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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577374

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created havoc worldwide. Due to the non-availability of any vaccine or drugs against COVID-19, immunotherapies involving convalescent plasma, immunoglobulins, antibodies (monoclonal or polyclonal), and the use of immunomodulatory agents to enhance immunity are valuable alternative options. Cell-based therapies including natural killer cells, T cells, stem cells along with cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs) based therapies are also being exploited potentially against COVID-19. Future research need to strengthen the field of developing effective immunotherapeutics and immunomodulators with a thrust of providing appropriate, affordable, convenient, and cost-effective prophylactic and treatment regimens to combat global COVID-19 crisis that has led to a state of medical emergency enforcing entire countries of the world to devote their research infrastructure and manpower in tackling this pandemic.

2.
Vet Q ; : 1-24, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618618

RESUMO

Brucellosis not only represents an important health restraint on livestock but also causes high economic losses in many developing countries worldwide. Despite considerable efforts made for the control of brucellosis, the disease is still spreading in many regions (such as the Middle East) where it represents one of the most important health hazards impacting both animals and humans. The present review aims to investigate the efficacy of veterinary control programs regarding brucellosis, with a special focus on current prevention, control, and eradication approaches. The reasons for unsuccessful control programs such as the absence of highly effective vaccines and non-certified bulls are also debated, to understand why the prevalence of brucellosis in livestock is not decreasing in many areas despite considerable efforts taken to date. The importance of governmental and regional investment in brucellosis control remains one of the main limiting factors owing to the limited budget allocated to tackle this disease. In this context, one health concept has generated novel comprehensive approaches with multiple economic implications across the livestock industry and public health. However, the implementation of such global preventive strategies appears to be a key issue for many endemic and low-income countries. According to the collected data, epidemiological contexts including management and trade systems along with well-defined agro-ecological zones should be evaluated in brucellosis endemic countries to improve milk production and to enhance the sustainability of the livestock sector at both national and regional levels.

3.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 8, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461573

RESUMO

The Severe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has gained research attention worldwide, given the current pandemic. Nevertheless, a previous zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronavirus, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is still causing concern, especially in Saudi Arabia and neighbour countries. The MERS-CoV has been reported from respiratory samples in more than 27 countries, and around 2500 cases have been reported with an approximate fatality rate of 35%. After its emergence in 2012 intermittent, sporadic cases, nosocomial infections and many community clusters of MERS continued to occur in many countries. Human-to-human transmission resulted in the large outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. The inherent genetic variability among various clads of the MERS-CoV might have probably paved the events of cross-species transmission along with changes in the inter-species and intra-species tropism. The current review is drafted using an extensive review of literature on various databases, selecting of publications irrespective of favouring or opposing, assessing the merit of study, the abstraction of data and analysing data. The genome of MERS-CoV contains around thirty thousand nucleotides having seven predicted open reading frames. Spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins are the four main structural proteins. The surface located spike protein (S) of betacoronaviruses has been established to be one of the significant factors in their zoonotic transmission through virus-receptor recognition mediation and subsequent initiation of viral infection. Three regions in Saudi Arabia (KSA), Eastern Province, Riyadh and Makkah were affected severely. The epidemic progression had been the highest in 2014 in Makkah and Riyadh and Eastern Province in 2013. With a lurking epidemic scare, there is a crucial need for effective therapeutic and immunological remedies constructed on sound molecular investigations.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , /genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , /genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
4.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 107-136, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509059

RESUMO

Mastitis (intramammary inflammation) caused by infectious pathogens is still considered a devastating condition of dairy animals affecting animal welfare as well as economically incurring huge losses to the dairy industry by means of decreased production performance and increased culling rates. Bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary glands/udder of bovines, caused by bacterial pathogens, in most cases. Routine diagnosis is based on clinical and subclinical forms of the disease. This underlines the significance of early and rapid identification/detection of etiological agents at the farm level, for which several diagnostic techniques have been developed. Therapeutic regimens such as antibiotics, immunotherapy, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, probiotics, stem cell therapy, native secretory factors, nutritional, dry cow and lactation therapy, genetic selection, herbs, and nanoparticle technology-based therapy have been evaluated for their efficacy in the treatment of mastitis. Even though several strategies have been developed over the years for the purpose of managing both clinical and subclinical forms of mastitis, all of them lacked the efficacy to eliminate the associated etiological agent when used as a monotherapy. Further, research has to be directed towards the development of new therapeutic agents/techniques that can both replace conventional techniques and also solve the problem of emerging antibiotic resistance. The objective of the present review is to describe the etiological agents, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in brief along with an extensive discussion on the advances in the treatment and management of mastitis, which would help safeguard the health of dairy animals.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111825, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360553

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the globe and affected millions of individuals as of the efficient virus transmission potential mediated via multiple virus shedding routes. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool samples and its prolonged shedding in environmental compartments like sewage and wastewater signifies a potential threat adding to the transmission cycle of this novel virus. The potential role played by the asymptomatic COVID-19 patients in transmitting the disease via the fecal-oral route is now under investigation. Hence, in the present scenario, wastewater-based epidemiology, and sewage surveillance may provide valuable insights into the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the human population and could serve as a sensitive surveillance system and a crucial early warning tool. Further studies are required to determine the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, transmissibility through wastewater, and the potential to infect humans via the fecal-oral route. Appropriate frameworks with regards to evaluation and analysis of SARS-CoV-2 will help implement appropriate intervention strategies and necessary sanitation practices to ensure virus free clean water supply to have a check on the further spread of this pandemic virus.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
6.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 61-88, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353489

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of great animal welfare and economic implications worldwide known since ancient times. The emergence of brucellosis in new areas as well as transmission of brucellosis from wild and domestic animals is of great significance in terms of new epidemiological dimensions. Brucellosis poses a major public health threat by the consumption of non-pasteurized milk and milk products produced by unhygienic dairy farms in endemic areas. Regular and meticulous surveillance is essentially required to determine the true picture of brucellosis especially in areas with continuous high prevalence. Additionally, international migration of humans, animals and trade of animal products has created a challenge for disease spread and diagnosis in non-endemic areas. Isolation and identification remain the gold standard test, which requires expertise. The advancement in diagnostic strategies coupled with screening of newly introduced animals is warranted to control the disease. Of note, the diagnostic value of miRNAs for appropriate detection of B. abortus infection has been shown. The most widely used vaccine strains to protect against Brucella infection and related abortions in cattle are strain 19 and RB51. Moreover, it is very important to note that no vaccine, which is highly protective, safe and effective is available either for bovines or human beings. Research results encourage the use of bacteriophage lysates in treatment of bovine brucellosis. One Health approach can aid in control of this disease, both in animals and man.

7.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 50-60, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349165

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has now affected over 72.5 million people worldwide, with nearly 1.6 million deaths reported globally as of December 17, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated to have originated from bats and pangolins, and its intermediate animal hosts are being investigated. Crossing of the species barrier and exhibition of zoonosis have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 in farm (minks), domesticated (cats and dogs), and wild animals (tigers, puma, and lions). Recently, the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in mink farms, which led to the death of a myriad minks. The clinical and pathological findings of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the rapid animal-to-animal transmission in minks are almost similar to the findings observed in patients with COVID-19. Additionally, the rapid virus transmission among minks and the associated mutations resulted in a new mink-associated variant that was identified in both minks and humans, thereby providing evidence of mink-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The new mink-associated SARS-CoV-2 variant with a possible reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies poses serious risks and is expected to have a direct effect on the diagnostic techniques, therapeutics, and vaccines that are currently under development. This article highlights the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, and provides an understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in minks and the associated zoonotic concerns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from minks to humans with an emphasis on appropriate mitigation measures and on the necessity of adopting the One Health approach during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Vison/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , /transmissão , /virologia , Fazendas , Humanos , Saúde Única , Pandemias , /isolamento & purificação
8.
Infez Med ; 28(4): 475-485, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257621

RESUMO

While the world is focused on attending, controlling, and mitigating the current pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, other viral threats are possibly emerging and reemerging especially in Asia, posing a risk for the spread in that region and beyond. A predictable threat is the avian influenza virus, especially H5N6, which has recently led to significant outbreaks in China and the Philippines, deserving more attention and control. In the current review, we assess the history of this highly pathogenic reemerging virus, as well as the contemporary implications of poultry outbreaks occurring in some Asian countries. We also look at outbreaks due to other strains not only in Asia but also across Europe and Africa, according to recent reports from the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE).

9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295829

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective vaccine for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by novel coronavirus strain, severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The protective immunity of certain types of vaccines can be enhanced by the addition of adjuvants. Many diverse classes of compounds have been identified as adjuvants, including mineral salts, microbial products, emulsions, saponins, cytokines, polymers, microparticles, and liposomes. Several saponins have been shown to stimulate both the Th1-type immune response and the production of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against endogenous antigens, making them very useful for subunit vaccines, especially those for intracellular pathogens. In this review, we discuss the structural characteristics, mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationship of saponins, biological activities, and use of saponins in various viral vaccines and their applicability to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270484

RESUMO

Globally, researchers are undertaking significant efforts to design and develop effective vaccines, therapeutics, and antiviral drugs to curb the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Plants have been used for the production of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulatory proteins, drugs, and pharmaceuticals via molecular farming/transient expression system and are considered as bioreactors or factories for their bulk production. These biological products are stable, safe, effective, easily available, and affordable. Plant molecular farming could facilitate rapid production of biologics on an industrial scale, and has the potential to fulfill emergency demands, such as in the present situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. This article aims to describe the methodology and basics of plant biopharming, in addition to its prospective applications for developing effective vaccines and antibodies to counter COVID-19.

11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270497

RESUMO

The rapid worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in tens of millions of infections and over one million deaths. SARS-CoV-2 infection affects all age groups; however, those over 60 years old are affected more severely. Moreover, pre-existing co-morbidities result in higher COVID-19-associated mortality in the geriatric population. This article highlights the associated risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in older people and progress in developing COVID-19 vaccines, especially for efficient vaccination of the older population. There is also a summary of immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic approaches to ameliorate the outcome of COVID-19 in older individuals.

12.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377145

RESUMO

Interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with the ACE2 cell receptor is very crucial for virus attachment to human cells. Selected mutations in SARS-CoV-2 S-protein are reported to strengthen its binding affinity to mammalian ACE2. The N501T mutation in SARS-CoV-2-CTD furnishes better support to hotspot 353 in comparison with SARS-CoV and shows higher affinity for receptor binding. Recombination analysis exhibited higher recombination events in SARS-CoV-2 strains, irrespective of their geographical origin or hosts. Investigation further supports a common origin among SARS-CoV-2 and its predecessors, SARS-CoV and bat-SARS-like-CoV. The recombination events suggest a constant exchange of genetic material among the co-infecting viruses in possible reservoirs and human hosts before SARS-CoV-2 emerged. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of codon usage bias (CUB) in SARS-CoV-2 revealed significant CUB among the S-genes of different beta-coronaviruses governed majorly by natural selection and mutation pressure. Various indices of codon usage of S-genes helped in quantifying its adaptability in other animal hosts. These findings might help in identifying potential experimental animal models for investigating pathogenicity for drugs and vaccine development experiments.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156739

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Beyond there being no available antiviral therapy, stimulating protective immunity by vaccines is the best option for managing future infections. Development of a vaccine for a novel virus is a challenging effort that may take several years to accomplish. This mini-review summarizes the immunopathological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and discusses advances in the development of vaccines and immunotherapeutics for COVID-19.

14.
F1000Res ; 9: 1107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163160

RESUMO

Background: The unpredictability of the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be attributed to the low precision of the tools used to predict the prognosis of this disease. Objective: To identify the predictors associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Relevant articles from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science were searched and extracted as of April 5, 2020. Data of interest were collected and evaluated for their compatibility for the meta-analysis. Cumulative calculations to determine the correlation and effect estimates were performed using the Z test. Results: In total, 19 papers recording 1,934 mild and 1,644 severe cases of COVID-19 were included. Based on the initial evaluation, 62 potential risk factors were identified for the meta-analysis. Several comorbidities, including chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were observed more frequent among patients with severe COVID-19 than with the mild ones. Compared to the mild form, severe COVID-19 was associated with symptoms such as dyspnea, anorexia, fatigue, increased respiratory rate, and high systolic blood pressure. Lower levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin; elevated levels of leukocytes, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, high-sensitivity troponin, creatine kinase, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and procalcitonin; and a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also associated with severe COVID-19. Conclusion: More than 30 risk factors are associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19. These may serve as useful baseline parameters in the development of prediction tools for COVID-19 prognosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Int J Surg ; 84: 156-158, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197596
16.
Virusdisease ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200084

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become fatal for the world with affected population crossing over 25 million in more than 217 countries, consequently declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Unfortunately, neither specific prophylactic or therapeutic drugs nor vaccines are available. To address the unmet medical needs, we explored a strategy identifying new compounds targeting the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro crystal structure (PDB ID: 6LU7) a combination of in silico screening, molecular docking, and dynamic approaches, a set of 5000 compounds of the ZINC database were screened. As a result, we identified and ranked the top 20 compounds based on the scores of ligand-interaction, their drug-likeness properties, and their predicted antiviral efficacies. The prominent drug-like and potent inhibitory compounds are 2-[2-(2-aminoacetyl) aminoacetyl] amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanamide (ZINC000004762511), 6'-fluoroaristeromycin (ZINC000001483267) and cyclo (L-histidyl-L-histidyl) (ZINC000005116916) scaffolds. Further in vitro and in vivo validations are required to demonstrate anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities.

17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175602

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed unprecedented health and socioeconomic challenges on public health, disrupting it on a global scale. Given that women and children are widely considered the most vulnerable in the times of emergency, whether in war or during a pandemic, the current pandemic has also severely disrupted access to reproductive and child health services. Despite this, data on the effect of the pandemic on pregnant women and newborns remain scarce, and gender-disaggregated indicators of mortality and morbidity are not available. In this context, we suggest the implementation of a gendered approach to ensure the specific needs of women and their newborns are considered during the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Taking into account gender-based biological differences, the inclusion of pregnant and lactating mothers in clinical trials for the development of COVID-19 vaccines is of vital importance.

18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232211

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has imposed a major public health threat, which needs effective therapeutics and vaccination strategies. Several potential candidate vaccines being rapidly developed are in clinical evaluation. Considering the crucial role of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein in virus attachment, entry, and induction of neutralizing antibodies, S protein is being widely used as a target for vaccine development. Based on advances in techniques for vaccine design, inactivated, live-vectored, nucleic acid, and recombinant COVID-19 vaccines are being developed and tested for their efficacy. Phase3 clinical trials are underway or will soon begin for several of these vaccines. Assuming that clinical efficacy is shown for one or more vaccines, safety is a major aspect to be considered before deploying such vaccines to the public. The current review focuses on the recent advances in recombinant COVID-19 vaccine research and development and associated issues.

19.
Vet Q ; : 1-45, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250002

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals have gained immense importance in poultry science recently considering the nutritional and beneficial health effects of their constituents. Besides providing nutritional requirements to birds, nutraceuticals have beneficial pharmacological effects, for example, they help in establishing normal physiological health status, prevent diseases and thereby improve production performance. Nutraceuticals include amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, etc. which are important for preventing oxidative stress, regulating the immune response and maintaining normal physiological, biochemical and homeostatic mechanisms. Nutraceuticals help in supplying nutrients in balanced amounts for supporting the optimal growth performance in modern poultry flocks, and as a dietary supplement can reduce the use of antibiotics. The application of antibiotic growth enhancers in poultry leads to the propagation of antibiotic-resistant microbes and drug residues; therefore, they have been restricted in many countries. Thus, there is a demand for natural feed additives that lead to the same growth enhancement without affecting the health. Nutraceuticals substances have an essential role in the development of the animals' normal physiological functions and in protecting them against infectious diseases. In this review, the uses of amino acids, vitamins and minerals as well as their mode of action in growth promotion and elevation of immune system are discussed.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 576875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251158

RESUMO

COVID-19, the human coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, was reported for the first time in Wuhan, China in late 2019. COVID-19 has no preventive vaccine or proven standard pharmacological treatment, and consequently, the outbreak swiftly became a pandemic affecting more than 215 countries around the world. For the diagnosis of COVID-19, the only reliable diagnostics is a qPCR assay. Among other diagnostic tools, the CRISPR-Cas system is being investigated for rapid and specific diagnosis of COVID-19. The CRISPR-Cas-based methods diagnose the SARS-CoV-2 infections within an hour. Apart from its diagnostic ability, CRISPR-Cas system is also being assessed for antiviral therapy development; however, till date, no CRISPR-based therapy has been approved for human use. The Prophylactic Antiviral CRISPR in huMAN cells (PAC-MAN), which is Cas 13 based strategy, has been developed against coronavirus. Although this strategy has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic modality, it may face significant challenges for approval in human clinical trials. This review is focused on describing potential use and challenges of CRISPR-Cas based approaches for the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic technique and/or a possible therapeutic alternative for combating COVID-19. The assessment of potential risks associated with use of CRISPR will be important for future clinical advancements.

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