and autonomic functions. Parental ratings of therapy effectiveness and child and family functioning are also included. CONCLUSIONS: A severity assessment was rapidly developed with input from multiple stakeholders. Refinement through ongoing validation is required for future clinical trials. The consensus methods employed for the development of severity assessment may be applicable to similar rare disorders.

16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 97: 34-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181427

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may be a distinct syndrome from TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS). Imaging and neuropsychological features of TLE-MTS are well-known; yet, these features are only beginning to be described in MRI-negative TLE. This study examined whether a quantitative measure of cortical gray and white matter blurring (GWB) was elevated in the temporal lobes ipsilateral to the seizure onset zone of individuals with MRI-negative TLE relative to TLE-MTS and healthy controls (HCs) and whether GWB elevations were associated with neuropsychological comorbidity. Gray-white matter blurring from 34 cortical regions and hippocampal volumes were quantified and compared across 28 people with MRI-negative TLE, 15 people with TLE-MTS, and 51 HCs. Declarative memory was assessed with standard neuropsychological tests and the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). In the group with MRI-negative TLE (left and right onsets combined), hippocampal volumes were within normal range but GWB was elevated, relative to HCs, across several mesial and lateral temporal lobe regions ipsilateral to the seizure onset zone. Gray-white matter blurring did not differ between the groups with TLE-MTS and HC or between the groups with TLE-MTS and MRI-negative TLE. The group with MRI-negative TLE could not be distinguished from the group with TLE-MTS on any of the standard neuropsychological tests; however, ipsilateral hippocampal volumes and IAP memory scores were lower in the group with TLE-MTS than in the group with MRI-negative TLE. The group with left MRI-negative TLE had lower general cognitive abilities and verbal fluency relative to the HC group, which adds to the characterization of neuropsychological comorbidities in left MRI-negative TLE. In addition, ipsilateral IAP memory performance was reduced relative to contralateral memory performance in MRI-negative TLE, indicating some degree of ipsilateral memory dysfunction. There was no relationship between hippocampal volume and IAP memory scores in MRI-negative TLE; however, decreased ipsilateral IAP memory scores were correlated with elevated GWB in the ipsilateral superior temporal sulcus of people with left MRI-negative TLE. In sum, GWB elevations in the ipsilateral temporal lobe of people with MRI-negative TLE suggest that GWB may serve as a marker for reduced structural integrity in regions in or near the seizure onset zone. Although mesial temporal abnormalities might be the major driver of memory dysfunction in TLE-MTS, a loss of structural integrity in lateral temporal lobe regions may contribute to IAP memory dysfunction in MRI-negative TLE.

17.
Neurology ; 93(3): e227-e236, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To obtain medical records, family interviews, and death-related reports of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) cases to better understand SUDEP. METHODS: All cases referred to the North American SUDEP Registry (NASR) between October 2011 and June 2018 were reviewed; cause of death was determined by consensus review. Available medical records, death scene investigation reports, autopsy reports, and next-of-kin interviews were reviewed for all cases of SUDEP. Seizure type, EEG, MRI, and SUDEP classification were adjudicated by 2 epileptologists. RESULTS: There were 237 definite and probable cases of SUDEP among 530 NASR participants. SUDEP decedents had a median age of 26 (range 1-70) years at death, and 38% were female. In 143 with sufficient information, 40% had generalized and 60% had focal epilepsy. SUDEP affected the full spectrum of epilepsies, from benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (n = 3, 1%) to intractable epileptic encephalopathies (n = 27, 11%). Most (93%) SUDEPs were unwitnessed; 70% occurred during apparent sleep; and 69% of patients were prone. Only 37% of cases of SUDEP took their last dose of antiseizure medications (ASMs). Reported lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were <10 in 33% and 0 in 4%. CONCLUSIONS: NASR participants commonly have clinical features that have been previously been associated with SUDEP risk such as young adult age, ASM nonadherence, and frequent GTCS. However, a sizeable minority of SUDEP occurred in patients thought to be treatment responsive or to have benign epilepsies. These results emphasize the importance of SUDEP education across the spectrum of epilepsy severities. We aim to make NASR data and biospecimens available for researchers to advance SUDEP understanding and prevention.

19.
Epilepsia ; 60(8): 1526-1538, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are model organisms for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy in humans, while data from human patients informs the diagnosis and treatment of NHP with seizures and epilepsy. We reviewed the literature and surveyed veterinarians at zoos and NHP research centers to (a) better define the range of seizures and epilepsy in NHP, (b) understand how NHPs can inform our knowledge of the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy in humans, and (c) identify gaps of knowledge and develop more effective guidelines to treat seizures and epilepsy in NHP. METHODS: We searched PrimateLit, PubMed, and Google Scholar for studies on experimental models of epilepsy in NHPs and on naturally occurring seizures and epilepsy in NHPs in captivity. In addition, we created a survey to assess methods to diagnose and treat epilepsy in NHPs. This survey was sent to 41 veterinarians at major international zoos and research facilities with NHP populations to study seizure phenomenology, diagnostic criteria for seizures and epilepsy, etiology, and antiseizure therapies in NHPs. RESULTS: We summarize the data from experimental and natural models of epilepsy in NHPs and case reports of epilepsy of unknown origin in captive primates. In addition, we present survey data collected from veterinarians at eight zoos and one research facility. Experimental data from NHP epilepsy models is abundant, whereas data from primates who develop epilepsy in the wild or in zoos is very limited, constraining our ability to advance evidence-based medicine. SIGNIFICANCE: Characterization of seizure or epilepsy models in NHPs will provide insights into mechanisms and new therapies that cannot be addressed by other animal models. NHP research will better inform species-specific diagnoses and outcomes.

20.
Epilepsy Res ; 154: 157-162, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigate whether a rapid and novel automated MRI processing technique for assessing hippocampal volumetric integrity (HVI) can be used to identify hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and determine its performance relative to hippocampal volumetry (HV) and visual inspection. METHODS: We applied the HVI technique to T1-weighted brain images from healthy control (n = 35), mTLE (n = 29), non-HS temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 44), and extratemporal focal epilepsy (EXTLE, n = 25) subjects imaged using a standardized epilepsy research imaging protocol and on non-standardized clinically acquired images from mTLE subjects (n = 40) to investigate if the technique is translatable to clinical practice. Performance of HVI, HV, and visual inspection was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: mTLE patients from both research and clinical groups had significantly reduced ipsilateral HVI relative to controls (effect size: -0.053, 5.62%, p =  0.002 using a standardized research imaging protocol). For lateralizing mTLE, HVI had a sensitivity of 88% compared with a HV sensitivity of 92% when using specificity equal to 70%. CONCLUSIONS: The novel HVI approach can effectively detect HS in clinical populations, with an average image processing time of less than a minute. The fast processing speed suggests this technique could have utility as a quantitative tool to assist with imaging-based diagnosis and lateralization of HS in a clinical setting.

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