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1.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583969

RESUMO

Background: Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is genetically heterogeneous and is associated with mutations in at least 40 different genes. Apart from TTN encoding the giant protein Titin, none of these genes have an expected diagnostic yield of more than 5% complicating genetic diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful alternative for the identification of the causal gene, however variant interpretation remains challenging. We report on WES in a large family with autosomal dominant DCM complicated by end stage heart failure and non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias in whom no causative mutation was identified using a targeted gene panel including 28 genes. Methods and results: WES was applied on 2 affected cousins. Stringent filtering of the identified genetic variants was performed including population variant frequencies, in silico analysis, orthologous and paralogous conservation. Subsequently Sanger sequencing was performed for 10 potential disease causing variants in order to confirm the presence of the variant and to evaluate co-segregation. Only one variant in exon 9 of the RBM20 gene (c.2714T > A, p.Met950Lys, NM_001334363) showed full co-segregation in the 7 affected family members resulting in a maximum 2-point LOD score of 2.1 and suggesting this as the pathogenic mutation responsible for the phenotype. Recently mutations in RBM20 have been linked to arrhythmogenic dilated cardiomyopathy caused by defective splicing of the giant sarcomere protein titin and abnormal calcium handling. Conclusions: We report the identification of a novel mutation in RBM20 by WES in a large pedigree with DCM.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646703

RESUMO

We recently described a new neurodevelopmental syndrome (TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome) (MIM# 300966) caused by pathogenic variants involving the X-linked gene TAF1, which participates in RNA polymerase II transcription. The initial study reported eleven families, and the syndrome was defined as presenting early in life with hypotonia, facial dysmorphia, and developmental delay that evolved into intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have now identified an additional 27 families through a genotype-first approach. Familial segregation analysis, clinical phenotyping, and bioinformatics were capitalized on to assess potential variant pathogenicity, and molecular modelling was performed for those variants falling within structurally characterized domains of TAF1. A novel phenotypic clustering approach was also applied, in which the phenotypes of affected individuals were classified using 51 standardized Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. Phenotypes associated with TAF1 variants show considerable pleiotropy and clinical variability, but prominent among previously unreported effects were brain morphological abnormalities, seizures, hearing loss, and heart malformations. Our allelic series broadens the phenotypic spectrum of TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome and the range of TAF1 molecular defects in humans. It also illustrates the challenges for determining the pathogenicity of inherited missense variants, particularly for genes mapping to chromosome X. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extraction and processing of copper and cobalt in the African Copperbelt in the Democratic Republic of Congo have led to substantial environmental pollution, causing concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, including birth defects. CASES: We report three neonates with clinically diagnosed holoprosencephaly who were part of a case-control study performed in Lubumbashi between February 2013 and February 2015. One mother had a high concentration of uranium in urine, and high manganese concentrations were found in blood of another mother and in cord blood of one infant. Two of the three fathers had a mining-related job. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that these cases of holoprosencephaly were connected to mining-related pollution, possibly via epigenetic alterations induced by paternal occupational exposure to toxic metals.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phenotype information is crucial for the interpretation of genomic variants. So far it has only been accessible for bioinformatics workflows after encoding into clinical terms by expert dysmorphologists. METHODS: Here, we introduce an approach driven by artificial intelligence that uses portrait photographs for the interpretation of clinical exome data. We measured the value added by computer-assisted image analysis to the diagnostic yield on a cohort consisting of 679 individuals with 105 different monogenic disorders. For each case in the cohort we compiled frontal photos, clinical features, and the disease-causing variants, and simulated multiple exomes of different ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: The additional use of similarity scores from computer-assisted analysis of frontal photos improved the top 1 accuracy rate by more than 20-89% and the top 10 accuracy rate by more than 5-99% for the disease-causing gene. CONCLUSION: Image analysis by deep-learning algorithms can be used to quantify the phenotypic similarity (PP4 criterion of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines) and to advance the performance of bioinformatics pipelines for exome analysis.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) using genome sequencing also reveals maternal copy-number variations (CNVs). Those CNVs can be clinically actionable or harmful to the fetus if inherited. CNVs in the DMD gene potentially causing dystrophinopathies are among the most commonly observed maternal CNVs. We present our experience with maternal DMD gene CNVs detected by NIPS. METHODS: We analyzed the data of maternal CNVs detected in the DMD gene revealed by NIPS. RESULTS: Of 26,123 NIPS analyses, 16 maternal CNVs in the DMD gene were detected (1/1632 pregnant women). Variant classification regarding pathogenicity and phenotypic severity was based on public databases, segregation analysis in the family, and prediction of the effect on the reading frame. Ten CNVs were classified as pathogenic, four as benign, and two remained unclassified. CONCLUSION: NIPS leverages CNV screening in the general population of pregnant women. We implemented a strategy for the interpretation and the return of maternal CNVs in the DMD gene detected by NIPS.

7.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946036

RESUMO

Microdeletion of the entire interferon regulatory factory 6 (IRF 6) gene is a rare cause of Van der Woude syndrome (VDW) with only few cases reported in medical literature. Its occurrence in multiple affected members of a family is exceptional. The aim of this presentation was to describe a Central African family with typical VDW phenotype carrying an IRF6 gene deletion. Here we reported phenotype features of members of a Central African family with VDW syndrome consisting of labioalveolar cleft, depressions of the lower lip with labial fistulae (lip pits), submucosal clefts and cleft palate. Mutation analysis by means of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and chromosomal microarray revealed a 374.070 kb, deletion encompassing the entire IRF6 gene in four affected family members. Microdeletion of the entire IRF6 gene causes the classical VDW syndrome phenotype.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 448-454, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635960

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the second most common cause of developmental delay after Down syndrome. Impaired cognitive development is highly prevalent, but also motor abnormalities such as hypotonia and delays in achieving motor milestones are described. Instability is frequently detected in children, adolescents, and adults and is mostly attributed to their limited motor performance. Until now, vestibular function has not been investigated in these patients, despite the growing evidence that they often have inner ear malformations. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the presence and character of vestibular dysfunction in 22q11.2DS. We investigated 23 subjects with proven 22q11.2DS, older than the age of 12. We performed caloric testing and pendular rotation chair tests with videonystagmography, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (c-VEMP)-testing, and posturography. Additional otoscopy and audiometry were performed on all subjects. We found a unilateral caloric hypofunction in 55% of patients, a certain absent c-VEMP response in 15% of ears, an inconclusive c-VEMP response in 33% of ears, and abnormal posturography in 68% of patients, of whom 42% displayed a typical vestibular pattern. Remarkably, 90% revealed uni- or bilateral weak caloric responses, independent of caloric symmetry. Vestibular dysfunction is frequent in subjects with 22q11.2DS. This knowledge should be taken into account when assessing motor performance in these patients. Additional larger studies are needed to determine whether this dysfunction implicates a therapeutic potential.

10.
Circ Res ; 124(4): 553-563, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582441

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Familial recurrence studies provide strong evidence for a genetic component to the predisposition to sporadic, nonsyndromic Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease phenotype. Rare genetic variants have been identified as important contributors to the risk of congenital heart disease, but relatively small numbers of TOF cases have been studied to date. OBJECTIVE: We used whole exome sequencing to assess the prevalence of unique, deleterious variants in the largest cohort of nonsyndromic TOF patients reported to date. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight hundred twenty-nine TOF patients underwent whole exome sequencing. The presence of unique, deleterious variants was determined; defined by their absence in the Genome Aggregation Database and a scaled combined annotation-dependent depletion score of ≥20. The clustering of variants in 2 genes, NOTCH1 and FLT4, surpassed thresholds for genome-wide significance (assigned as P<5×10-8) after correction for multiple comparisons. NOTCH1 was most frequently found to harbor unique, deleterious variants. Thirty-one changes were observed in 37 probands (4.5%; 95% CI, 3.2%-6.1%) and included 7 loss-of-function variants 22 missense variants and 2 in-frame indels. Sanger sequencing of the unaffected parents of 7 cases identified 5 de novo variants. Three NOTCH1 variants (p.G200R, p.C607Y, and p.N1875S) were subjected to functional evaluation, and 2 showed a reduction in Jagged1-induced NOTCH signaling. FLT4 variants were found in 2.4% (95% CI, 1.6%-3.8%) of TOF patients, with 21 patients harboring 22 unique, deleterious variants. The variants identified were distinct to those that cause the congenital lymphoedema syndrome Milroy disease. In addition to NOTCH1, FLT4 and the well-established TOF gene, TBX1, we identified potential association with variants in several other candidates, including RYR1, ZFPM1, CAMTA2, DLX6, and PCM1. CONCLUSIONS: The NOTCH1 locus is the most frequent site of genetic variants predisposing to nonsyndromic TOF, followed by FLT4. Together, variants in these genes are found in almost 7% of TOF patients.

11.
Prenat Diagn ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the replacement of karyotyping by chromosomal microarray (CMA) in invasive prenatal diagnosis, new challenges have arisen. By building a national database, we standardize the classification and reporting of prenatally detected copy number variants (CNVs) across Belgian genetic centers. This database, which will link genetic and ultrasound findings with postnatal development, forms a unique resource to investigate the pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance and to refine the phenotypic spectrum of pathogenic and susceptibility CNVs. METHODS: The Belgian MicroArray Prenatal (BEMAPRE) consortium is a collaboration of all genetic centers in Belgium. We collected data from all invasive prenatal procedures performed between May 2013 and July 2016. RESULTS: In this three-year period, 13 266 prenatal CMAs were performed. By national agreement, a limited number of susceptibility CNVs and no variants of uncertain significance were reported. Added values for using CMA versus conventional karyotyping were 1.8% in the general invasive population and 2.7% in cases with an ultrasound anomaly. Of the reported CNVs, 31.5% would have remained undetected with non-invasive prenatal test as the first-tier test. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a national database for prenatal CNV data allows for a uniform reporting policy and the investigation of the prenatal and postnatal genotype-phenotype correlation.

12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 231: 60-64, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aims to evaluate the incidence, presence of chromosomal anomalies and outcome of fetuses diagnosed with cystic hygroma colli in the first trimester in a single tertiary center. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed over a ten-years period from 2007 to 2017 of all fetuses with a first-trimester diagnosis of cystic hygroma. Maternal and fetal parameters were assessed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 185 singleton pregnancies were included. Chromosomal anomalies were present in 122 cases (65.9%). Sixty-three fetuses (34.1%) had a normal karyotype. Noonan syndrome was diagnosed in 6 cases using additional testing for RASopathies. In euploid fetuses, a major congenital anomaly was detected in 35 of 63 cases (56%) and if present, 91.4% had an abnormal fetal outcome compared to 32.1% if no structural anomaly was found (p < 0.01). Fetuses with a nuchal translucency thickness more than 10 mm and hydropic fetuses had a worse outcome. DISCUSSION: Associated structural anomalies or hydrops fetalis are significant predictors for an abnormal outcome in pregnancies with first-trimester cystic hygroma and a normal karyotype. Cytogenetic evaluation and detailed sonographic evaluation are of great importance in the determination of the prognosis of pregnancies complicated by first-trimester cystic hygroma.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1897-1909, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088852

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants account for 4 to 41% of patients with intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD). In Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of ID is thought to be higher, but data in Central Africa are limited to some case reports. In addition, clinical descriptions of some syndromes are not available for this population. This study aimed at providing an estimate for the fraction of ID/DD for which an underlying etiological genetic cause may be elucidated and provide insights into their clinical presentation in special institutions in a Central African country. A total of 127 patients (33 females and 94 males, mean age 10.03 ± 4.68 years), were recruited from six institutions across Kinshasa. A clinical diagnosis was achieved in 44 but molecular confirmation was achieved in 21 of the 22 patients with expected genetic defect (95% clinical sensitivity). Identified diseases included Down syndrome (15%), submicroscopic copy number variants (9%), aminoacylase deficiency (0.8%), Partington syndrome in one patient (0.8%) and his similarly affected brother, X-linked syndromic Mental Retardation type 33 (0.8%), and two conditions without clear underlying molecular genetic etiologies (Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral and Amniotic Bands Sequence). We have shown that genetic etiologies, similar to those reported in Caucasian subjects, are a common etiologic cause of ID in African patients from Africa. We have confirmed the diagnostic utility of clinical characterization prior to genetic testing. Finally, our clinical descriptions provide insights into the presentation of these genetic diseases in African patients.

17.
J Community Genet ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974402

RESUMO

Screening for fragile X syndrome (FXS) is essential in children with developmental delay or intellectual disability (ID). In addition, using clinical screening checklists remains of high interest in resource-limited settings. We aimed to gain insight into the prevalence of FXS and the distribution of CGG alleles and to evaluate the usefulness of three checklists in specialized institutions in Kinshasa, DR Congo. We recruited 80 males and 25 females from six specialized institutions in Kinshasa and administered a questionnaire comprising items from the following FXS checklists: Hagerman, Maes, and Guruju. FMR1 CGG repeats were assessed for every patient. About 37% of patients were referable for FX testing based on Hagerman's checklist, 35% for Maes', and 43.80% for Guruju's, but none of them was molecularly confirmed to have FXS. Thus, specificities were 62.86, 64.76, and 56.5%, respectively, for Hagerman, Maes, and Guruju, respectively. The mean CGG allele size was 28.55 ± 2.83 (ranges, 17-48). The 29 CGG was the most frequent allele (24.61%). Thus, existing checklists should not be automatically applied to Congolese patients without adjustments. The distribution of CGG repeats and the number of CGG alleles are similar to other African studies.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(9): 1272-1281, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904177

RESUMO

Au-Kline syndrome (AKS, OMIM 616580) is a multiple malformation syndrome, first reported in 2015, associated with intellectual disability. AKS has been associated with de novo loss-of-function variants in HNRNPK (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K), and to date, only four of these patients have been described in the literature. Recently, an additional patient with a missense variant in HNRNPK was also reported. These patients have striking facial dysmorphic features, including long palpebral fissures, ptosis, deeply grooved tongue, broad nose, and down-turned mouth. Patients frequently also have skeletal and connective tissue anomalies, craniosynostosis, congenital heart malformations, and renal anomalies. In this report, we describe six new patients and review the clinical information on all reported AKS patients, further delineating the phenotype of AKS. There are now a total of 9 patients with de novo loss-of-function variants in HNRNPK, one individual with a de novo missense variant in addition to 3 patients with de novo deletions of 9q21.32 that encompass HNRNPK. While there is considerable overlap between AKS and Kabuki syndrome (KS), these additional patients demonstrate that AKS does have a distinct facial gestalt and phenotype that can be differentiated from KS. This growing AKS patient cohort also informs an emerging approach to management and health surveillance for these patients.

19.
Front Genet ; 9: 150, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868108

RESUMO

The fragile X syndrome arises from the FMR1 CGG expansion of a premutation (55-200 repeats) to a full mutation allele (>200 repeats) and is the most frequent cause of inherited X-linked intellectual disability. The risk for a premutation to expand to a full mutation allele depends on the repeat length and AGG triplets interrupting this repeat. In genetic counseling it is important to have information on both these parameters to provide an accurate risk estimate to women carrying a premutation allele and weighing up having children. For example, in case of a small risk a woman might opt for a natural pregnancy followed up by prenatal diagnosis while she might choose for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) if the risk is high. Unfortunately, the detection of AGG interruptions was previously hampered by technical difficulties complicating their use in diagnostics. Therefore we recently developed, validated and implemented a new methodology which uses long-read single-molecule sequencing to identify AGG interruptions in females with a FMR1 premutation. Here we report on the assets of AGG interruption detection by sequencing and the impact of implementing the assay on genetic counseling.

20.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 46(7): 1051-1058, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802056

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of occurrence of non-syndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCLP) in Lubumbashi. METHOD: A case-control study was conducted in the health district of Lubumbashi from February 2012 to December 2015. An exhaustive sampling, collecting all newborns with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL ± P) in maternity wards was conducted. From a total of 172 cases, 162 non-syndromic cases were recruited. For each case, one clinically normal newborn control was selected. RESULTS: NSCLP had an incidence of 1/1258 live births (0.8/1000). We found significant associations with a family history of cleft lip and palate (CLP) (x2family history = 11.5, p = 0.0007), maternal alcohol intake (OR = 19.3, 95% CI: 1.9-197.1), paternal alcohol during the periconceptional period and the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 18.7, 95% CI: 3.9-89.2), maternal educational level lower than high school (OR = 9.5, 95% CI: 2.0-44.7), clay (Pemba) consumption during pregnancy (OR = 38.3, 95% CI: 9.3-157.0), the use of insecticides in the evening (OR = 130.3, 95% CI: 13.2-1286.9), indoor cooking with charcoal (Makala) (OR = 6.5, 95% CI: 1.22-34.5), and regular consumption of Kapolowe fish, supposedly contaminated with heavy metals (OR = 29.5, 95% CI: 7.4-116.7). CONCLUSION: Several environmental risk factors highly prevalent in Central Africa for facial clefting were found.

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