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In. Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty Research Day, Book of Abstracts. St. Augustine, The University of the West Indies, November 9, 2017. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1007496


Background: Open water swimming is one of the fastest growing mass participation sports worldwide. Analysis of triathlon deaths and cardiac arrests have shown that 75% of these occur in the swimming leg. Less than half had autopsy evidence of cardiac disease, and swimming ability or medical conditions do not appear responsible. Mandatory pre-competition clinical screening has been traditionally promoted in open water swimming to identify athletes at risk of illness or death during competition. The variable nature of this screening however, may not be useful in identifying at risk individuals. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether the presence of pre-existing medical conditions or abnormalities discovered on clinical screening [blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), auscultation of heart and lungs and apical palpation] predicted either failure to complete the race or the need for medical contact. Methods: We collected screening and competition data from participants in the two largest regional Open Water competitions in 2017 ­ including international (CCCAN) and mixed ability (ASATT Maracas) athletes. Anonymised data on event medical contacts, failure to finish and screening were analysed, with descriptive results and risk ratios calculated using MedCalc statistical software. Age adjusted values for BP and HR outside the 90th centile was considered abnormal. Results: Overall, 410 athletes participated for which data was available for 400 (mean age 17.9 years, range 7-79; 58% male). There were 30 medical contacts, of which 22 were unable to complete the race. There was no significant sex difference in those unable to complete. The majority of contacts was for the 10k race (60%) with the 5k (23%) the next most common. The most common reason for non-completion was exhaustion. Three scratched due to illness on competition day. 21 athletes were asthmatic, and 2 had cardiac murmurs, however all completed their respective races and none required any medical contact. Asthma (RR 0.3, p=0.39), abnormal physiological measurements (RR 1.32, p=0.84) and other medical conditions (RR 0.94, p=0.96) did not appear predictive. Current illness was the only significant predictor of failure to complete or medical contact. (RR 6.67; 95% CI 2.36 -18.84), however a larger sample may be necessary to show significance. Conclusions: There is much variability in pre-competition screening for Open Water swimming, as with other sports. Intuitively, only current illness predicts failure to complete/medical contact, although it is unclear whether this can be used as a surrogate for athletes at risk of more serious sequelae. Pre-existing medical conditions such as asthma do not appear to be contributory to non-completion, nor does moderately abnormal physiological measurements. Given that cardiac arrythmias or structural abnormalities are implicated in some deaths during open water swimming, adding resting electrocardiography and possible echocardiography to pre-participation medical examination may be reasonable, however the effectiveness of this strategy is disputed. There appears to be little benefit in clinical screening immediately prior to competition, with a more thorough, structured pre-training examination likely to be superior.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Medicina Esportiva , Natação , Trinidad e Tobago
In. Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty Research Day, Book of Abstracts. St. Augustine, The University of the West Indies, November 9, 2017. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1007821


Background: Sepsis and its sequelae poses a significant socio-economic burden on health care systems globally. Risk stratification plays a fundamental role in emergency department management, since early and aggressive management in high-risk cohorts leads to improved outcomes. Several risk stratification tools exist but in the local setting (developing country with high chronic disease burden) there is no standardised recommendation for beside utilisation. Objectives: We aimed to compare the ability of the quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score with the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria and National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to detect and risk stratify patients with presumed sepsis outside of the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted at a public tertiary hospital during the period May to June 2017. Ethical and institutional approval was secured and informed consent was sought from study participants aged eighteen (18) years and older. Demographic and clinical data were collected via a data collection instrument and statistical analysis was undertaken using IBM SPSS v23. Results: 304 patients were treated for presumed sepsis. The primary outcomes of in-hospital death or intensive care unit admission were seen in 14.8%. Discrimination for the primary outcome was highest for NEWS (AUROC 0.88 [95% CI 0.83-0.94]) followed by qSOFA (AUROC 0.82 [95% CI 0.74-0.89]) and SIRS (AUROC 0.69 [95% CI 0.61-0.77]). A NEWS value of ≥4 resulted in a sensitivity of 93.3%, and negative predictive value of 98.3% (p<0.001). A qSOFA score ≥2 demonstrated a specificity of 94.6 % and a negative predictive value of 91.4% (p<0.001). A SIRS criteria score ≥2 resulted in a sensitivity of 88.9%, and a negative predictive value of 95.0% (p=0.001). Univariate analysis showed that: need for supplemental oxygen, an oxygen saturation less than 91%, a Glasgow Coma Scale <15 and non-selfpresentation were associated with the highest odds ratios for death in-hospital or ICU admission. Conclusions: Urgent identification of high-risk patients with presumed infection is critical in achieving a positive outcome. NEWS was superior to both qSOFA AND SIRS in predicting in-hospital mortality and need for ICU admission A qSOFA score ≥2 demonstrated a high specificity but poor sensitivity, thus limiting its use as a bedside tool. The findings of this study are consistent with the Sepsis-3 guidelines, which recommend qSOFA as being superior to SIRS criteria. However, we found that NEWS had a superior predictive value to both. Its role in the identification of high-risk subjects should be further evaluated.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Trinidad e Tobago , Sepse , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
West Indian med. j ; 49(suppl. 2): 63, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-879


OBJECTIVE: To understand the influences of antibiotic prescription practices of physicians in Trinidad on emergent bacterial resistance. DESIGN AND METHOD: A pre-tested questionnaire was self-administered to physicians to determine the factors influencing the choices and outcomes of antimicrobial prescribing. RESULTS: 56 physicians with a mean of 7.1 years experience participated in the survey. The most frequent prescriptions were for urogenital infections (50 percent), respiratory tract infections (48.2 percent) and skin and soft tissue infections (46.4 percent). Amoxil was the drug of choice for respiratory infections (42.1 percent), Flagyl and Septra (17.9 percent) each for genitourinary (GU) infections and doxycycline (41.4 percent) for STD's. Only 8.9 percent of physicians prescribed antibiotics for the common cold/flu. Patient's well-being was the priority in prescribing followed by emergent bacterial resistance. Approximately 76.7 percent of participants observed resistance in the community, especially to Amoxil (26.1 percent). Overprescribing (61.7 percent) was viewed as a major contributor to resistance. Physicians would like to depend on the laboratory to curtail resistance and want more educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the recognition of bacterial resistance as a physician concern and a need to study antibiotic use.(AU)

Humanos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Trinidad e Tobago , Estudos Transversais