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1.
Resuscitation ; 146: 237-246, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While cardiac arrest (CA) patients discharged alive from intensive care unit (ICU) are considered to have good one-year survival but potential neurological impairment, comparisons with other ICU sub-populations non-admitted for CA purpose are still lacking. This study aimed to compare long-term outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between CA patients and patients admitted to ICU for all other causes. METHODS: In 1635 patients discharged alive from 21 European ICUs in an ancillary analysis of a prospective multicentric cohort, we compared CA causes of ICU admission to all other causes of ICU admissions (named non-CAs). The primary endpoint was one-year survival rate after ICU discharge. Secondary endpoints included HRQOL at 3, 6 and 12 months after ICU discharge using the outcome survey short form-36 (SF36). Propensity score matching was used to consider the probability of having CA. RESULTS: Of the 1635 patients, 1561 were included in this study comprised of 1447 non-CAs and 114 CAs. At one-year in the non-matched population, survival rate was greater in the CA group 89% versus the non-CA group 78% (log rank p = 0.0056). In the matched population, this difference persisted between CAs and non-CAs (log rank p = 0.049). The physical component summary of the SF36 scale was higher in the CA group than in the non-CA group at all time points in both non-matched and matched populations. CONCLUSIONS: CA patients discharged alive from ICU have a better one-year survival and a better HRQOL specifically on physical functions than patients admitted to ICU for other causes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367093; registered on June 6, 2011.

2.
Resuscitation ; 146: 82-95, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of intravascular temperature management (IVTM) vs. surface cooling methods (SCM) for induced hypothermia (IH). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. English-language PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched on May 27, 2019. The quality of included observational studies was graded using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment tool. The quality of included randomized trials was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Random effects modeling was used to calculate risk differences for each outcome. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using standard methods. ELIGIBILITY: Observational or randomized studies comparing survival and/or neurologic outcomes in adults aged 18 years or greater resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest receiving IH via IVTM vs. SCM were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: In total, 12 studies met inclusion criteria. These enrolled 1573 patients who received IVTM; and 4008 who received SCM. Survival was 55.0% in the IVTM group and 51.2% in the SCM group [pooled risk difference 2% (95% CI -1%, 5%)]. Good neurological outcome was achieved in 40.9% in the IVTM and 29.5% in the surface group [pooled risk difference 5% (95% CI 2%, 8%)]. There was a 6% (95% CI 11%, 2%) lower risk of arrhythmia with use of IVTM and 15% (95% CI 22%, 7%) decreased risk of overcooling with use of IVTM vs. SCM. There was no significant difference in other evaluated adverse events between groups. CONCLUSIONS: IVTM was associated with improved neurological outcomes vs. SCM among survivors resuscitated following cardiac arrest. These results may have implications for care of patients in the emergency department and intensive care settings after resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

3.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 391, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796127

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent doubts regarding the efficacy may have resulted in a loss of interest for targeted temperature management (TTM) in comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients, with uncertain consequences on outcome. We aimed to identify a change in TTM use and to assess the relationship between this change and neurological outcome. METHODS: We used Utstein data prospectively collected in the Sudden Death Expertise Center (SDEC) registry (capturing CA data from all secondary and tertiary hospitals located in the Great Paris area, France) between May 2011 and December 2017. All cases of non-traumatic OHCA patients with stable return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were included. After adjustment for potential confounders, we assessed the relationship between changes over time in the use of TTM and neurological recovery at discharge using the Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale. RESULTS: Between May 2011 and December 2017, 3925 patients were retained in the analysis, of whom 1847 (47%) received TTM. The rate of good neurological outcome at discharge (CPC 1 or 2) was higher in TTM patients as compared with no TTM (33% vs 15%, P < 0.001). Gender, age, and location of CA did not change over the years. Bystander CPR increased from 55% in 2011 to 73% in 2017 (P < 0.001) and patients with a no-flow time longer than 3 min decreased from 53 to 38% (P < 0.001). The use of TTM decreased from 55% in 2011 to 37% in 2017 (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the rate of patients with good neurological recovery remained stable (19 to 23%, P = 0.76). After adjustment, year of CA occurrence was not associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We report a progressive decrease in the use of TTM in post-cardiac arrest patients over the recent years. During this period, neurological outcome remained stable, despite an increase in bystander-initiated resuscitation and a decrease in "no flow" duration.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670793

RESUMO

AIMS: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) despite conventional resuscitation is common and has poor outcomes. Adding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (extracorporeal-CPR) is increasingly used in an attempt to improve outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed a prospective registry of 13 191 OHCAs in the Paris region from May 2011 to January 2018. We compared survival at hospital discharge with and without extracorporeal-CPR and identified factors associated with survival in patients given extracorporeal-CPR. Survival was 8% in 525 patients given extracorporeal-CPR and 9% in 12 666 patients given conventional-CPR (P = 0.91). By adjusted multivariate analysis, extracorporeal-CPR was not associated with hospital survival [odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.8-2.1; P = 0.24]. By conditional logistic regression with matching on a propensity score (including age, sex, occurrence at home, bystander CPR, initial rhythm, collapse-to-CPR time, duration of resuscitation, and ROSC), similar results were found (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3; P = 0.41). In the extracorporeal-CPR group, factors associated with hospital survival were initial shockable rhythm (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.3; P = 0.005), transient ROSC before ECMO (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7; P = 0.03), and prehospital ECMO implantation (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based registry, 4% of OHCAs were treated with extracorporeal-CPR, which was not associated with increased hospital survival. Early ECMO implantation may improve outcomes. The initial rhythm and ROSC may help select patients for extracorporeal-CPR.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(19): 1831-1842, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who are treated with targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm are at increased risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. The benefit of preventive short-term antibiotic therapy has not been shown. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving adult patients (>18 years of age) in intensive care units (ICUs) who were being mechanically ventilated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest related to initial shockable rhythm and treated with targeted temperature management at 32 to 34°C. Patients with ongoing antibiotic therapy, chronic colonization with multidrug-resistant bacteria, or moribund status were excluded. Either intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanate (at doses of 1 g and 200 mg, respectively) or placebo was administered three times a day for 2 days, starting less than 6 hours after the cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was early ventilator-associated pneumonia (during the first 7 days of hospitalization). An independent adjudication committee determined diagnoses of ventilator-associated pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients underwent randomization, and 194 were included in the analysis. After adjudication, 60 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia were confirmed, including 51 of early ventilator-associated pneumonia. The incidence of early ventilator-associated pneumonia was lower with antibiotic prophylaxis than with placebo (19 patients [19%] vs. 32 [34%]; hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.92; P = 0.03). No significant differences between the antibiotic group and the control group were observed with respect to the incidence of late ventilator-associated pneumonia (4% and 5%, respectively), the number of ventilator-free days (21 days and 19 days), ICU length of stay (5 days and 8 days if patients were discharged and 7 days and 7 days if patients had died), and mortality at day 28 (41% and 37%). At day 7, no increase in resistant bacteria was identified. Serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A 2-day course of antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanate in patients receiving a 32-to-34°C targeted temperature management strategy after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with initial shockable rhythm resulted in a lower incidence of early ventilator-associated pneumonia than placebo. No significant between-group differences were observed for other key clinical variables, such as ventilator-free days and mortality at day 28. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; ANTHARTIC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02186951.).


Assuntos
Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Desmame do Respirador
7.
Respir Care ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extubation failure may have several causes, including swallowing dysfunction, aspiration, and excessive upper airway secretions. We hypothesized that a bedside global swallowing pattern assessment including 9 criteria (volume of pharyngeal secretions, 5 swallowing motor items, swallowing reflex, and 2 gag reflexes) performed prior to extubation could identify patients at risk of extubation failure related to aspiration or excessive upper airway secretions. METHODS: In a multicenter prospective observational study, all consecutive patients intubated and mechanically ventilated for ≥6 d were included. Before a planned extubation, a physiotherapist evaluated the 9 criteria of the swallowing assessment. The final extubation decision was left to the physician's discretion, blinded to the swallowing assessment. Extubation failure was defined as the need for re-intubation related to aspiration or excessive upper airway secretions within the first 72 h after extubation. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range [IQR]). RESULTS: The study included 159 subjects (age 61 y [IQR 48-75]; male/female ratio 1.5; Simplified Acute Physiologic score II 54 [IQR 42-66]; duration of mechanical ventilation 11 d [IQR 8-17]). A total of 23 subjects (14.5%) required re-intubation, with 16 occurring within the first 72 h after extubation and 7 related to aspiration or excessive secretions. Swallowing assessment was significantly lower in subjects with re-intubation related to aspiration or excessive secretions within the first 72 h after extubation versus those not re-intubated for aspiration or excessive secretions (6 [IQR 5-7] vs 8 [IQR 7-8], P = .008, respectively). Among the 9 swallowing assessment criteria, normal right pharyngeal gag reflex was associated with a lower incidence of re-intubation related to aspiration or excessive secretions (odds ratio 0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.59, P = .01), as well as normal left pharyngeal gag reflex (odds ratio 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.63, P = .01), with a negative predictive value of 0.98 for each reflex. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with prolonged ventilation, the presence of one or both gag reflexes could predict a reduction in extubation failure related to aspiration or excessive upper airway secretions.

8.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1465-1475, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577036

RESUMO

Importance: High-flow nasal oxygen may prevent postextubation respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may be an optimal strategy of ventilation to avoid reintubation. Objective: To determine whether high-flow nasal oxygen with prophylactic NIV applied immediately after extubation could reduce the rate of reintubation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone, in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted from April 2017 to January 2018 among 641 patients at high risk of extubation failure (ie, older than 65 years or with an underlying cardiac or respiratory disease) at 30 ICUs in France; follow-up was until April 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to high-flow nasal oxygen alone (n = 306) or high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV (n = 342) immediately after extubation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reintubated at day 7; secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure at day 7, reintubation rates up until ICU discharge, and ICU mortality. Results: Among 648 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 70 [10] years; 219 women [34%]), 641 patients completed the trial. The reintubation rate at day 7 was 11.8% (95% CI, 8.4%-15.2%) (40/339) with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 18.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.6%) (55/302) with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -6.4% [95% CI, -12.0% to -0.9%]; P = .02). Among the 11 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 showed no significant difference. The proportion of patients with postextubation respiratory failure at day 7 (21% vs 29%; difference, -8.7% [95% CI, -15.2% to -1.8%]; P = .01) and reintubation rates up until ICU discharge (12% vs 20%, difference -7.4% [95% CI, -13.2% to -1.8%]; P = .009) were significantly lower with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV than with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. ICU mortality rates were not significantly different: 6% with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 9% with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -2.4% [95% CI, -6.7% to 1.7%]; P = .25). Conclusions and Relevance: In mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of extubation failure, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV immediately after extubation significantly decreased the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03121482.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 47(12): e953-e961, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association between outcome and kidney injury detected at discharge from the ICU using different biomarkers remains unknown. The objective was to evaluate the association between 1-year survival and kidney injury at ICU discharge. DESIGN: Ancillary investigation of a prospective observational study. SETTING: Twenty-one ICUs with 1-year follow-up. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation and/or hemodynamic support for at least 24 hours were included. INTERVENTIONS: Serum creatinine, plasma Cystatin C, plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, plasma Proenkephalin A 119-159, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (on serum creatinine and plasma Cystatin C) were measured at ICU discharge among ICU survivors. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The association between kidney biomarkers at discharge and mortality was estimated using logistic model with and without adjustment for prognostic factors previously identified in this cohort. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with discharge serum creatinine less than 1.5-fold baseline at ICU discharge. Among 1,207 ICU survivors included, 231 died during the year following ICU discharge (19.2%). Estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower and kidney injury biomarkers higher at discharge in nonsurvivors. The association between biomarker levels or estimated glomerular filtration rate and mortality remained after adjustment to potential cofounding factors influencing outcome. In patients with low serum creatinine at ICU discharge, 25-47% of patients were classified as subclinical kidney injury depending on the biomarker. The association between kidney biomarkers and mortality remained and mortality was higher than patients without subclinical kidney injury. The majority of patients who developed acute kidney injury during ICU stay had elevated biomarkers of kidney injury at discharge even with apparent recovery based on serum creatinine (i.e., subclinical acute kidney disease). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated kidney biomarkers measured at ICU discharge are associated with poor 1-year outcome, including in patients with low serum creatinine at ICU discharge.

10.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 285, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although targeted temperature management (TTM) is recommended in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest (CA), the optimal method to deliver TTM remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of different TTM methods on survival and neurological outcome after adult CA. METHODS: We searched on the MEDLINE/PubMed database until 22 February 2019 for comparative studies that evaluated at least two different TTM methods in CA patients. Data were extracted independently by two authors. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and a modified Cochrane ROB tools for assessing the risk of bias of each study. The primary outcome was the occurrence of unfavorable neurological outcome (UO); secondary outcomes included overall mortality. RESULTS: Our search identified 6886 studies; 22 studies (n = 8027 patients) were included in the final analysis. When compared to surface cooling, core methods showed a lower probability of UO (OR 0.85 [95% CIs 0.75-0.96]; p = 0.008) but not mortality (OR 0.88 [95% CIs 0.62-1.25]; p = 0.21). No significant heterogeneity was observed among studies. However, these effects were observed in the analyses of non-RCTs. A significant lower probability of both UO and mortality were observed when invasive TTM methods were compared to non-invasive TTM methods and when temperature feedback devices (TFD) were compared to non-TFD methods. These results were significant particularly in non-RCTs. CONCLUSIONS: Although existing literature is mostly based on retrospective or prospective studies, specific TTM methods (i.e., core, invasive, and with TFD) were associated with a lower probability of poor neurological outcome when compared to other methods in adult CA survivors (CRD42019111021).

11.
Resuscitation ; 138: 222-232, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early prognostication is a major challenge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AIMS: We hypothesized that a genome-wide analysis of blood gene expression could offer new prognostic tools and lines of research. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from an ancillary study of the clinical trial NCT00999583 that tested the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) after OHCA. Blood samples were collected in comatose survivors of OHCA at hospital admission and 1 and 3 days after resuscitation. Gene expression profiles were analyzed (Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 BeadChip; >34,000 genes). Patients were classified into two categories representing neurological favorable outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] = 1-2) vs unfavorable outcome (CPC > 2) at Day 60 after OHCA. Differential and functional enrichment analyses were performed to compare transcriptomic profiles between these two categories. RESULTS: Among the 69 enrolled patients, 33 and 36 patients were treated or not by EPO, respectively. Among them, 42% had a favorable neurological outcome in both groups. EPO did not affect the transcriptomic response at Day-0 and 1 after OHCA. In contrast, 76 transcripts differed at Day-0 between patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. This signature persisted at Day-1 after OHCA. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a down-regulation of adaptive immunity with concomitant up-regulation of innate immunity and inflammation in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. The transcription of many genes of the HLA family was decreased in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. Concomitantly, neutrophil activation and inflammation were observed. Up-stream regulators analysis showed the implication of numerous factors involved in cell cycle and damages. A logistic regression including a set of genes allowed a reliable prediction of the clinical outcomes (specificity = 88%; Hit Rate = 83%). CONCLUSIONS: A transcriptomic signature involving a counterbalance between adaptive and innate immune responses is able to predict neurological outcome very early after hospital admission after OHCA. This deserves confirmation in a larger population.

12.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(4): 253-260, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post cardiac arrest shock (PCAS) occurring after resuscitated cardiac arrest (CA) is a main cause of early death. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) could be useful pending recovery from myocardial failure. AIM: To describe our PCAS population, and the factors associated with initiation of ECLS. METHODS: This analysis included 921 patients admitted to two intensive care units between 2005 and 2014 for CA and PCAS; 43 of these patients had ECLS initiated. Neurological and ECLS-related outcomes were gathered retrospectively. RESULTS: The 43 patients treated with ECLS were predominantly (70%) young males with evidence of myocardial infarction on coronary angiography. ECLS was initiated in patients with severe cardiovascular dysfunction (median left ventricular ejection fraction 15% [interquartile range 10-25%]), a median of 9hours [interquartile range 6-16hours] after the CA. At 1 year, eight patients (19%) had survived without neurological disability. Blood lactate and coronary aetiology were associated with neurological outcomes. Logistic regression conducted using 878 controls with PCAS identified age>62 years, location of CA, use of a high dose of adrenaline (>3mg) and blood lactate and serum creatinine concentrations (>5mmol/L and>109µmol/L, respectively) as risk factors for initiation of ECLS. CONCLUSIONS: ECLS, as a salvage therapy for PCAS, could be an acceptable alternative for highly-selected patients.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Circulação Extracorpórea/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Circulação Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Circulação Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Síndrome , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
13.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 354, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenomedullin (ADM) regulates vascular tone and endothelial permeability during sepsis. Levels of circulating biologically active ADM (bio-ADM) show an inverse relationship with blood pressure and a direct relationship with vasopressor requirement. In the present prospective observational multinational Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Sepsis and Septic Shock 1 (, AdrenOSS-1) study, we assessed relationships between circulating bio-ADM during the initial intensive care unit (ICU) stay and short-term outcome in order to eventually design a biomarker-guided randomized controlled trial. METHODS: AdrenOSS-1 was a prospective observational multinational study. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included organ failure as defined by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, organ support with focus on vasopressor/inotropic use, and need for renal replacement therapy. AdrenOSS-1 included 583 patients admitted to the ICU with sepsis or septic shock. RESULTS: Circulating bio-ADM levels were measured upon admission and at day 2. Median bio-ADM concentration upon admission was 80.5 pg/ml [IQR 41.5-148.1 pg/ml]. Initial SOFA score was 7 [IQR 5-10], and 28-day mortality was 22%. We found marked associations between bio-ADM upon admission and 28-day mortality (unadjusted standardized HR 2.3 [CI 1.9-2.9]; adjusted HR 1.6 [CI 1.1-2.5]) and between bio-ADM levels and SOFA score (p < 0.0001). Need of vasopressor/inotrope, renal replacement therapy, and positive fluid balance were more prevalent in patients with a bio-ADM > 70 pg/ml upon admission than in those with bio-ADM ≤ 70 pg/ml. In patients with bio-ADM > 70 pg/ml upon admission, decrease in bio-ADM below 70 pg/ml at day 2 was associated with recovery of organ function at day 7 and better 28-day outcome (9.5% mortality). By contrast, persistently elevated bio-ADM at day 2 was associated with prolonged organ dysfunction and high 28-day mortality (38.1% mortality, HR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.8). CONCLUSIONS: AdrenOSS-1 shows that early levels and rapid changes in bio-ADM estimate short-term outcome in sepsis and septic shock. These data are the backbone of the design of the biomarker-guided AdrenOSS-2 trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393781 . Registered on March 19, 2015.


Assuntos
Adrenomedulina/análise , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Sepse/mortalidade , Adrenomedulina/sangue , Idoso , Bélgica , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Itália , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Países Baixos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(6): 1424-1433, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450469

RESUMO

Introduction: Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. The Kidney in Sepsis and Septic Shock (Kid-SSS) study evaluated the value of proenkephalin A 119-159 (penkid)-a sensitive biomarker of glomerular function, drawn within 24 hours upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and analyzed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay-for kidney events in sepsis and septic shock. Methods: The Kid-SSS study was a substudy of Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock (AdrenOSS) (NCT02393781), a prospective, observational, multinational study including 583 patients admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis or septic shock and a validation cohort of 525 patients from the French and euRopean Outcome reGistry in Intensive Care Units (FROG-ICU) study. The primary endpoint was major adverse kidney events (MAKEs) at day 7, composite of death, renal replacement therapy, and persistent renal dysfunction. The secondary endpoints included AKI, transient AKI, worsening renal function (WRF), and 28-day mortality. Results: Median age was 66 years (interquartile range 55-75), and 28-day mortality was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19%-25%). Of the patients, 293 (50.3%) were in shock upon ICU admission. Penkid was significantly elevated in patients with MAKEs, persistent AKI, and WRF (median = 65 [IQR = 45-106] vs. 179 [114-242]; 53 [39-70] vs. 133 [79-196] pmol/l; and 70 [47-121] vs. 174 [93-242] pmol/l, all P < 0.0001), also after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.8-6.0], 3.9 [95% CI = 2.1-7.2], and 3.4 [95% CI = 1.9-6.2], all P < 0.0001). Penkid increase preceded elevation of serum creatinine with WRF and was low in renal recovery. Conclusion: Admission penkid concentration was associated with MAKEs, AKI, and WRF in a timely manner in septic patients.

15.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e023772, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent practice guidelines suggest applying non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to prevent postextubation respiratory failure in patients at high risk of extubation failure in intensive care unit (ICU). However, such prophylactic NIV has been only a conditional recommendation given the low certainty of evidence. Likewise, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy has been shown to reduce reintubation rates as compared with standard oxygen and to be as efficient as NIV in patients at high risk. Whereas HFNC may be considered as an optimal therapy during the postextubation period, HFNC associated with NIV could be an additional means of preventing postextubation respiratory failure. We are hypothesising that treatment associating NIV with HFNC between NIV sessions may be more effective than HFNC alone and may reduce the reintubation rate in patients at high risk. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is an investigator-initiated, multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing HFNC alone or with NIV sessions during the postextubation period in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU. Six hundred patients will be randomised with a 1:1 ratio in two groups according to the strategy of oxygenation after extubation. The primary outcome is the reintubation rate within the 7 days following planned extubation. Secondary outcomes include the number of patients who meet the criteria for moderate/severe respiratory failure, ICU length of stay and mortality up to day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the ethics committee and patients will be included after informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03121482.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Desmame do Respirador , Extubação , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Retratamento
16.
Resuscitation ; 132: 147-155, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086373

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore diagnostic pitfalls and treatment issues in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of neurological cause (OHCA-NC). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients from the Paris Sudden Death Expertise Centre (France) registry from May 2011 to September 2015 presenting with a sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at hospital admission and a final diagnosis of OHCA-NC. Description of the early diagnostic check-up performed to identify the cause of cardiac arrest. Logistic multivariate regression to identify factors associated with immediate coronary angiography (iCAG) in OHCA-NC patients. RESULTS: Among 3542 patients with ROSC, a final diagnosis of OHCA-NC was established in 247 (7%). The early diagnostic check-up consisted in a total of 207 (84%) immediate cranial CT-scan, 66 (27%) iCAG and 25 (10%) chest CT-scan. The brain CT-scan allowed identifying a neurovascular cause in 116 (47%) patients. An iCAG was performed as the first line exam in 57 (23%) patients, in whom a final diagnosis of neurovascular cause for OHCA-NC was later identified in 41 patients. By multivariate analysis, decision for iCAG was independently associated with ST-segment elevation on post-ROSC electrocardiogram (OR, 5.94; 95%CI, 2.14-18.28; P = 0.0009), whereas an obvious cause of cardiac arrest on scene was negatively associated with iCAG (OR, 0.14; 95%CI, 0.02-0.51; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: OHCA-NC is a rare event that is mainly related to neurovascular causes. The initial ECG pattern may be a confounder regarding triage for early diagnostic check-up. Further studies are required to explore the potential harmfulness associated with decision to perform an iCAG in this population.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Idoso , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Paris/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Eur Heart J ; 39(47): 4196-4204, 2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137303

RESUMO

Aims: The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains ill defined in pulmonary embolism (PE). We investigated outcomes in patients with high-risk PE undergoing ECMO according to initial therapeutic strategy. Methods and results: From 01 January 2014 to 31 December 2015, 180 patients from 13 Departments in nine centres with high-risk PE were retrospectively included. Among those undergoing ECMO, we compared characteristics and outcomes according to adjunctive treatment strategy (systemic thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, or no reperfusion therapy). Primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome was 90-day major bleeding. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were treated without ECMO; 52 (mean age 47.6 years) underwent ECMO. Overall 30-day mortality was 48.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 41-56] (87/180); 43% (95% CI 34-52) (55/128) in those treated without ECMO vs. 61.5% (95% CI 52-78) (32/52) in those with ECMO (P = 0.008). In patients undergoing ECMO, 30-day mortality was 76.5% (95% CI 57-97) (13/17) for ECMO + fibrinolysis, 29.4% (95% CI 51-89) (5/17) for ECMO + surgical embolectomy, and 77.7% (95% CI 59-97) (14/18) for ECMO alone (P = 0.004). Among patients with ECMO, 20 (38.5%, 95% CI 25-52) had a major bleeding event in-hospital; without significant difference across groups. Conclusion: In patients with high-risk PE, those with ECMO have a more severe presentation and worse prognosis. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with failed fibrinolysis and in those with no reperfusion seems to be associated with particularly unfavourable prognosis compared with ECMO performed in addition to surgical embolectomy. Our findings suggest that ECMO does not appear justified as a stand-alone treatment strategy in PE patients, but shows promise as a complement to surgical embolectomy.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Ecocardiografia , Embolectomia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
18.
Resuscitation ; 130: 61-66, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While S-100B protein and Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) dosages have been extensively investigated for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest (CA), there is no data about their ability to detect a cerebrovascular cause of CA. We assessed the utility of plasma S-100B protein and NSE measurements for early diagnosis of primary neurological cause in resuscitated CA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case control study based on two prospectively acquired CA databases. Patients with a primary cerebrovascular etiology were compared with randomly selected CA of non-neurological cause. S-100B protein and NSE were measured at ICU admission in all patients. RESULTS: CA was due to a cerebrovascular etiology in 18 patients (subarachnoid hemorrhage, n = 15; ischemic stroke, n = 3), with an ICU mortality of 100%. Comparative group was constituted with 66 patients (cardiac etiology n = 45, respiratory etiology n = 21), with an ICU mortality of 71%. Admission S-100B protein concentration was 2.0 [0.63-7.15] µg/L in the cerebrovascular group and 0.45 [0.24-1.95] in the non-cerebrovascular group (p < 0.001). In contrast, NSE concentration was similar in cerebrovascular and non-cerebrovascular etiologies (35 [25-103] µg/L vs. 27 [19-47] respectively, p = 0.16). Area under ROC curves for S-100B protein and NSE to predict cerebrovascular cause of CA was 0.75 [95% CI: 0.64-0.87] and 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45-0.76], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Even if S-100B protein dosage performs slightly better than NSE, early dosages of these biomarkers are poorly predictive of a cerebrovascular etiology of CA. Our results suggest that early measurement of brain biomarkers should not be recommended to tailor the imaging strategy employed to investigate the CA cause.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 266: 95-99, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is associated with adverse outcome in critical illness, but whether this effect is independent from other risk factors remains uncertain. New-onset AFib during critical illness may be independently associated with increased in-hospital and long-term risk of death. METHODS: FROG-ICU was a prospective, observational, multi-centre cohort study designed to investigate the outcome of critically ill patients. Inclusion criteria were invasive mechanical ventilation and/or treatment with a positive inotropic agent for >24 h. Heart rhythm was assessed at inclusion and during ICU stay with digital ECG recordings. Among patients who had AFib during ICU stay, new-onset and recurrent AFib were diagnosed in patients without and with previous history of AFib, respectively. Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality; secondary endpoint was 1-year mortality among ICU survivors. RESULTS: The study included 1841 critically ill patients. During ICU stay, AFib occurred in 343 patients (19%). New-onset AFib (n = 212) had higher in-hospital mortality compared to no AFib (47 vs. 23%, P < 0.001) or recurrent AFib (34%, P = 0.032). New-onset AFib showed increased risk of in-hospital death after multivariable adjustment compared to no AFib (OR 1.6, P = 0.003) or recurrent AFib (OR 1.8, P = 0.02). Among the 1464 ICU-survivors, new-onset AFib during ICU stay showed higher post-ICU risk of death compared to no AFib (HR 2.2, P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, new-onset AFib showed higher post-ICU risk of death compared to no AFib (HR 1.6, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: New-onset AFib is independently associated with in-hospital and post-ICU risk of death in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(5): 598-605, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) improve outcome in patients recovering from AKI remains unexplored. The purpose was to investigate the association between prescription of ACEi/ARB at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and 1-year outcome in patients recovering from AKI. METHODS: Association between ACEi/ARB and 1-year mortality rate was explored in 1551 patients discharged from 21 European ICUs in an observational cohort. One-year all-cause mortality after ICU discharge was the primary endpoint. AKI was defined using the kidney disease improvement global outcome definition. Propensity score matching was used to consider the probability to receive ACEi/ARB at ICU discharge and included chronic heart failure, ACEi/ARB on ICU admission, Charlson Comorbidity Index, age, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate and arterial blood pressure at ICU discharge vasopressors and renal replacement therapy. RESULTS: Overall, 1-year mortality was 28 and 15% in patients with AKI (n = 611, 39%) and without AKI (n = 940), respectively. In patients with AKI, unadjusted, adjusted and propensity-score matched 1-year mortality rates were lower in patients treated with ACEi/ARB at ICU discharge [HR of 0.55 (0.35-0.89), HR of 0.45 (0.27-0.75), and HR of 0.48 (0.27-0.85, p < 0.001), respectively]. These results were consistent across sensitivity analysis. No association was observed in patients without AKI. CONCLUSIONS: In patients discharged alive from the ICU after experiencing AKI, ACEi/ARB prescription at discharge is associated with a decrease in 1-year mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367093. Registered on 6 June 2011.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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