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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5004, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408154

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Hsp70 chaperone BiP is regulated by AMPylation, a reversible inactivating post-translational modification. Both BiP AMPylation and deAMPylation are catalysed by a single ER-localised enzyme, FICD. Here we present crystallographic and solution structures of a deAMPylation Michaelis complex formed between mammalian AMPylated BiP and FICD. The latter, via its tetratricopeptide repeat domain, binds a surface that is specific to ATP-state Hsp70 chaperones, explaining the exquisite selectivity of FICD for BiP's ATP-bound conformation both when AMPylating and deAMPylating Thr518. The eukaryotic deAMPylation mechanism thus revealed, rationalises the role of the conserved Fic domain Glu234 as a gatekeeper residue that both inhibits AMPylation and facilitates hydrolytic deAMPylation catalysed by dimeric FICD. These findings point to a monomerisation-induced increase in Glu234 flexibility as the basis of an oligomeric state-dependent switch between FICD's antagonistic activities, despite a similar mode of engagement of its two substrates - unmodified and AMPylated BiP.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/química , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Biocatálise , Dimerização , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
2.
Structure ; 29(9): 1003-1013.e4, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765407

RESUMO

Carbohydrate-binding proteins from pathogenic bacteria and fungi have been shown to be implicated in various pathological processes, where they interact with glycans present on the surface of the host cells. These interactions are part of the initial processes of infection of the host and are very important to study at the atomic level. Here, we report the room temperature neutron structures of PLL lectin from Photorhabdus laumondii in its apo form and in complex with deuterated L-fucose, which is, to our knowledge, the first neutron structure of a carbohydrate-binding protein in complex with a fully deuterated carbohydrate ligand. A detailed structural analysis of the lectin-carbohydrate interactions provides information on the hydrogen bond network, the role of water molecules, and the extent of the CH-π stacking interactions between fucose and the aromatic amino acids in the binding site.

3.
Glycobiology ; 31(2): 151-158, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601663

RESUMO

l-Fucose and l-fucose-containing polysaccharides, glycoproteins or glycolipids play an important role in a variety of biological processes. l-Fucose-containing glycoconjugates have been implicated in many diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. Interest in fucose and its derivatives is growing in cancer research, glyco-immunology, and the study of host-pathogen interactions. l-Fucose can be extracted from bacterial and algal polysaccharides or produced (bio)synthetically. While deuterated glucose and galactose are available, and are of high interest for metabolic studies and biophysical studies, deuterated fucose is not easily available. Here, we describe the production of perdeuterated l-fucose, using glyco-engineered Escherichia coli in a bioreactor with the use of a deuterium oxide-based growth medium and a deuterated carbon source. The final yield was 0.2 g L-1 of deuterated sugar, which was fully characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We anticipate that the perdeuterated fucose produced in this way will have numerous applications in structural biology where techniques such as NMR, solution neutron scattering and neutron crystallography are widely used. In the case of neutron macromolecular crystallography, the availability of perdeuterated fucose can be exploited in identifying the details of its interaction with protein receptors and notably the hydrogen bonding network around the carbohydrate binding site.

4.
Pathogens ; 9(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187224

RESUMO

Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging vector-borne viral disease with a growing global burden of approximately 390 million new infections per annum. The Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus spread by female mosquitos of the aedes genus, but the mechanism of viral endocytosis is poorly understood at a molecular level, preventing the development of effective transmission blocking vaccines (TBVs). Recently, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been identified as playing a role during initial viral attachment through interaction with the third domain of the viral envelope protein (EDIII). Here, we report a systematic study investigating the effect of a range of biologically relevant GAGs on the structure and oligomeric state of recombinantly generated EDIII. We provide novel in situ biophysical evidence that heparin and chondroitin sulphate C induce conformational changes in EDIII at the secondary structure level. Furthermore, we report the ability of chondroitin sulphate C to bind EDIII and induce higher-order dynamic molecular changes at the tertiary and quaternary structure levels which are dependent on pH, GAG species, and the GAG sulphation state. Lastly, we conducted ab initio modelling of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data to visualise the induced oligomeric state of EDIII caused by interaction with chondroitin sulphate C, which may aid in TBV development.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6484-6490, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152099

RESUMO

In redox metalloenzymes, the process of electron transfer often involves the concerted movement of a proton. These processes are referred to as proton-coupled electron transfer, and they underpin a wide variety of biological processes, including respiration, energy conversion, photosynthesis, and metalloenzyme catalysis. The mechanisms of proton delivery are incompletely understood, in part due to an absence of information on exact proton locations and hydrogen bonding structures in a bona fide metalloenzyme proton pathway. Here, we present a 2.1-Å neutron crystal structure of the complex formed between a redox metalloenzyme (ascorbate peroxidase) and its reducing substrate (ascorbate). In the neutron structure of the complex, the protonation states of the electron/proton donor (ascorbate) and all of the residues involved in the electron/proton transfer pathway are directly observed. This information sheds light on possible proton movements during heme-catalyzed oxygen activation, as well as on ascorbate oxidation.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Metaloproteínas/química , Prótons , Ascorbato Peroxidases/química , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Catálise , Heme/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Difração de Nêutrons , Oxirredução
6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(8): 1709-1715, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897330

RESUMO

The interior of living cells is a dense and polydisperse suspension of macromolecules. Such a complex system challenges an understanding in terms of colloidal suspensions. As a fundamental test we employ neutron spectroscopy to measure the diffusion of tracer proteins (immunoglobulins) in a cell-like environment (cell lysate) with explicit control over crowding conditions. In combination with Stokesian dynamics simulation, we address protein diffusion on nanosecond time scales where hydrodynamic interactions dominate over negligible protein collisions. We successfully link the experimental results on these complex, flexible molecules with coarse-grained simulations providing a consistent understanding by colloid theories. Both experiments and simulations show that tracers in polydisperse solutions close to the effective particle radius Reff = ⟨ Ri3⟩1/3 diffuse approximately as if the suspension was monodisperse. The simulations further show that macromolecules of sizes R > Reff ( R < Reff) are slowed more (less) effectively even at nanosecond time scales, which is highly relevant for a quantitative understanding of cellular processes.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 148(20): 204905, 2018 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865804

RESUMO

This article presents an investigation of the interparticle interactions and dynamics of submicron silica colloids suspended in a bath of motile Escherichia coli bacteria. The colloidal microstructure and dynamics were probed by ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering and multi-speckles x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, respectively. Both static and hydrodynamic interactions were obtained for different colloid volume fractions and bacteria concentrations as well as when the interparticle interaction potential was modified by the motility buffer. Results suggest that motile bacteria reduce the effective attractive interactions between passive colloids and enhance their dynamics at high colloid volume fractions. The enhanced dynamics under different static interparticle interactions can be rationalized in terms of an effective viscosity of the medium and unified by means of an empirical effective temperature of the system. While the influence of swimming bacteria on the colloid dynamics is significantly lower for small particles, the role of motility buffer on the static and dynamic interactions becomes more pronounced.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Hidrodinâmica , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura , Viscosidade
8.
J Biol Chem ; 293(14): 5210-5219, 2018 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475945

RESUMO

Electron transfer in all living organisms critically relies on formation of complexes between the proteins involved. The function of these complexes requires specificity of the interaction to allow for selective electron transfer but also a fast turnover of the complex, and they are therefore often transient in nature, making them challenging to study. Here, using small-angle neutron scattering with contrast matching with deuterated protein, we report the solution structure of the electron transfer complex between cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and its electron transfer partner cytochrome c This is the first reported solution structure of a complex between CPR and an electron transfer partner. The structure shows that the interprotein interface includes residues from both the FMN- and FAD-binding domains of CPR. In addition, the FMN is close to the heme of cytochrome c but distant from the FAD, indicating that domain movement is required between the electron transfer steps in the catalytic cycle of CPR. In summary, our results reveal key details of the CPR catalytic mechanism, including interactions of two domains of the reductase with cytochrome c and motions of these domains relative to one another. These findings shed light on interprotein electron transfer in this system and illustrate a powerful approach for studying solution structures of protein-protein complexes.


Assuntos
Citocromos c/química , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/química , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/ultraestrutura , Citocromos c/ultraestrutura , Transporte de Elétrons , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/metabolismo , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Cinética , NADP/metabolismo , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/metabolismo , Difração de Nêutrons/métodos , Nêutrons , Oxirredução , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(4): E601-E609, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317535

RESUMO

Cytokine signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway controls multiple cellular responses including growth, survival, differentiation, and pathogen resistance. An expansion in the gene regulatory repertoire controlled by JAK/STAT signaling occurs through the interaction of STATs with IRF transcription factors to form ISGF3, a complex that contains STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9 and regulates expression of IFN-stimulated genes. ISGF3 function depends on selective interaction between IRF9, through its IRF-association domain (IAD), with the coiled-coil domain (CCD) of STAT2. Here, we report the crystal structures of the IRF9-IAD alone and in a complex with STAT2-CCD. Despite similarity in the overall structure among respective paralogs, the surface features of the IRF9-IAD and STAT2-CCD have diverged to enable specific interaction between these family members. We derive a model for the ISGF3 complex bound to an ISRE DNA element and demonstrate that the observed interface between STAT2 and IRF9 is required for ISGF3 function in cells.


Assuntos
Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT2/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator Gênico 3 Estimulado por Interferon, Subunidade gama/genética , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação Puntual , Domínios Proteicos , Fator de Transcrição STAT2/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
IUCrJ ; 4(Pt 6): 751-757, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123677

RESUMO

The flagellated Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is one of the most studied microorganisms. Despite extensive studies as a model prokaryotic cell, the ultrastructure of the cell envelope at the nanometre scale has not been fully elucidated. Here, a detailed structural analysis of the bacterium using a combination of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) and ultra-SAXS (USAXS) methods is presented. A multiscale structural model has been derived by incorporating well established concepts in soft-matter science such as a core-shell colloid for the cell body, a multilayer membrane for the cell wall and self-avoiding polymer chains for the flagella. The structure of the cell envelope was resolved by constraining the model by five different contrasts from SAXS, and SANS at three contrast match points and full contrast. This allowed the determination of the membrane electron-density profile and the inter-membrane distances on a quantitative scale. The combination of USAXS and SAXS covers size scales from micrometres down to nanometres, enabling the structural elucidation of cells from the overall geometry down to organelles, thereby providing a powerful method for a non-invasive investigation of the ultrastructure. This approach may be applied for probing in vivo the effect of detergents, antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides on the bacterial cell wall.

11.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13445, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27897163

RESUMO

Catalytic heme enzymes carry out a wide range of oxidations in biology. They have in common a mechanism that requires formation of highly oxidized ferryl intermediates. It is these ferryl intermediates that provide the catalytic engine to drive the biological activity. Unravelling the nature of the ferryl species is of fundamental and widespread importance. The essential question is whether the ferryl is best described as a Fe(IV)=O or a Fe(IV)-OH species, but previous spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic studies have not been able to unambiguously differentiate between the two species. Here we use a different approach. We report a neutron crystal structure of the ferryl intermediate in Compound II of a heme peroxidase; the structure allows the protonation states of the ferryl heme to be directly observed. This, together with pre-steady state kinetic analyses, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray fluorescence, identifies a Fe(IV)-OH species as the reactive intermediate. The structure establishes a precedent for the formation of Fe(IV)-OH in a peroxidase.


Assuntos
Heme/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Difração de Nêutrons
12.
Methods Enzymol ; 566: 113-57, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26791978

RESUMO

Neutron scattering studies provide important information in structural biology that is not accessible using other approaches. The uniqueness of the technique, and its complementarity with X-ray scattering, is greatest when full use is made of deuterium labeling. The ability to produce tailor-made deuterium-labeled biological macromolecules allows neutron studies involving solution scattering, crystallography, reflection, and dynamics to be optimized in a manner that has major impact on the scope, quality, and throughput of work in these areas. Deuteration facilities have now been developed at many neutron centres throughout the world; these are having a crucial effect on neutron studies in the life sciences and on biologically related studies in soft matter. This chapter describes methods that have been developed for the efficient production of deuterium-labeled samples for a wide range of neutron scattering applications. Examples are given that illustrate the use of these samples for each of the main techniques. Perspectives for biological deuterium labeling are discussed in relation to developments at current facilities and those that are planned in the future.


Assuntos
Deutério/química , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Nêutrons , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Cristalografia , Humanos , Soluções/química , Difração de Raios X
13.
Cell Rep ; 3(3): 734-46, 2013 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23453971

RESUMO

Tank-binding kinase I (TBK1) plays a key role in the innate immune system by integrating signals from pattern-recognition receptors. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of inhibitor-bound inactive and active TBK1 determined to 2.6 Å and 4.0 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal a compact dimer made up of trimodular subunits containing an N-terminal kinase domain (KD), a ubiquitin-like domain (ULD), and an α-helical scaffold dimerization domain (SDD). Activation rearranges the KD into an active conformation while maintaining the overall dimer conformation. Low-resolution SAXS studies reveal that the missing C-terminal domain (CTD) extends away from the main body of the kinase dimer. Mutants that interfere with TBK1 dimerization show significantly reduced trans-autophosphorylation but retain the ability to bind adaptor proteins through the CTD. Our results provide detailed insights into the architecture of TBK1 and the molecular mechanism of activation.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosforilação , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
14.
Virol J ; 7: 359, 2010 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21129204

RESUMO

The bacteriophage T4 encodes 10 proteins, known collectively as the replisome, that are responsible for the replication of the phage genome. The replisomal proteins can be subdivided into three activities; the replicase, responsible for duplicating DNA, the primosomal proteins, responsible for unwinding and Okazaki fragment initiation, and the Okazaki repair proteins. The replicase includes the gp43 DNA polymerase, the gp45 processivity clamp, the gp44/62 clamp loader complex, and the gp32 single-stranded DNA binding protein. The primosomal proteins include the gp41 hexameric helicase, the gp61 primase, and the gp59 helicase loading protein. The RNaseH, a 5' to 3' exonuclease and T4 DNA ligase comprise the activities necessary for Okazaki repair. The T4 provides a model system for DNA replication. As a consequence, significant effort has been put forth to solve the crystallographic structures of these replisomal proteins. In this review, we discuss the structures that are available and provide comparison to related proteins when the T4 structures are unavailable. Three of the ten full-length T4 replisomal proteins have been determined; the gp59 helicase loading protein, the RNase H, and the gp45 processivity clamp. The core of T4 gp32 and two proteins from the T4 related phage RB69, the gp43 polymerase and the gp45 clamp are also solved. The T4 gp44/62 clamp loader has not been crystallized but a comparison to the E. coli gamma complex is provided. The structures of T4 gp41 helicase, gp61 primase, and T4 DNA ligase are unknown, structures from bacteriophage T7 proteins are discussed instead. To better understand the functionality of T4 DNA replication, in depth structural analysis will require complexes between proteins and DNA substrates. A DNA primer template bound by gp43 polymerase, a fork DNA substrate bound by RNase H, gp43 polymerase bound to gp32 protein, and RNase H bound to gp32 have been crystallographically determined. The preparation and crystallization of complexes is a significant challenge. We discuss alternate approaches, such as small angle X-ray and neutron scattering to generate molecular envelopes for modeling macromolecular assemblies.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago T4/química , Bacteriófago T4/fisiologia , Replicação do DNA , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Bacteriófago T7/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo
15.
J Biol Chem ; 282(43): 31713-24, 2007 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17693399

RESUMO

Bacteriophage T4 RNase H, a flap endonuclease-1 family nuclease, removes RNA primers from lagging strand fragments. It has both 5' nuclease and flap endonuclease activities. Our previous structure of native T4 RNase H (PDB code 1TFR) revealed an active site composed of highly conserved Asp residues and two bound hydrated magnesium ions. Here, we report the crystal structure of T4 RNase H in complex with a fork DNA substrate bound in its active site. This is the first structure of a flap endonuclease-1 family protein with its complete branched substrate. The fork duplex interacts with an extended loop of the helix-hairpin-helix motif class 2. The 5' arm crosses over the active site, extending below the bridge (helical arch) region. Cleavage assays of this DNA substrate identify a primary cut site 7-bases in from the 5' arm. The scissile phosphate, the first bond in the duplex DNA adjacent to the 5' arm, lies above a magnesium binding site. The less ordered 3' arm reaches toward the C and N termini of the enzyme, which are binding sites for T4 32 protein and T4 45 clamp, respectively. In the crystal structure, the scissile bond is located within the double-stranded DNA, between the first two duplex nucleotides next to the 5' arm, and lies above a magnesium binding site. This complex provides important insight into substrate recognition and specificity of the flap endonuclease-1 enzymes.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago T4/enzimologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Endonucleases Flap/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Endonucleases Flap/química , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Ribonuclease H/química , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Especificidade por Substrato
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