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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(47)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208365

RESUMO

Epilepsy is increasingly conceptualized as a network disorder. In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we integrated neuroimaging and connectome analysis to identify network associations with atrophy patterns in 1021 adults with epilepsy compared to 1564 healthy controls from 19 international sites. In temporal lobe epilepsy, areas of atrophy colocalized with highly interconnected cortical hub regions, whereas idiopathic generalized epilepsy showed preferential subcortical hub involvement. These morphological abnormalities were anchored to the connectivity profiles of distinct disease epicenters, pointing to temporo-limbic cortices in temporal lobe epilepsy and fronto-central cortices in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Negative effects of age on atrophy further revealed a strong influence of connectome architecture in temporal lobe, but not idiopathic generalized, epilepsy. Our findings were reproduced across individual sites and single patients and were robust across different analytical methods. Through worldwide collaboration in ENIGMA-Epilepsy, we provided deeper insights into the macroscale features that shape the pathophysiology of common epilepsies.

2.
Neurobiol Dis ; 147: 105154, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine autonomic regulation of core body temperature, heart rate (HR), and breathing rate (BR) in response to moderately elevated ambient temperature or moderate physical exercise in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: We studied video-EEG, ECG, respiration, and temperature in mice with global heterozygous Scn1a knockout (KO) (DS mice), interneuron specific Scn1a KO, and wildtype (WT) mice during exposure to increased environmental temperature and moderate treadmill exercise. RESULTS: Core body temperatures of WT and DS mice were similar during baseline. After 15 mins of heat exposure, the peak value was lower in DS than WT mice. In the following mins of heat exposure, the temperature slowly returned close to baseline level in WT, whereas it remained elevated in DS mice. KO of Scn1a in GABAergic neurons caused similar thermoregulatory deficits in mice. During exercise, the HR increase was less prominent in DS than WT mice. After exercise, the HR was significantly more suppressed in DS. The heart rate variability (HRV) was lower in DS than WT mice during baseline and higher in DS during exercise-recovery periods. SIGNIFICANCE: We found novel abnormalities that expand the spectrum of interictal, ictal, and postictal autonomic dysregulation in DS mice. During mild heat stress, there was a significantly blunted correction of body temperature, and a less suppression of both HR and respiration rate in DS than WT mice. These effects were seen in mice with selective KO of Scn1A in GABAergic neurons. During exercise stress, there was diminished increase in HR, followed by an exaggerated HR suppression and HRV elevation during recovery in DS mice compared to controls. These findings suggest that different environmental stressors can uncover distinct autonomic disturbances in DS mice. Interneurons play an important role in thermoregulation. Understanding the spectrum and mechanisms of autonomic disorders in DS may help develop more effective strategies to prevent seizures and SUDEP.

3.
Epilepsia ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140419

RESUMO

One-third of epilepsy patients have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), which is often complicated by polydrug toxicity and psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities. Advances in understanding the microbiome and gut-brain-axis are likely to shed light on epilepsy pathogenesis, anti-seizure medication (ASM) resistance, and potential therapeutic targets. Gut dysbiosis is associated with inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and altered neuromodulators. High-throughput and metagenomic sequencing has advanced the characterization of microbial species and functional pathways. DRE patients show altered gut microbiome composition compared to drug-sensitive patients and healthy controls. The ketogenic and modified Atkins diets can reduce seizures in some patients with DRE. These low-carbohydrate dietary therapies alter the taxonomic and functional composition of the gut microbiome, and composition varies between diet responders and nonresponders. Murine models suggest that specific phyla are necessary to confer efficacy from the diet, and antibiotic treatment may eliminate efficacy. The impact of diet might involve alterations in microbiota, promotion of select microbial interactions, and variance in brain neurotransmitter levels that then influence seizures. Understanding the mechanics of how diet manipulates seizures may suggest novel therapies. Most ASMs act on neuronal transmission via effects on ion channels and neurotransmitters. However, ASMs may also assert their effects via the gut microbiota. In animal models, the microbiota composition (eg, abundance of certain phyla) can vary with ASM active drug metabolites. Given the developing understanding of the gut microbiome in DRE, probiotics are another potential therapy. Probiotics alter the microbiota composition, and small studies suggest that these supplements can reduce seizures in some patients. DRE has enormous consequences to patients and society, and the gut microbiome holds promise as a potential therapeutic target. However, the exact mechanism and recognition of which patients are likely to be responders remain elusive. Further studies are warranted.

4.
Epilepsy Res ; 168: 106482, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder frequently associated with epilepsy and epilepsy is a leading cause of death in ASD patients. Despite growing interest in genetic, neurophysiological and clinical overlaps, data on ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in ASD are lacking since behavioral disorders often make it difficult to obtain EEG recordings. We examined ictal EEG features in a consecutive series of patients with ASD and epilepsy. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 400 consecutive patients with ASD and epilepsy at our Level 4 Epilepsy center between 2015 and 2019; 45 had at least one EEG-recorded seizure captured. Demographics, age of nonfebrile seizure onset, age of ASD diagnosis, language, magnetic resonance imagining findings, genetic testing and EEG studies were reviewed. Seizures were classified by semiologic and electrographic features. Ictal findings were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 497 seizures were captured in 45 patients: 20 patients with focal onset epilepsy had 126 seizures (median: 1, range: 1-30), 17 patients with generalized onset epilepsy had 88 seizures (median: 2, range: 1-15), 7 patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome had 270 seizures (median: 12, range: 1-74) and one patient had both right hemisphere focal and generalized onsets (12 focal, 1 generalized). SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to analyze a large set of ictal data in patients with autism spectrum disorder, a population traditionally difficult to obtain ictal recordings. Our results confirm the diverse spectrum of seizure types and provide clinical-EEG correlates of seizures in ASD patients. Both focal-onset and generalized-onset seizures were recorded, confirming that ASD patients have higher rates of both focal and generalized epilepsy syndromes. Among patients with focal epilepsy, temporal and frontal onsets were frequent, suggesting the possibility of epilepsy surgery or brain stimulation. EEG to classify seizures and epilepsies is critical to determine therapeutic options and effort should be made to obtain EEGs in this heterogenous population.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023262, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125496

RESUMO

Importance: The true incidence of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC), already the fifth leading category of death among toddlers by current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates, is potentially veiled by the varied certification processes by medicolegal investigative offices across the United States. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of SUDC incidence, understand its epidemiology, and assess the consistency of death certification among medical examiner and coroner offices in the US death investigation system. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, 2 of 13 forensic pathologists (FPs) conducted masked reviews of 100 cases enrolled in the SUDC Registry and Research Collaborative (SUDCRRC). Children who died aged 11 months to 18 years from 36 US states, Canada, and the United Kingdom had been posthumously enrolled in the SUDCRRC by family members from 2014 to 2017. Comprehensive data from medicolegal investigative offices, clinical offices, and family members were reviewed. Data analysis was conducted from December 2014 to June 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Certified cause of death (COD) characterized as explained (accidental or natural) or unexplained, as determined by SUDCRRC masked review process. Results: In this study of 100 cases of SUDC (mean [SD] age, 32.1 [31.8] months; 58 [58.0%] boys; 82 [82.0%] White children; 92 [92.0%] from the United States), the original pathologist certified 43 cases (43.0%) as explained COD and 57 (57.0%) as unexplained COD. The SUDCRRC review process led to the following certifications: 16 (16.0%) were explained, 7 (7.0%) were undetermined because of insufficient data, and 77 (77.0%) were unexplained. Experts disagreed with the original COD in 40 cases (40.0%). These data suggest that SUDC incidence is higher than the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate (ie, 392 deaths in 2018). Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive masked forensic pathology review process of sudden unexpected pediatric deaths, and it suggests that SUDC may often go unrecognized in US death investigations. Some unexpected pediatric deaths may be erroneously attributed to a natural or accidental COD, negatively affecting surveillance, research, public health funding, and medical care of surviving family members. To further address the challenges of accurate and consistent death certification in SUDC, future studies are warranted.

6.
Neurology ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of incident epilepsy among participants with prevalent dementia, and the risk of incident dementia among participants with prevalent epilepsy in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data in the Original and Offspring FHS cohorts. To determine the risk of developing epilepsy among participants with dementia and the risk of developing dementia among participants with epilepsy we used separate, nested, case-control designs and matched each case to 3 age-, sex- and FHS cohort-matched controls. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for sex and age. In secondary analysis, we investigated the role of education level and apolipoprotein ε4 allele status in modifying the association between epilepsy and dementia. RESULTS: A total of 4,906 participants had information on epilepsy and dementia and dementia follow-up after age 65. Among 660 participants with dementia and 1,980 dementia-free controls there were 58 incident epilepsy cases during follow-up. Analysis comparing epilepsy risk among dementia cases vs controls yielded HR = 1.82 [95% CI:1.05-3.16], p = 0.034. Among 43 participants with epilepsy and 129 epilepsy-free controls there were 51 incident dementia cases. Analysis comparing dementia risk among epilepsy cases vs controls yielded HR = 1.99 [1.11-3.57], p = 0.021. In this group, among participants with any post-high school education, prevalent epilepsy was associated with a nearly 5-fold risk for developing dementia (HR = 4.67 [1.82-12.01], p = 0.001) compared to controls of the same educational attainment. CONCLUSIONS: There is a bi-directional association between epilepsy and dementia with either condition carrying a nearly 2-fold risk of developing the other when compared to controls.

7.
Epilepsy Res ; 167: 106481, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Surgical planning for people with drug resistant non-lesional focal epilepsy can be challenging. Prior studies focus on cases that are only MRI-negative or MRI-negative with PET-positive imaging, but little is known about outcomes in patients with non-lesional findings on both MRI and PET imaging. In this study, we investigate 5-year surgical outcomes in patients who underwent epilepsy surgery for drug resistant MRI/PET-negative focal epilepsy. METHODS: We collected clinical and testing data on 131 consecutive patients with drug resistant non-lesional epilepsy who were presented at a multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery conference at the New York University Comprehensive Epilepsy Center between 2010 and 2014, and identified those who underwent epilepsy surgery in order to review 5-year surgical outcomes. RESULTS: There were 103 with non-lesional MRI studies, and of these, 22 had corresponding non-lesional PET imaging. 14 MRI/PET-negative patients pursued a surgical treatment option and 9 underwent resections after intracranial EEG. At 5 years, 77.8 % of patients had favorable (ILAE class 1 and 2) outcomes. Most (77.8 %) had focal cortical dysplasia type Ia (FCDIa) on pathology. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that with careful planning and patient selection, surgery for patients with drug resistant MRI/PET-negative focal epilepsy can be successful.

8.
Epilepsia ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063853

RESUMO

We compared sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) diagnosis rates between North American SUDEP Registry (NASR) epileptologists and original death investigators, to determine degree and causes of discordance. In 220 SUDEP cases with post-mortem examination, we recorded the epileptologist adjudications and medical examiner- and coroner- (ME/C) listed causes of death (CODs). COD diagnosis concordance decreased with NASR's uncertainty in the SUDEP diagnosis: highest for Definite SUDEP (84%, n = 158), lower in Definite Plus (50%, n = 36), and lowest in Possible (0%, n = 18). Rates of psychiatric comorbidity, substance abuse, and toxicology findings for drugs of abuse were all higher in discordant cases than concordant cases. Possible SUDEP cases, an understudied group, were significantly older, and had higher rates of cardiac, drug, or toxicology findings than more certain SUDEP cases. With a potentially contributing or competing COD, ME/Cs favored non-epilepsy-related diagnoses, suggesting a bias toward listing CODs with structural or toxicological findings; SUDEP has no pathognomonic features. A history of epilepsy should always be listed on death certificates and autopsy reports. Even without an alternate COD, ME/Cs infrequently classified COD as "SUDEP." Improved collaboration and communication between epilepsy and ME/C communities improve diagnostic accuracy, as well as bereavement and research opportunities.

9.
J Particip Med ; 12(2): e17602, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064105

RESUMO

Physician-patient collaboration was recognized as a critical core of participatory medicine more than a century ago. However, the subsequent focus on scientific research to enable cures and increased dominance of physicians in health care subordinated patients to a passive role. This paternalistic model weakened in the past 50 years-as women, minorities, and the disabled achieved greater rights, and as incurable chronic diseases and unrelieved pain disorders became more prevalent-promoting a more equitable role for physicians and patients. By 2000, a shared decision-making model became the pinnacle for clinical decisions, despite a dearth of data on health outcomes, or the model's reliance on single patient or solo practitioner studies, or evidence that no single model could fit all clinical situations. We report about a young woman with intractable epilepsy due to a congenital brain malformation whose family and medical specialists used a collaborative decision-making approach. This model positioned the health professionals as supporters of the proactive family, and enabled them all to explore and co-create knowledge beyond the clinical realm. Together, they involved other members of the community in the decisions, while harnessing diverse relationships to allow all family members to achieve positive levels of health, despite the resistance of the seizures to medical treatment and the incurable nature of the underlying disease.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051600

RESUMO

Subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are slow-growing brain tumors that are a hallmark feature seen in 5-10% of patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). Though histologically benign, they can cause serious neurologic symptoms, leading to death if untreated. SEGAs consistently show biallelic loss of TSC1 or TSC2. Herein, we aimed to define other somatic events beyond TSC1/TSC2 loss and identify potential transcriptional drivers that contribute to SEGA formation. Paired tumor-normal whole-exome sequencing was performed on 21 resected SEGAs from 20 TSC patients. Pathogenic variants in TSC1/TSC2 were identified in 19/21 (90%) SEGAs. Copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (size range: 2.2-46 Mb) was seen in 76% (16/21) of SEGAs (44% chr9q and 56% chr16p). An average of 1.4 other somatic variants (range 0-7) per tumor were identified, unlikely of pathogenic significance. Whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing analyses revealed 190 common differentially expressed genes in SEGA (n = 16, 13 from a prior study) in pairwise comparison to each of: low grade diffuse gliomas (n = 530) and glioblastoma (n = 171) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium, ganglioglioma (n = 10), TSC cortical tubers (n = 15), and multiple normal tissues. Among these, homeobox transcription factors (TFs) HMX3, HMX2, VAX1, SIX3; and TFs IRF6 and EOMES were all expressed >12-fold higher in SEGAs (FDR/q-value < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry supported the specificity of IRF6, VAX1, SIX3 for SEGAs in comparison to other tumor entities and normal brain. We conclude that SEGAs have an extremely low somatic mutation rate, suggesting that TSC1/TSC2 loss is sufficient to drive tumor growth. The unique and highly expressed SEGA-specific TFs likely reflect the neuroepithelial cell of origin, and may also contribute to the transcriptional and epigenetic state that enables SEGA growth following two-hit loss of TSC1 or TSC2 and mTORC1 activation.

11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107389, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890796

RESUMO

Drug-resistant focal epilepsy (DRFE) in children can impair cognition and behavior, and lead to premature death. Increased pediatric epilepsy surgery numbers reflect the improvements in seizure control and long-term developmental outcomes. Yet, many children with DRFE are not candidates for surgical resection due to overlap of the seizure network with eloquent cortex or multiple seizure-onset zones, making surgery dangerous or ineffective. In adults, responsive neurostimulation (RNS System) therapy is safe and effective treatment for DRFE with one or two seizure foci, especially when the seizure focus is in eloquent cortex. We present six pediatric patients with DRFE who underwent RNS implantation. Our outcomes demonstrate safety, decreased clinical seizure frequency, as well as improved functional status and quality of life. Changes in the clinical seizure semiology and frequency occurred in conjunction with adjustments to the stimulation parameters, supporting the efficacy of responsive neuromodulation in children.

12.
Brain ; 143(8): 2454-2473, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814957

RESUMO

The epilepsies are commonly accompanied by widespread abnormalities in cerebral white matter. ENIGMA-Epilepsy is a large quantitative brain imaging consortium, aggregating data to investigate patterns of neuroimaging abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, including temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal epilepsy, and genetic generalized epilepsy. Our goal was to rank the most robust white matter microstructural differences across and within syndromes in a multicentre sample of adult epilepsy patients. Diffusion-weighted MRI data were analysed from 1069 healthy controls and 1249 patients: temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (n = 599), temporal lobe epilepsy with normal MRI (n = 275), genetic generalized epilepsy (n = 182) and non-lesional extratemporal epilepsy (n = 193). A harmonized protocol using tract-based spatial statistics was used to derive skeletonized maps of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity for each participant, and fibre tracts were segmented using a diffusion MRI atlas. Data were harmonized to correct for scanner-specific variations in diffusion measures using a batch-effect correction tool (ComBat). Analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and sex, examined differences between each epilepsy syndrome and controls for each white matter tract (Bonferroni corrected at P < 0.001). Across 'all epilepsies' lower fractional anisotropy was observed in most fibre tracts with small to medium effect sizes, especially in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule. There were also less robust increases in mean diffusivity. Syndrome-specific fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differences were most pronounced in patients with hippocampal sclerosis in the ipsilateral parahippocampal cingulum and external capsule, with smaller effects across most other tracts. Individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and normal MRI showed a similar pattern of greater ipsilateral than contralateral abnormalities, but less marked than those in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Patients with generalized and extratemporal epilepsies had pronounced reductions in fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and external capsule, and increased mean diffusivity of the anterior corona radiata. Earlier age of seizure onset and longer disease duration were associated with a greater extent of diffusion abnormalities in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. We demonstrate microstructural abnormalities across major association, commissural, and projection fibres in a large multicentre study of epilepsy. Overall, patients with epilepsy showed white matter abnormalities in the corpus callosum, cingulum and external capsule, with differing severity across epilepsy syndromes. These data further define the spectrum of white matter abnormalities in common epilepsy syndromes, yielding more detailed insights into pathological substrates that may explain cognitive and psychiatric co-morbidities and be used to guide biomarker studies of treatment outcomes and/or genetic research.

13.
Neurology ; 95(21): e2880-e2889, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The combined spatiotemporal dynamics underlying sign language production remain largely unknown. To investigate these dynamics compared to speech production, we used intracranial electrocorticography during a battery of language tasks. METHODS: We report a unique case of direct cortical surface recordings obtained from a neurosurgical patient with intact hearing who is bilingual in English and American Sign Language. We designed a battery of cognitive tasks to capture multiple modalities of language processing and production. RESULTS: We identified 2 spatially distinct cortical networks: ventral for speech and dorsal for sign production. Sign production recruited perirolandic, parietal, and posterior temporal regions, while speech production recruited frontal, perisylvian, and perirolandic regions. Electrical cortical stimulation confirmed this spatial segregation, identifying mouth areas for speech production and limb areas for sign production. The temporal dynamics revealed superior parietal cortex activity immediately before sign production, suggesting its role in planning and producing sign language. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a distinct network for sign language and detail the temporal propagation supporting sign production.

14.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(12): 1629-1636, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807948

RESUMO

Recent success in identifying gene-regulatory elements in the context of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors has enabled cell-type-restricted gene expression. However, within the cerebral cortex these tools are largely limited to broad classes of neurons. To overcome this limitation, we developed a strategy that led to the identification of multiple new enhancers to target functionally distinct neuronal subtypes. By investigating the regulatory landscape of the disease gene Scn1a, we discovered enhancers selective for parvalbumin (PV) and vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing interneurons. Demonstrating the functional utility of these elements, we show that the PV-specific enhancer allowed for the selective targeting and manipulation of these neurons across vertebrate species, including humans. Finally, we demonstrate that our selection method is generalizable and characterizes additional PV-specific enhancers with exquisite specificity within distinct brain regions. Altogether, these viral tools can be used for cell-type-specific circuit manipulation and hold considerable promise for use in therapeutic interventions.

15.
Neurology ; 95(7): e867-e877, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine time trends and distinguishing autopsy findings of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in the United States. METHODS: We identified decedents where epilepsy/seizure was listed as cause/contributor to death or comorbid condition on the death certificate among all decedents who underwent medico-legal investigation at 3 medical examiner (ME) offices across the country: New York City (2009-2016), San Diego County (2008-2016), and Maryland (2000-2016). After reviewing all available reports, deaths classified as definite/probable/near SUDEP or SUDEP plus were included for analysis. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to analyze temporal trends in SUDEP rate for 2009-2016. Definite SUDEPs were compared to sex- and age ±2 years-matched non-SUDEP deaths with a history of epilepsy regarding autopsy findings, circumstances, and comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 1,086 SUDEP cases were identified. There was a decreasing trend in ME-investigated SUDEP incidence between 2009 and 2016 (z = -2.2, S = -42, p = 0.028) among 3 regions. There was a 28% reduction in ME-investigated SUDEP incidence from 2009 to 2012 to 2013-2016 (confidence interval, 17%-38%, p < 0.0001). We found no correlation between SUDEP rates and the month of year or day of week. There was no difference between SUDEP and non-SUDEP deaths regarding neurodevelopmental abnormalities, pulmonary congestion/edema, and myocardial fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decreasing monotonic trend in ME-investigated SUDEP incidence over 8 years, with a 28% reduction in incidence from 2009-2012 to 2013-2016. Unlike SIDS and sudden cardiac death, we found no correlation between SUDEP and the season of year or day of week. No autopsy findings distinguished SUDEP from non-SUDEP deaths.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Inesperada na Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 110: 107174, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531727

RESUMO

Systemic and structural barriers limit dental health for individuals with special healthcare needs (SHCN), who have poorer dental hygiene, higher rates of dental disorders, and less access to oral care. We aimed to understand these barriers directly from the patient and caregiver population as well as review the literature on oral health of individuals with SHCN. We reviewed the literature on individuals and caregivers of those with SHCN to identify barriers to dental healthcare faced by these individuals. We focused on clinical and educational interventions to support clinicians treating this population. For the literature review, PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar were searched. We also relied upon the knowledge gained during the course of routine clinical care and patient advocacy activities. Published manuscripts were searched for the following Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) term: "Dental Care for Disabled" and the following subheading: pharmacology, adverse effects, ethics, methods, standards, and therapy. Relatively few dentists have formal training on caring for those with SHCN. Barriers faced by these individuals include accessibility, comorbidities, communication challenges, and barriers to home oral hygiene. Strong care coordination and communication between dentists, caregivers, and other providers is essential for positive outcomes. Our current dental healthcare system has failed to meet the needs of those with SHCN. The comfort and dignity of the patient are of paramount importance.

17.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of cannabidiol (CBD) with and without concomitant clobazam (CLB) was evaluated in stratified analyses of four large randomized controlled trials, two in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and two in Dravet syndrome. METHODS: Each trial of CBD (Epidiolex® in the US; Epidyolex® in the EU; 10 and 20 mg/kg/day) was evaluated by CLB use. The treatment ratio was analyzed using negative binomial regression for changes in seizure frequency and logistic regression for the 50% responder rate, where the principle analysis combined both indications and CBD doses in a stratified meta-analysis. Pharmacokinetic data were examined for an exposure/response relationship based on CLB presence/absence. Safety data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The meta-analysis favored CBD vs. placebo regardless of CLB use. The treatment ratio (95% CI) of CBD over placebo for the average reduction in seizure frequency was 0.59 (0.52, 0.68; P < .0001) with CLB and 0.85 (0.73, 0.98; P = .0226) without CLB, and the 50% responder rate odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.51 (1.69, 3.71; P < .0001) with CLB and 2.40 (1.38, 4.16; P = .0020) without CLB. Adverse events (AEs) related to somnolence, rash, pneumonia, or aggression were more common in patients with concomitant CLB. There was a significant exposure/response relationship for CBD and its active metabolite. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate CBD is efficacious with and without CLB, but do not exclude the possibility of a synergistic effect associated with the combination of agents. The safety and tolerability profile of CBD without CLB show a lower rate of certain AEs than with CLB.

18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 109: 107096, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422576

RESUMO

Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and epilepsy such as Dravet syndrome (DS) must navigate a complex web of state and community services through the transition from child-centered to adult-oriented healthcare. This study examined barriers to successful transition from the caregivers' perspective. Primary caregivers of teenagers or adults with DS who had contemplated or completed transition to adult care were eligible. A three-week, asynchronous, web-based focus group was conducted on Facebook. Data were analyzed in an iterative process based on a Grounded Theory approach. Participants reviewed findings for accuracy. Transition success was defined by how well it ensured adequate care for the child when caregivers became unable to provide it. Existing transition programs were described as "not for our kids." All caregivers reported that transition programs began too late. Challenges to identifying suitable providers were formidable, with 71% of adult patients still being seen by pediatric neurologists. Many adult physicians lacked a general knowledge of DS, yet caregivers perceived that adult physicians were unwilling to listen to caregivers, and few were comfortable accommodating patients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors. Community programs often excluded patients with DS, and rural healthcare disparities created additional barriers. Analysis produced recommendations for improving the transition process including the creation of a certified Transition Navigator position in the clinical setting. The limitations of this focus group analysis include possible selection bias, but our study identified key issues and pathways to improve the transition process for patients with DS and their caregivers.

19.
Neurology ; 94(23): 1032-1037, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide information on the effect of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on people with epilepsy and provide consensus recommendations on how to provide the best possible care for people with epilepsy while avoiding visits to urgent care facilities and hospitalizations during the novel coronavirus pandemic. METHODS: The authors developed consensus statements in 2 sections. The first was "How should we/clinicians modify our clinical care pathway for people with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic?" The second was "What general advice should we give to people with epilepsy during this crisis? The authors individually scored statements on a scale of -10 (strongly disagree) to +10 (strongly agree). Five of 11 recommendations for physicians and 3/5 recommendations for individuals/families were rated by all the authors as 7 or above (strongly agree) on the first round of rating. Subsequently, a teleconference was held where statements for which there was a lack of strong consensus were revised. RESULTS: After revision, all consensus recommendations received a score of 7 or above. The recommendations focus on administration of as much care as possible at home to keep people with epilepsy out of health care facilities, where they are likely to encounter COVID-19 (including strategies for rescue therapy), as well as minimization of risk of seizure exacerbation through adherence, and through ensuring a regular supply of medication. We also provide helpful links to additional helpful information for people with epilepsy and health providers. CONCLUSION: These recommendations may help health care professionals provide optimal care to people with epilepsy during the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
20.
Neurology ; 94(24): e2555-e2566, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) rates. METHODS: We queried all decedents presented for medico-legal investigation at 3 medical examiner (ME) offices across the country (New York City, Maryland, San Diego County) in 2009 to 2010 and 2014 to 2015. We identified all decedents for whom epilepsy/seizure was listed as cause/contributor to death or comorbid condition on the death certificate. We then reviewed all available reports. Decedents determined to have SUDEP were included for analysis. We used median income in the ZIP code of residence as a surrogate for SES. For each region, zip code regions were ranked by median household income and divided into quartiles based on total population for 2 time periods. Region-, age-, and income-adjusted epilepsy prevalence was estimated in each zip code. SUDEP rates in the highest and lowest SES quartiles were evaluated to determine disparity. Examined SUDEP rates in 2 time periods were also compared. RESULTS: There were 159 and 43 SUDEP cases in the lowest and highest SES quartiles. ME-investigated SUDEP rate ratio between the lowest and highest SES quartiles was 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.1, p < 0.0001) in 2009 to 2010 and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-6.0, p < 0.0001) in 2014 to 2015. There was a significant decline in overall SUDEP rate between the 2 study periods (36% decrease, 95% CI 22%-48%, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: ME-investigated SUDEP incidence was significantly higher in people with the lowest SES compared to the highest SES. The difference persisted over a 5-year period despite decreased overall SUDEP rates.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Morte Súbita Inesperada na Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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