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Pulse (Basel) ; 9(1-2): 38-46, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722354


Background: Gender-related differences in phenotypic expression and outcomes have been established in many cardiac conditions; however, the impact of gender in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the differences in clinical outcomes between female and male HCM patients. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to October 2020. Included were cohort studies that compared outcomes of interest including all-cause mortality, HCM-related mortality, and worsening heart failure (HF) or HF hospitalization between male and female. Data from each study were combined using the random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Eleven retrospective cohort studies with a total of 9,427 patients (3,719 females) were included. Female gender was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (pooled OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.26-2.10, p ≤ 0.001), HCM-related mortality (pooled OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.08-2.01, p = 0.015), and worsening HF or HF hospitalization (pooled OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.76-2.39, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Female gender was associated with a worse prognosis in HCM. These findings suggest the need for improved care in women including early identification of disease and more possible aggressive management. Moreover, gender-based strategy may benefit in HCM patients.

J Surg Case Rep ; 2021(10): rjab458, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729170


In this modern era, giant inguinoscrotal hernias are very rare to experience in a medical career. We discuss a case of a 65-year-old man with a history of an inguinoscrotal hernia with progressive growth for the past 35 years. On examination, he had a 20 cm × 15 cm non-reducible swelling with multiple ulcers over the skin surface extending to the mid-thigh with otherwise no other bladder and bowel complications. These large hernias pose a different set of surgical problems. Open surgery was performed, hernial sac opened, contents reverted and left orchidectomy were done with scrotal reconstruction. The defect was closed with Vicryl 1-0 over the muscle layer and the skin was stapled. Daily wound care was provided. Besides, this case also compels us to explore possible reasons for the occurrence of such potentially dangerous surgical problems in low-to-middle income countries (LMIC).

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(239): 709-711, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508503


Myiasis is a skin infection caused by developing larvae (maggots) of various Diptera fly species. The two most frequent flies that cause human infestations around the world are Dermatobia hominis (human botfly) and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly). Maggots have been found to infest the nose, ear, orbit, tracheostomy wound, face, gums, and serous cavities, among other places. Maggots at the colostomy site are an uncommon occurrence. We report a case of maggots infestation surrounding the colostomy site. We came across a rather rare finding in a patient with advanced inoperable rectum cancer who initially complained of persistent nonspecific pain, discomfort, and foul-smelling discharge from the colostomy site. The issue at hand was identified to be maggots, and their removal alleviated the patient's symptoms. We underline the importance of regularly monitoring stoma sites to avoid maggot infestation, especially in tropical regions.

Dípteros , Miíase , Animais , Calliphoridae , Colostomia , Humanos , Larva , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/etiologia , Miíase/terapia
Obes Med ; 22: 100316, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392411


Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading non-communicable disease worldwide and is associated with several microvascular and macrovascular complications. Individuals with T2D are more prone to acquiring selected types of infections and are more susceptible to complications due to these infections. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between T2D and COVID-19 in the community setting. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective analysis that included 147 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to a community hospital. Demographics, medical history, symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, complications during the hospital course, and treatments were collected and analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe the probability of intubation in patients with T2D as compared with patients without T2D. The hazard ratio for intubation in the survival analysis was estimated using a bivariable Cox proportional-hazards model. Results: Of 147 patients, 73 (49.7%) had a history of T2D. Patients with T2D had higher requirement of ICU admission (31.5% vs 12.2%; p = .004), higher incidence of ARDS (35.6% vs 16.2%, p = .007), higher rates of intubation (32.9% vs 12.2%, p = .003), and higher use neuromuscular blocking agents (23.3% vs 9.5%, p = .02). In the survival analysis at 28 days of follow-up, patients with T2D showed an increased hazard for intubation (HR 3.00; 95% CI, 1.39 to 6.46). Conclusion: In our patient population, patients with COVID-19 and T2D showed significantly higher ARDS incidence and intubation rates. The survival analysis also showed that after 28 days of follow-up, patients with T2D presented an increased risk for shorter time to intubation.

J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 16(2): 118-123, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983422


BACKGROUND: Nepal is witnessing rise in non-communicable chronic diseases. Costs of the medicine, availability of the medicine for free in public health sectors and variation of price of medicines may play an important role in the management of chronic disease. The study was undertaken to find out the variation in price of drugs used for treating non communicable diseases among private pharmacies and availability of free essential medicines in public facilities. METHODS: Randomly selected 33 public health centers and 13 pharmacies were included for the study. Availability of free essential medicines for treating selected chronic diseases was assessed in public health centers and percentage price variation in various branded drugs used for treating these diseases was assessed at the consumer level. RESULTS: Out of 89 different formulations, variations between maximum and minimum priced brands of more than 100% were observed in 37 formulations and that of > 200% in 22 formulations. Thirty-seven formulations had more than 100% inter-pharmacy variation. The most commonly available free essential medicines was 4 mg salbutamol (88.57%) while the least available free essential drug was levothyroxine 5 mg (9.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation in prices is seen among similar drugs and in prices of same drug in different pharmacies. These factors may have implications in the management of chronic disease in Nepal offsetting the government's effort to control chronic diseases.

Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Doenças não Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nepal , Setor Público