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1.
Epilepsia ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stroke is the most common cause of epilepsy in older age. Subclinical cerebrovascular disease is believed to underlie some of the 30%-50% of late-onset epilepsy without a known cause (Li et al. Epilepsia. 1997;38:1216; Cleary et al. Lancet. 2004;363:1184). We studied the role of modifiable vascular risk factors in predicting subsequent epilepsy among participants ages 45 or older in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), a longitudinal, community-based study. METHODS: Participants of the Offspring Cohort who attended FHS exam 5 (1991-1995) were included who were at least 45-years-old at that time, had available vascular risk factor data, and epilepsy follow-up (n = 2986, mean age 58, 48% male). Adjudication of epilepsy cases included review of medical charts to exclude seizure mimics and acute symptomatic seizures. The vascular risk factors studied included hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. The role of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile score was also investigated. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for the analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-five incident epilepsy cases were identified during a mean of 19 years of follow-up. Hypertension was associated with a near 2-fold risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-3.37, p = .022) of developing epilepsy, even after adjustment for prevalent and interim stroke. In secondary analysis, excluding patients with normal blood pressure who were receiving anti-HTN (anti-hypertensive) treatment (n = 2613, 50 incident epilepsy cases) the association was (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.36-4.35, p = .003). SIGNIFICANCE: Our results offer further evidence that hypertension, a potentially modifiable and highly prevalent vascular risk factor in the general population, increases 2- to 2.5-fold the risk of developing late-onset epilepsy.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6288, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725348

RESUMO

Perception results from the interplay of sensory input and prior knowledge. Despite behavioral evidence that long-term priors powerfully shape perception, the neural mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood. We obtained direct cortical recordings in neurosurgical patients as they viewed ambiguous images that elicit constant perceptual switching. We observe top-down influences from the temporal to occipital cortex, during the preferred percept that is congruent with the long-term prior. By contrast, stronger feedforward drive is observed during the non-preferred percept, consistent with a prediction error signal. A computational model based on hierarchical predictive coding and attractor networks reproduces all key experimental findings. These results suggest a pattern of large-scale information flow change underlying long-term priors' influence on perception and provide constraints on theories about long-term priors' influence on perception.

3.
Seizure ; 93: 154-159, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768178

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of fenfluramine (FFA) on the expected mortality incidence, including sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), in persons with Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: In this pooled analysis, total time of exposure for persons with DS who were treated with FFA in phase 3 clinical trials, in United States and European Early Access Programs, and in two long-term open-label observational studies in Belgium was calculated. Literature was searched for reports of SUDEP mortality in DS, which were utilized as a comparison. Mortality rates were expressed per 1000 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 732 persons with DS were treated with FFA, representing a total of 1185.3 person-years of exposure. Three deaths occurred, all in the phase 3 program: one during placebo treatment (probable SUDEP) and two during treatment with FFA (one probable SUDEP and one definite SUDEP). The all-cause and SUDEP mortality rates during treatment with FFA was 1.7 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 0.4 to 6.7), a value lower than the all-cause estimate of 15.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 9.9 to 25.4) and SUDEP estimate of 9.3 (95% CI, 5.0 to 17.3) reported by Cooper et al. (Epilepsy Res 2016;128:43-7) for persons with DS receiving standard-of-care. CONCLUSION: All-cause and SUDEP mortality rates in DS patients treated with FFA were substantially lower than in literature reports. Further studies are warranted to confirm that FFA reduces SUDEP risk in DS patients and to better understand the potential mechanism(s) by which FFA lowers SUDEP risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02926898, NCT02682927, NCT02826863, NCT02823145, NCT03780127.

4.
Neurology ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795044
5.
Epilepsia ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The number, unpredictability, and severity of seizures experienced by patients with Dravet syndrome (DS) negatively impact quality of life (QOL) for patients, caregivers, and families. Metrics are needed to assess whether patients with residual seizures have moved meaningfully toward seizure freedom after treatment with new antiseizure medications. METHODS: We evaluated the time required postrandomization for each patient to experience the same number of seizures experienced during baseline (i.e., time-to-nth seizure), using a post hoc time-to-event (TTE) analysis of data from two Phase 3 placebo-controlled trials of adjunctive fenfluramine for DS (Study 1, N = 119; Study 2, N = 87). Patients aged 2-19 years were randomized to placebo or adjunctive fenfluramine (Study 1: .7 mg/kg/day or .2 mg/kg/day; Study 2: .4 mg/kg/day with stiripentol). Data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier TTE curves and waterfall plots. RESULTS: The proportion of patients who never reached baseline seizure frequency was greater with fenfluramine than with placebo (Study 1: fenfluramine .7 mg/kg/day, 60%; fenfluramine .2 mg/kg/day, 31%; placebo, 13%; Study 2: fenfluramine .4 mg/kg/day, 58%; placebo, 2%). Median time-to-nth seizure was longer after fenfluramine than after placebo (Study 1: fenfluramine .7 mg/kg/day, 13 weeks; .2 mg/kg/day, 10 weeks; placebo, 7 weeks; Study 2: fenfluramine .4 mg/kg/day, 13 weeks; placebo, 5 weeks; p < .001). Longest duration of convulsive seizure-free days was increased in active groups versus the placebo group (Study 1: fenfluramine .7 and .2 mg/kg/day, 25.0 and 15.0 days; placebo, 9.5 days [p = .0001; p = .0352]; Study 2: fenfluramine .4 mg/kg/day, 22.0 days; placebo, 13.0 days [p = .004]). The most common adverse events included decreased appetite, pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, and fatigue. SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that fenfluramine can significantly reduce day-to-day seizure burden in patients with DS, providing prolonged periods of convulsive seizure-free days, which may help reduce the physical and emotional disease toll while improving health-related QOL for patients and caregivers.

6.
Neurology ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared heart rate variability (HRV) in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) cases and living epilepsy controls. METHODS: This international, multicenter, retrospective, nested case-control study examined patients admitted for video-EEG monitoring (VEM) between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2014, and subsequently died of SUDEP. Time-domain and frequency-domain components were extracted from five-minute interictal electrocardiogram recordings during sleep and wakefulness from SUDEP cases and controls. RESULTS: We identified 31 SUDEP cases and 56 controls. Normalized low-frequency power (LFP) during wakefulness was lower in SUDEP cases (median 42.5, IQR 32.6-52.6) than epilepsy controls (55.5, IQR 40.7-68.9; p=0.015, critical value=0.025). In the multivariable model, normalized LFP was lower in SUDEP cases compared to controls (contrast -11.01, 95% CI: -20.29--1.73; p=0.020, critical value=0.025). There was a negative correlation between LFP and the latency to SUDEP, where each 1% incremental reduction in normalized LFP conferred a 2.7% decrease in the latency to SUDEP (95% CI: 0.95-0.995; p=0.017, critical value=0.025). Increased survival duration from VEM to SUDEP was associated with higher normalized high-frequency power (HFP; p=0.002, critical value=0.025). The survival model with normalized LFP was associated with SUDEP (C-statistic 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55-0.77), which non-significantly increased with the addition of normalized HFP (C-statistic 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.81; p=0.209). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced short-term LFP, which is a validated biomarker for sudden death, was associated with SUDEP. Increased HFP was associated with longer survival and may be cardioprotective in SUDEP. HRV quantification may help stratify individual SUDEP risk. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with epilepsy, some measures of heart rate variability are associated with SUDEP.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569149

RESUMO

Large international consortia examining the genomic architecture of the epilepsies focus on large diagnostic subgroupings such as "all focal epilepsy" and "all genetic generalized epilepsy". In addition, phenotypic data are generally entered into these large discovery databases in a unidirectional manner at one point in time only. However, there are many smaller phenotypic subgroupings in epilepsy, many of which may have unique genomic risk factors. Such a subgrouping or "microphenotype" may be defined as an uncommon or rare phenotype that is well recognized by epileptologists and the epilepsy community, and which may or may not be formally recognized within the International League Against Epilepsy classification system. Here we examine the genetic structure of a number of such microphenotypes and report in particular on two interesting clinical phenotypes, Jeavons syndrome and pediatric status epilepticus. Although no single gene reached exome-wide statistical significance to be associated with any of the diagnostic categories, we observe enrichment of rare damaging variants in established epilepsy genes among Landau-Kleffner patients (GRIN2A) and pediatric status epilepticus patients (MECP2, SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A).

8.
Brain Commun ; 3(3): fcab192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514397

RESUMO

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is the leading category of epilepsy-related death and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Risk factors can include a recent history and high frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, which can depress brain activity postictally, impairing respiration, arousal and protective reflexes. Neuropathological findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases parallel those in other epilepsy patients, with no implication of novel structures or mechanisms in seizure-related deaths. Few large studies have comprehensively reviewed whole brain examination of such patients. We evaluated 92 North American Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy Registry cases with whole brain neuropathological examination by board-certified neuropathologists blinded to the adjudicated cause of death, with an average of 16 brain regions examined per case. The 92 cases included 61 sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (40 definite, 9 definite plus, 6 probable, 6 possible) and 31 people with epilepsy controls who died from other causes. The mean age at death was 34.4 years and 65.2% (60/92) were male. The average age of death was younger for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases than for epilepsy controls (30.0 versus 39.6 years; P = 0.006), and there was no difference in sex distribution respectively (67.3% male versus 64.5%, P = 0.8). Among sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases, earlier age of epilepsy onset positively correlated with a younger age at death (P = 0.0005) and negatively correlated with epilepsy duration (P = 0.001). Neuropathological findings were identified in 83.7% of the cases in our cohort. The most common findings were dentate gyrus dysgenesis (sudden unexpected death in epilepsy 50.9%, epilepsy controls 54.8%) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) (sudden unexpected death in epilepsy 41.8%, epilepsy controls 29.0%). The neuropathological findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy paralleled those in epilepsy controls, including the frequency of total neuropathological findings as well as the specific findings in the dentate gyrus, findings pertaining to neurodevelopment (e.g. FCD, heterotopias) and findings in the brainstem (e.g. medullary arcuate or olivary dysgenesis). Thus, like prior studies, we found no neuropathological findings that were more common in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases. Future neuropathological studies evaluating larger sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and control cohorts would benefit from inclusion of different epilepsy syndromes with detailed phenotypic information, consensus among pathologists particularly for more subjective findings where observations can be inconsistent, and molecular approaches to identify markers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy risk or pathogenesis.

9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 123: 108261, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481281

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on people and healthcare services. The disruption to chronic illnesses, such as epilepsy, may relate to several factors ranging from direct infection to secondary effects from healthcare reorganization and social distancing measures. OBJECTIVES: As part of the COVID-19 and Epilepsy (COV-E) global study, we ascertained the effects of COVID-19 on people with epilepsy in Brazil, based on their perspectives and those of their caregivers. We also evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on the care delivered to people with epilepsy by healthcare workers. METHODS: We designed separate online surveys for people with epilepsy and their caregivers. A further survey for healthcare workers contained additional assessments of changes to working patterns, productivity, and concerns for those with epilepsy under their care. The Brazilian arm of COV-E initially collected data from May to November 2020 during the country's first wave. We also examined national data to identify the Brazilian states with the highest COVID-19 incidence and related mortality. Lastly, we applied this geographic grouping to our data to explore whether local disease burden played a direct role in difficulties faced by people with epilepsy. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-one people returned the survey, 20% were individuals with epilepsy (n = 48); 22% were caregivers (n = 53), and 58% were healthcare workers (n = 140). Just under half (43%) of people with epilepsy reported health changes during the pandemic, including worsening seizure control, with specific issues related to stress and impaired mental health. Of respondents prescribed antiseizure medication, 11% reported difficulty taking medication on time due to problems acquiring prescriptions and delayed or canceled medical appointments. Only a small proportion of respondents reported discussing significant epilepsy-related risks in the previous 12 months. Analysis of national COVID-19 data showed a higher disease burden in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro compared to Brazil as a whole. There were, however, no geographic differences observed in survey responses despite variability in the incidence of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Brazilians with epilepsy have been adversely affected by COVID-19 by factors beyond infection or mortality. Mental health issues and the importance of optimal communication are critical during these difficult times. Healthcare services need to find nuanced approaches and learn from shared international experiences to provide optimal care for people with epilepsy as the direct burden of COVID-19 improves in some countries. In contrast, others face resurgent waves of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epilepsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5394, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518520

RESUMO

Humans form lasting memories of stimuli that were only encountered once. This naturally occurs when listening to a story, however it remains unclear how and when memories are stored and retrieved during story-listening. Here, we first confirm in behavioral experiments that participants can learn about the structure of a story after a single exposure and are able to recall upcoming words when the story is presented again. We then track mnemonic information in high frequency activity (70-200 Hz) as patients undergoing electrocorticographic recordings listen twice to the same story. We demonstrate predictive recall of upcoming information through neural responses in auditory processing regions. This neural measure correlates with behavioral measures of event segmentation and learning. Event boundaries are linked to information flow from cortex to hippocampus. When listening for a second time, information flow from hippocampus to cortex precedes moments of predictive recall. These results provide insight on a fine-grained temporal scale into how episodic memory encoding and retrieval work under naturalistic conditions.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388852

RESUMO

AIMS: The causes of distinct patterns of reduced cortical thickness in the common human epilepsies, detectable on neuroimaging and with important clinical consequences, are unknown. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of cortical thinning using a systems-level analysis. METHODS: Imaging-based cortical structural maps from a large-scale epilepsy neuroimaging study were overlaid with highly spatially resolved human brain gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. Cell-type deconvolution, differential expression analysis and cell-type enrichment analyses were used to identify differences in cell-type distribution. These differences were followed up in post-mortem brain tissue from humans with epilepsy using Iba1 immunolabelling. Furthermore, to investigate a causal effect in cortical thinning, cell-type-specific depletion was used in a murine model of acquired epilepsy. RESULTS: We identified elevated fractions of microglia and endothelial cells in regions of reduced cortical thickness. Differentially expressed genes showed enrichment for microglial markers and, in particular, activated microglial states. Analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from humans with epilepsy confirmed excess activated microglia. In the murine model, transient depletion of activated microglia during the early phase of the disease development prevented cortical thinning and neuronal cell loss in the temporal cortex. Although the development of chronic seizures was unaffected, the epileptic mice with early depletion of activated microglia did not develop deficits in a non-spatial memory test seen in epileptic mice not depleted of microglia. CONCLUSIONS: These convergent data strongly implicate activated microglia in cortical thinning, representing a new dimension for concern and disease modification in the epilepsies, potentially distinct from seizure control.

13.
Learn Mem ; 28(9): 329-340, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400534

RESUMO

Research has shown that sleep is beneficial for the long-term retention of memories. According to theories of memory consolidation, memories are gradually reorganized, becoming supported by widespread, distributed cortical networks, particularly during postencoding periods of sleep. However, the effects of sleep on the organization of memories in the hippocampus itself remains less clear. In a 3-d study, participants encoded separate lists of word-image pairs differing in their opportunity for sleep-dependent consolidation. Pairs were initially studied either before or after an overnight sleep period, and were then restudied in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan session. We used multivariate pattern similarity analyses to examine fine-grained effects of consolidation on memory representations in the hippocampus. We provide evidence for a dissociation along the long axis of the hippocampus that emerges with consolidation, such that representational patterns for object-word memories initially formed prior to sleep become differentiated in anterior hippocampus and more similar, or overlapping, in posterior hippocampus. Differentiation in anterior hippocampal representations correlated with subsequent behavioral performance. Furthermore, representational overlap in posterior hippocampus correlated with the duration of intervening slow wave sleep. Together, these results demonstrate that sleep-dependent consolidation promotes the reorganization of memory traces along the long axis of the hippocampus.

14.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(9): 1118-1127, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338718

RESUMO

Importance: Most antiseizure medications (ASMs) carry a US Food and Drug Administration-mandated class label warning of increased suicidality risk, based on a meta-analysis comparing suicidality between individuals treated with medications vs placebo in randomized clinical trials done before 2008. ASMs approved since then carry this warning although they were not similarly studied. Objective: To review all placebo-controlled phase 2 and 3 studies of 10 ASMs approved since 2008 to evaluate the risk of suicidality of these drugs compared with placebo. Data Sources: Primary publications and secondary safety analyses in PubMed of all phase 2 and 3 randomized placebo-controlled epilepsy trials of ASMs approved since 2008, using keywords epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs, seizures, suicidality, suicidal ideation, and the names of individual drugs. Study Selection: All phase 2 and 3 randomized clinical trials of adjunctive treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy and their secondary safety analyses. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Articles were reviewed for frequency of suicidality (ideation, attempts, and completed suicides). Mode of suicidality ascertainment included treatment-emergent adverse event reports, Standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities queries for events in prespecified categories including suicidal ideation and behavior, prospective collection of suicidality data as a prespecified safety outcome using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, and retrospective evaluation by blinded review using the Columbia-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. A meta-analysis compared risk for drugs vs placebo of each outcome for all drugs overall and by individual drugs and trials. Main Outcomes and Measures: Suicidality (total and by ideation), attempts, and completed suicides. Results: Excluding studies that did not evaluate suicidality (everolimus and fenfluramine) or did not evaluate it prospectively (lacosamide, ezogabine, and clobazam), 5 drugs were analyzed: eslicarbazepine, perampanel, brivaracetam, cannabidiol, and cenobamate. Suicidality was evaluated in 17 randomized clinical trials of these drugs, involving 5996 patients, of whom 4000 patients were treated with ASMs and 1996 with placebo. There was no evidence of increased risk of suicidal ideation (drugs vs placebo overall risk ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.35-1.60) or attempt (risk ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.30-1.87) overall or for any individual drug. Suicidal ideation occurred in 12 of 4000 patients treated with ASMs (0.30%) vs 7 of 1996 patients treated with placebo (0.35%) (P = .74). Three patients treated with ASMs and no patients treated with placebo attempted suicide (P = .22). There were no completed suicides. Conclusions and Relevance: There is no current evidence that the 5 ASMs evaluated in this study increase suicidality in epilepsy and merit a suicidality class warning.

15.
Epilepsia ; 62(10): 2505-2517, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Add-on cannabidiol (CBD) reduced seizures associated with Dravet syndrome (DS) in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials: GWPCARE1 Part B (NCT02091375) and GWPCARE2 (NCT02224703). Patients who completed GWPCARE1 Part A (NCT02091206) or Part B, or GWPCARE2, were enrolled in a long-term open-label extension trial, GWPCARE5 (NCT02224573). We present an interim analysis of the safety, efficacy, and patient-reported outcomes from GWPCARE5. METHODS: Patients received a pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD in oral solution (100 mg/ml), titrated from 2.5 to 20 mg/kg/day over a 2-week period, added to their existing medications. Based on response and tolerance, CBD could be reduced or increased to 30 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: Of the 330 patients who completed the original randomized trials, 315 (95%) enrolled in this open-label extension. Median treatment duration was 444 days (range = 18-1535), with a mean modal dose of 22 mg/kg/day; patients received a median of three concomitant antiseizure medications. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 97% patients (mild, 23%; moderate, 50%; severe, 25%). Commonly reported AEs were diarrhea (43%), pyrexia (39%), decreased appetite (31%), and somnolence (28%). Twenty-eight (9%) patients discontinued due to AEs. Sixty-nine (22%) patients had liver transaminase elevations >3 × upper limit of normal; 84% were on concomitant valproic acid. In patients from GWPCARE1 Part B and GWPCARE2, the median reduction from baseline in monthly seizure frequency assessed in 12-week periods up to Week 156 was 45%-74% for convulsive seizures and 49%-84% for total seizures. Across all visit windows, ≥83% patients/caregivers completing a Subject/Caregiver Global Impression of Change scale reported improvement in overall condition. SIGNIFICANCE: We show that long-term CBD treatment had an acceptable safety profile and led to sustained, clinically meaningful reductions in seizure frequency in patients with treatment-resistant DS.

16.
J Pharm Sci ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400185

RESUMO

Oral cannabidiol (CBD) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat patients with Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes and tuberous sclerosis complex. The therapeutic potential of oral CBD formulations is limited by extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism. Following oral administration, the inactive metabolite blood concentration is ∼40-fold higher than CBD. Inhalation bypasses the pharmacokinetic (PK) variability attributed to irregular gastrointestinal absorption and first-pass hepatic metabolism and may efficiently deliver CBD into systemic circulation. This phase 1 study compared the PK of a dry-powder inhaler (DPI) CBD formulation (10 mg powder containing 2.1 mg CBD) with an oral CBD solution (Epidiolex®, 50 mg) in healthy participants. Following a single dose of Epidiolex or DPI CBD (n=10 PK evaluable participants each), the maximum CBD concentration for the inhaled powder was 71-fold higher than that of Epidiolex while administering 24-fold less CBD. The mean time to reach maximum concentration was 3.8 min for the DPI CBD formulation compared with 122 min for Epidiolex. Both Epidiolex and DPI CBD were generally safe and well-tolerated. These data indicate that DPI CBD provided more rapid onset and increased bioavailability than oral CBD and support further investigations on the use of DPI CBD for acute indications.

17.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102765, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339947

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence has recently gained popularity across different medical fields to aid in the detection of diseases based on pathology samples or medical imaging findings. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key assessment tool for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The role of machine learning and artificial intelligence to increase detection of brain abnormalities in TLE remains inconclusive. We used support vector machine (SV) and deep learning (DL) models based on region of interest (ROI-based) structural (n = 336) and diffusion (n = 863) brain MRI data from patients with TLE with ("lesional") and without ("non-lesional") radiographic features suggestive of underlying hippocampal sclerosis from the multinational (multi-center) ENIGMA-Epilepsy consortium. Our data showed that models to identify TLE performed better or similar (68-75%) compared to models to lateralize the side of TLE (56-73%, except structural-based) based on diffusion data with the opposite pattern seen for structural data (67-75% to diagnose vs. 83% to lateralize). In other aspects, structural and diffusion-based models showed similar classification accuracies. Our classification models for patients with hippocampal sclerosis were more accurate (68-76%) than models that stratified non-lesional patients (53-62%). Overall, SV and DL models performed similarly with several instances in which SV mildly outperformed DL. We discuss the relative performance of these models with ROI-level data and the implications for future applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence in epilepsy care.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Inteligência Artificial , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose/patologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
18.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 33(11): 2197-2214, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347873

RESUMO

Models of reading emphasize that visual (orthographic) processing provides input to phonological as well as lexical-semantic processing. Neurobiological models of reading have mapped these processes to distributed regions across occipital-temporal, temporal-parietal, and frontal cortices. However, the role of the precentral gyrus in these models is ambiguous. Articulatory phonemic representations in the precentral gyrus are obviously involved in reading aloud, but it is unclear if the precentral gyrus is recruited during reading silently in a time window consistent with participation in phonological processing contributions. Here, we recorded intracranial electrophysiology during a speeded semantic decision task from 24 patients to map the spatio-temporal flow of information across the cortex during silent reading. Patients selected animate nouns from a stream of nonanimate words, letter strings, and false-font stimuli. We characterized the distribution and timing of evoked high-gamma power (70-170 Hz) as well as phase-locking between electrodes. The precentral gyrus showed a proportion of electrodes responsive to linguistic stimuli (27%) that was at least as high as those of surrounding peri-sylvian regions. These precentral gyrus electrodes had significantly greater high-gamma power for words compared to both false-font and letter-string stimuli. In a patient with word-selective effects in the fusiform, superior temporal, and precentral gyri, there was significant phase-locking between the fusiform and precentral gyri starting at ∼180 msec and between the precentral and superior temporal gyri starting at ∼220 msec. Finally, our large patient cohort allowed exploratory analyses of the spatio-temporal reading network underlying silent reading. The distribution, timing, and connectivity results place the precentral gyrus as an important hub in the silent reading network.

19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108212, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Appetite disturbance and growth abnormalities are commonly reported in children with Dravet syndrome (DS). Fenfluramine (Fintepla) has demonstrated profound reduction in convulsive seizure frequency in DS and was recently approved for use in DS in the US and EU. Prior to its use in epilepsy, fenfluramine was approved to suppress appetite in obese adults. Here, we evaluated the impact of fenfluramine on weight and growth in patients with DS treated for ≥12 months or ≥24 months and compared the results with growth curves in normative reference populations and published historical controls among patients with DS. METHODS: Historical control data from a recent study of 68 patients with DS show decreases in height and weight Z-scores of ∼0.1 standard deviation (SD) for every 12-month increase in age (Eschbach K. Seizure. 2017;52:117-22). Anthropometric data for fenfluramine were extracted from an open-label extension (OLE) study of eligible patients with DS (2-18 y/o; fenfluramine dose: 0.2-0.7 mg/kg/day). Z-score analyses were based on the Boston Children's Hospital algorithm and assessed potential impact of fenfluramine on growth at OLE baseline, at Month 12, and at Month 24. A mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM) estimated changes in height and weight over time. Height and weight Z-scores were also analyzed by dose group (0.2-<0.3 mg/kg/day, 0.3-<0.5 mg/kg/day, and 0.5-0.7 mg/kg/day), averaged over time. RESULTS: At the time of analysis, 279 patients were treated with fenfluramine for ≥12 months; 128 were treated for ≥24 months. Relative to the reference population with DS, fenfluramine treatment for ≥12 months or for ≥24 months had minimal impact on height or weight over time as assessed by Z-score analyses. No substantial dose-dependent changes from baseline were observed at Month 12 nor at Month 24. MMRM showed that patients treated with fenfluramine for ≥12 months (N = 262) had an estimated change in Z-score per year of -0.056 for height and -0.166 for weight. For patients with data from all three time points (baseline, 12 months, and 24 months; N = 110), estimated changes in Z-scores per year were -0.025 for height and -0.188 for weight. MMRM projections based on normative reference growth curves were comparable to growth data from historical control populations with DS. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment with fenfluramine had minimal impact on the growth of patients with DS as demonstrated by differences in Z-scores for height and weight at 12 months and at 24 months. Changes in Z-scores for height and weight were consistent with published reports on patients with DS.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas , Espasmos Infantis , Adulto , Criança , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fenfluramina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Obesidade , Convulsões
20.
J Child Neurol ; 36(11): 998-1006, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378447

RESUMO

CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) results in early-onset seizures and severe developmental impairments. A CDD clinical severity assessment (CCSA) was previously developed with clinician and parent-report items to capture information on a range of domains. Consistent with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, content validation is the first step in evaluating the psychometric properties of an outcome measure. The aim of this study was to validate the content of the clinician-reported items in the CCSA (CCSA-Clinician). Eight neurologists leading the USA CDD Center of Excellence clinics were interviewed using the "think aloud" technique to critique 26 clinician-reported items. Common themes were aggregated, and a literature search of related assessments informed item modifications. The clinicians then participated in 2 consensus meetings to review themes and finalize the items. A consensus was achieved for the content of the CCSA-Clinician. Eight of the original items were omitted, 11 items were added, and the remaining 18 items were revised. The final 29 items were classified into 2 domains: functioning and neurologic impairments. This study enabled refinement of the CCSA-Clinician and provided evidence for its content validity. This preliminary validation is essential before field testing and further validation, in order to advance the instrument toward clinical trial readiness.

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