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Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443607


Cellular conformation of reduced pyridine nucleotides NADH and NADPH sensed using autofluorescence spectroscopy is presented as a real-time metabolic indicator under pressurized conditions. The approach provides information on the role of pressure in energy metabolism and antioxidant defense with applications in agriculture and food technologies. Here, we use spectral phasor analysis on UV-excited autofluorescence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to assess the involvement of one or multiple NADH- or NADPH-linked pathways based on the presence of two-component spectral behavior during a metabolic response. To demonstrate metabolic monitoring under pressure, we first present the autofluorescence response to cyanide (a respiratory inhibitor) at 32 MPa. Although ambient and high-pressure responses remain similar, pressure itself also induces a response that is consistent with a change in cellular redox state and ROS production. Next, as an example of an autofluorescence response altered by pressurization, we investigate the response to ethanol at ambient, 12 MPa, and 30 MPa pressure. Ethanol (another respiratory inhibitor) and cyanide induce similar responses at ambient pressure. The onset of non-two-component spectral behavior upon pressurization suggests a change in the mechanism of ethanol action. Overall, results point to new avenues of investigation in piezophysiology by providing a way of visualizing metabolism and mitochondrial function under pressurized conditions.

NADP/química , NADP/metabolismo , NAD/química , NAD/metabolismo , Pressão , Fluorescência , Conformação Molecular
Blood ; 138(13): 1182-1193, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945603


Events mediated by the P-selectin/PSGL-1 pathway play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of venous thrombosis by facilitating the accumulation of leukocytes and platelets within the growing thrombus. Activated platelets and endothelium express P-selectin, which binds P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) that is expressed on the surface of all leukocytes. We developed a pegylated glycomimetic of the N terminus of PSGL-1, PEG40-GSnP-6 (P-G6), which proved to be a highly potent P-selectin inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile for clinical translation. P-G6 inhibits human and mouse platelet-monocyte and platelet-neutrophil aggregation in vitro and blocks microcirculatory platelet-leukocyte interactions in vivo. Administration of P-G6 reduces thrombus formation in a nonocclusive model of deep vein thrombosis with a commensurate reduction in leukocyte accumulation, but without disruption of hemostasis. P-G6 potently inhibits the P-selectin/PSGL-1 pathway and represents a promising drug candidate for the prevention of venous thrombosis without increased bleeding risk.

J Am Chem Soc ; 140(44): 15008-15015, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351022


Pseudaminic acid is an amino deoxy sialic acid whose glycosides are essential components of many pathogenic Gram-negative bacterial cell walls including those from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Vibrio vulnificus, and Pseudoalteromonas distincta. The study of pseudaminic acid glycosides is however hampered by poor availability from nature and the paucity of good synthetic methods and limited to no understanding of the factors controlling stereoselectivity. Conformational analysis of the side chains of various stereoisomeric sialic acids suggested that the side chain of pseudaminic acid would take up the most electron-withdrawing trans, gauche-conformation, as opposed to the gauche, gauche conformation of N-acetyl neuraminic acid and the gauche, trans-conformtion of 7- epi N-acetyl neuraminic acid, leading to the prediction of high equatorial selectivity. This prediction is borne out by the synthesis of a suitably protected pseudaminic acid donor from N-acetyl neuraminic acid in 20 steps and 5% overall yield and by the exquisite equatorial selectivity it displays in coupling reactions with typical glycosyl acceptors. The selectivity of the glycosylation reactions is further buttressed by the development and implementation of conditions for the regioselective release of the two amines from the corresponding azides, such as required for the preparation of the lipopolysaccharides. These findings open the way to the synthesis and study of pseudaminic acid-based bacterial lipopolysaccharides and, importantly in the broader context of glycosylation reactions in general, underline the significant role played by side-chain conformation in the control of reactivity and selectivity.

Azidas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Açúcares Ácidos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Glicosilação , Estereoisomerismo , Açúcares Ácidos/síntese química
J Org Chem ; 82(18): 9263-9269, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858509


Although the triflate ion is not generally perceived as a nucleophile, many examples of its behavior as such exist in the literature. This Synopsis presents an overview of such reactions, in which triflate may be either a stoichiometric or catalytic nucleophile, leading to the suggestion that nucleophilic catalysis by triflate may be more common than generally accepted, albeit hidden by the typical reactivity of organic triflates which complicates their observation as intermediates.

Mesilatos/química , Ânions/química , Estrutura Molecular
J Org Chem ; 82(12): 6142-6152, 2017 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530837


The synthesis of a legionaminic acid donor from N-acetylneuraminic acid in 15 steps and 17% overall yield is described. Activation of the adamantanyl thioglycoside in the donor with N-iodosuccinimide and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid in dichloromethane and acetonitrile at -78 °C in the presence of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols affords the corresponding glycosides in excellent yield and good to excellent equatorial selectivity. In particular, coupling to the 4-OH of a suitably protected neuraminic acid derivative affords a disaccharide that closely resembles the glycosidic linkage in the polylegionaminic acid from the lipopolysaccharide of the Legionella pneumophila virulence factor. A straightforward deprotection sequence enables conversion of the protected glycosides to the free N,N-diacetyllegionaminic acid glycosides.

Glicosídeos/síntese química , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Glicosídeos/química , Estereoisomerismo
J Org Chem ; 81(22): 10617-10630, 2016 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806203


With a view to the eventual synthesis of glycosyl donors for the stereocontrolled synthesis of pseudaminic acid glycosides, the stereocontrolled synthesis of a d-glycero-d-gulo sialic acid adamantanylthioglycoside carrying an axial azide at the 5-position is described. The synthesis employs levulinic acid as nucleophile in the oxidative deamination of an N-acetylneuraminic acid thioglycoside leading to the formation of a 3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid (KDN) derivative selectively protected as 5-O-levulinate. Replacement of the levulinate by triflate enables introduction of the axial azide and hence formation of the glycosyl donor. A shorter synthesis uses trifluoromethanesulfonate as nucleophile in the oxidative deamination step when the 5-O-triflyl KDN derivative is obtained directly. Glycosylation reactions conducted with the 5-azido-d-glycero-d-gulo-configured sialyl adamantanylthioglycoside at -78 °C are selective for the formation of the equatorial glycosides, suggesting that the synthesis of equatorial pseudaminic acid glycosides will be possible as suitable donors become available. A comparable N-acetylneuraminic acid adamantanylthioglycoside carrying an equatorial azide at the 5-position was also found to be selective for equatorial glycoside formation under the same conditions, suggesting that reinvestigation of other azide-protected NeuAc donors is merited. Glycosylation stereoselectivity in the d-glycero-d-gulo series is discussed in terms of the side-chain conformation of the donor.

Glicosídeos/química , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Açúcares Ácidos/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Desaminação , Glicosilação , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Estereoisomerismo