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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental microbial exposure plays a role in immune system development and susceptibility to food allergy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether infant pacifier use during the first postnatal year, with further consideration of sanitization, alters the risk of food allergy by age 1 year. METHODS: The birth cohort recruited pregnant mothers at under 28 weeks' gestation in southeast Australia, with 894 families followed up when infants turned 1 year. Infants were excluded if born under 32 weeks, with a serious illness, major congenital malformation, or genetic disease. Questionnaire data, collected at recruitment and infant ages 1, 6, and 12 months, included pacifier use and pacifier sanitization (defined as the joint exposure of a pacifier and cleaning methods). Challenge-proven food allergy was assessed at 12 months. RESULTS: Any pacifier use at 6 months was associated with food allergy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.04-3.61), but not pacifier use at other ages. This overall association was driven by the joint exposure of pacifier-antiseptic use (adjusted odds ratio, 4.83; 95% CI, 1.10-21.18) compared with no pacifier use. Using pacifiers without antiseptic at 6 months was not associated with food allergy. Among pacifier users, antiseptic cleaning was still associated with food allergy (adjusted odds ratio, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.18-10.77) compared with no antiseptic use. Furthermore, persistent and repeated antiseptic use over the first 6 months was associated with higher food allergy risk (P = .029). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a pacifier-antiseptic combination being associated with a higher risk of subsequent food allergy. Future work should investigate underlying biological pathways.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795316

RESUMO

Mechanistic research suggests that lifestyle and environmental factors impact respiratory health across generations by epigenetic changes transmitted through male germ cells. Evidence from studies on humans is very limited.We investigated multi-generation causal associations to estimate the causal effects of tobacco smoking on lung function within the paternal line. We analysed data from 383 adult offspring (age: 18-47; female: 52.0%) and their 274 fathers, who had participated in the ECRHS/RHINESSA generation study and had provided valid measures of pre-bronchodilator lung function. Two counterfactual-based, multi-level mediation models were developed with: paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty as exposures; fathers' FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as potential mediators (proxies of unobserved biological mechanisms that are true mediators); offspring's FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as outcomes. All effects were summarised as differences in expected z-scores related to fathers' and grandmothers' smoking history.Fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty had a negative direct effect on both offspring's FEV1 (-0.36; 95% confidence interval: -0.63, -0.10) and FVC (-0.50; -0.80, -0.20) compared to fathers' never smoking. Paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy had a negative direct effect on fathers' FEV1/FVC (-0.57; -1.09, -0.05) and a negative indirect effect on offspring's FEV1/FVC (-0.12; -0.21, -0.03) compared to grandmothers' not smoking before fathers' birth nor during fathers' childhood.Fathers' smoking in prepuberty and paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy may cause lower lung function in offspring. Our results support the concept that lifestyle-related exposures during these susceptibility periods influence the health of future generations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671963

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of biomass fuel for cooking on adverse fetal growth outcomes in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study of mothers recruited at maternity clinics in rural communities in Sri Lanka's Central Province was undertaken. Data pertaining to household air pollution and fetal growth parameters were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to evaluate the impact of biomass fuel for cooking on low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) parameters. Findings showed that exposure to biomass cooking fuels during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of LBW adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.74 (95% CI 1.08-6.96) and SGA (aOR: 1.87, 95% CI 1.03-3.41) compared with the use of clean energy. The risk of LBW was highest for traditional biomass stoves compared to improved biomass stoves (aOR: 3.23, 95% 1.17-8.89) and biomass use in kitchens without a chimney compared to kitchens with a chimney (aOR: 4.63, 95% 1.54-13.93). Similar trends were observed for SGA.

4.
Allergy ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Western countries, Asian children have higherfood allergy riskthanCaucasian children. The early life environmental exposures for this discrepancyare unclear. We aimed tocompare prevalence of food allergyand associated risk factors between Asian children in Singapore andAustralia. METHODS: We studied children in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort (n=878) and children of Asian ancestry in the HealthNuts cohort (n=314).Food allergy was defined as a positive SPT≥ 3 mm to egg or peanut AND either a convincing history of IgE-mediated reaction at 18 months (GUSTO) or a positive oral food challenge at 14-18 months (HealthNuts). Eczema was defined as parent-reported doctor diagnosis. RESULTS: Food allergy prevalence was 1.1% in Singapore and15.0% in Australia(p<0.001). Egg introduction was more often delayed(>10 months) in Singapore (63.5%) than Australia(16.3%; p<0.001).Prevalence ofearly onset eczema (<6 months) was lower in Singapore (8.4%)thanAustralia (30.5%) (p<0.001).Children with early onset eczema were more likely to have food allergy than those without eczema in Australia[aOR5.11 (2.34-11.14); p<0.001]and Singapore [aOR4.00 (0.62-25.8); p=0.145]. CONCLUSIONS: Among Asian children, prevalence of early onset eczema and food allergy was higher in Australia than Singapore.Further research with larger sample sizes and harmonized definitions of food allergy between cohorts is required to confirm and extend these findings.Research on environmental factors influencing eczema onset in Australia and Singapore may aid understanding of food allergy pathogenesis in different parts of the world.

5.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615917

RESUMO

Periods when asthma admissions peaks have serious implications for asthma sufferers and hospitals. We assessed the association between aeroallergen exposure and childhood asthma peak periods during two grass pollen seasons using the Melbourne Air Pollen Children and Adolescent Health (MAPCAH) study conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Two peak periods were identified. Effect modifications by atopy and sex were considered. All pollen 2 days prior was associated with increased odds of these peak periods. Same day fungal spores, but not pollen, were important. Grass at lag 2 was associated with increased odds 1.03 (95%CI 1.01, 1.05) as was the same day Alternaria 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) per spore/m3 for boys. In addition to pollen, fungal spores particularly Alternaria may result in days of high exacerbations during pollen seasons. Further guidance is needed to better prepare families/carers with information about the increased risk of asthma attacks in children prior to pollen seasons.

6.
Thorax ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in the impact of greenness exposure on airway diseases, but the impact of greenness on lung function in children is limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between greenness surrounding schools and lung function in children and whether these associations are modified by air pollution exposure. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, a cross-sectional survey and spirometry were performed among 6740 school children. Lung function patterns were determined as obstructive forced expiratory volume 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.8) or restrictive (FEV1/FVC ≥0.8 but FVC <80% of predicted). School greenness was defined by Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil-adjusted vegetation index. Nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particular matter concentrations were assessed using a spatiotemporal model and national monitoring data. Two-level generalised linear models were used to investigate associations and interactions. RESULTS: Overall, an IQR in NDVI within 500 m was associated with higher FEV1 (+57 mL 95% CI 44 to 70) and FVC (+58 mL 95% CI 43 to 73). NDVI was similarly associated with 25% reduced odds of spirometric restriction (OR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.86). However, among children exposed to the highest compared with the lowest quartile of particulate matter, increasing NDVI was paradoxically associated with lower -40 mL FVC (95% CI -47 to -33, p interaction <0.05). DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that, in this study population, greening urban areas may promote lung health in low-moderate pollution areas but not in high air pollution areas. If the findings are replicated in other moderate-to-high pollution settings, this highlights a need to have a flexible green policy.

7.
Allergy ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on risk factors for eczema in adults. Recent evidence suggests that air pollution may be associated with increased incidence of eczema in adults. We aimed to assess this possible association. METHODS: Ambient air pollution exposures (distance from a major road, nitrogen dioxide [NO2 ], fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5 ]) were assessed for the residential address of Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study participants at ages 43 and 53 years. Eczema incidence (onset after age 43 years), prevalence (at 53 years), and persistence were assessed from surveys, while IgE sensitization was assessed using skin prick tests. The presence or absence of eczema and sensitization was classified into four groups: no atopy or eczema, atopy alone, non-atopic eczema, and atopic eczema. Adjusted logistic and multinomial regression models were fitted to estimate associations between ambient air pollution and eczema, and interaction by sex was assessed. RESULTS: Of 3153 participants in both follow-ups, 2369 had valid skin prick tests. For males, a 2.3 ppb increase in baselineNO2 was associated with increased odds of prevalent eczema (OR = 1.15 [95% CI 0.98-1.36]) and prevalent atopic eczema (OR = 1.26 [1.00-1.59]). These associations were not seen in females (p for interaction = 0.08, <0.01). For both sexes, a 1.6 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure at follow-up was associated with increased odds of aeroallergen sensitization (OR = 1.15 [1.03-1.30]). CONCLUSION: Increased exposure to residential ambient air pollutants was associated with an increased odds of eczema, only in males, and aeroallergen sensitization in both genders.

8.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental challenge studies have shown that pollen can have early and delayed effects on the lungs and airways. Here, we qualitatively and quantitatively synthesize the evidence of outdoor pollen exposure on various lung function and airway inflammation markers in community-based studies. METHODS: Four online databases were searched: Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar. The search strategy included terms relating to both exposure and outcomes. Inclusion criteria were human-based studies published in English that were representative of the community. Additionally, we only considered cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal studies which investigated pollen exposure by levels or season. Study quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models. RESULTS: We included 27 of 6551 studies identified from the search. Qualitative synthesis indicated associations between pollen exposure and predominantly type-2 inflammation in both the upper and lower airways, but little evidence for lung function changes. People with ever asthma and/or seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) were at higher risk of such airway inflammation. Meta-analysis confirmed a positive relationship between pollen season, eosinophilia and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in people with ever SAR but the results between studies were highly variable. Heterogeneity was reduced after further subgrouping by age, and the forest plots indicated that eosinophilic airway inflammation to outdoor pollen exposure increased with age. CONCLUSION: Among people with ever asthma and ever SAR, exposure to increased ambient pollen triggers type-2 upper and lower airway inflammation rather than a non-specific or innate inflammation. These findings can lead to the formulation of specific pollen immunotherapy for susceptible individuals. Future research should be directed towards investigating lagged associations and effect modifications using larger and more generalized populations. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: CRD42020146981 (PROSPERO).

9.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(159)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472957

RESUMO

While asthma is known to be associated with an increased risk of progressive lung function impairments and fixed airflow obstruction, there is ongoing debate on whether inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) modify these long-term risks. Searches were performed of the PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases up to 22 July 2019 for studies with follow-up ≥1 year that investigated the effects of maintenance ICS on changes in lung function in asthma.Inclusion criteria were met by 13 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (n=11 678) and 11 observational studies (n=3720). Median (interquartile range) follow-up was 1.0 (1-4) and 8.4 (3-28) years, respectively. In the RCTs, predominantly in individuals with mild asthma, ICS use was associated with improved pre-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) across all age groups (2.22% predicted (95% CI 1.32-3.12), n=8332), with similar estimates of strength in association for children and adults. Improvements in post-BD FEV1 were observed in adults (1.54% (0.87-2.21), n=3970), but not in children (0.20% (-0.49-0.90), n=3924) (subgroup difference, p=0.006). Estimates were similar between smokers and nonsmokers. There were no RCT data on incidence of fixed airflow obstruction. In the observational studies, ICS use was associated with improved pre-BD FEV1 in children and adults. There were limited observational data for post-BD outcomes.In patients with mild asthma, maintenance ICS are associated with modest, age-dependent improvements in long-term lung function, representing an added benefit to the broader clinical actions of ICS in asthma. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine whether treatment reduces incidence of fixed airflow obstruction in later life.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal trajectories of asthma and allergies from childhood to adulthood might be differentially associated with lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but associations with extrapulmonary comorbidities have not been well investigated. We aimed to assess these trajectories and examine their associations with lung function outcomes and profiles of comorbidities. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, data for asthma and related allergic conditions (ie, eczema, hay fever, and food allergy) were prospectively collected from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study for participants aged 7-53 years originally recruited in Tasmania, Australia. All surviving individuals in the database with contact details were invited in the most recent follow-up (mean age 53 years). There were no exclusion criteria. With use of latent class analysis, we identified longitudinal trajectories of asthma and allergic conditions from 7-53 years, and profiles of self-reported extrapulmonary conditions recorded at 53 years. The associations between asthma and allergy trajectories and morbidity profiles and lung function at 53 years were investigated with regression models. FINDINGS: Between Sept 3, 2012, and Nov 8, 2016, of 6128 individuals invited, 3609 (58·9%) individuals were enrolled. We identified five asthma and allergy trajectories: minimal and least asthma and allergies (n= 1767 [49·0%]); late-onset hay fever, no asthma (n=1065 [29·5%]); early-onset remitted asthma and allergies (n=236 [6·5%]); late-onset asthma and allergies (n=317 [8·8%]); and early-onset persistent asthma and allergies (n=224 [6·2%]); and four profiles of extrapulmonary morbidities: minimal or least disease (n=2206 [61·1%]); dominant mental health disorders (n=861 [23·9%]); dominant cardiovascular diseases or risks (n=424 [11·7%]); and multiple disorders (n=117 [3·2%]). The late-onset asthma and allergies trajectory was predominantly associated with the multiple disorders profile (relative risk ratio 3·3 [95% CI 1·9-5·9]), whereas the other asthma and allergy trajectories were associated only with the dominant mental health disorders profile. Both spirometrically defined and clinical COPD were most strongly associated with the early-onset persistent asthma and allergies trajectory (odds ratio [OR] 5·3 [95% CI 3·2-8·6]) and also with the late-onset asthma and allergies trajectory (OR 3·8 [2·4-6·1]). INTERPRETATION: Distinct longitudinal trajectories of asthma and allergic disease from childhood to 53 years are associated with different profiles of extrapulmonary comorbidities and varying risk of COPD. These findings can inform a personalised approach in clinical guidelines and management focusing on treatable traits. Comorbidity profiles are a new target for early identification and intervention. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, EU's Horizon 2020, The University of Melbourne, Clifford Craig Medical Research Trust of Tasmania, The Victorian, Queensland & Tasmanian Asthma Foundations, The Royal Hobart Hospital, Helen MacPherson Smith Trust, and GlaxoSmithKline.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longer duration of breastfeeding may be protective against asthma. However, early manifestations of allergic disease, such as eczema, are risk factors for asthma and can influence the duration of breastfeeding, and hence, may bias observable associations. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between breastfeeding ever and duration and the development of asthma and allergic asthma phenotypes, stratified by a diagnosis of eczema during or after the breastfeeding period. METHODS: A total of 3663 children participated in the 6-year-old follow-up of the HealthNuts study, a population-based, longitudinal study of allergic diseases in Australia. At age 1 year, breastfeeding and eczema data were collected and at age 6 years, information on wheeze, medication use, and parental report of doctor-diagnosed asthma were obtained, both via questionnaire. Skin prick test responses to food and aeroallergens at age 6 years further distinguished asthmatic children into allergic and nonallergic phenotypes. RESULTS: Breastfeeding initiation was not associated with current asthma at age 6 years (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.45-1.29) when compared with never breastfeeding. Results were similar for length of exclusiveness and overall duration of breastfeeding, and allergic and nonallergic asthma phenotypes. However, increased duration of breastfeeding among children without eczema in infancy was associated with reduced odds of asthma (per month increase, adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.0; P = .05), which equates to 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74-1.0) reduced odds of asthma for a 6-month increase in breastfeeding. This association was not apparent in children who were diagnosed with eczema during breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.98-1.08; P = .3). CONCLUSIONS: Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with a reduced odds of asthma among children without eczema in the first year of life; this association was masked before stratification by eczema in infancy. Future studies examining breastfeeding practices and the risk of allergic outcomes in later childhood need to consider the presence of early-life allergic manifestations impacting on breastfeeding behavior.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that children who experience asthma may be less physically active; however, results have been inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate whether the presence of asthma or wheeze is associated with lower physical activity levels in children, and whether sex, body mass index or earlier asthma or wheeze status modifies the association. METHODS: This study was conducted in 391 HealthNuts participants in Melbourne, Australia. Asthma and wheeze data were collected via questionnaire at age 4 and 6, and physical activity was measured through accelerometry. Using adjusted linear regression models, the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were investigated. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a difference in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at age 6 years between children with and without asthma at age 4; children with asthma spent 8.3 minutes more time physically active per day (95% CI: -5.6, 22.1, P = .24) than children without asthma. Similar results were seen for children with current wheeze (5.8 minutes per day more, 95% CI: -5.9, 17.5, P = .33) or ever wheeze or asthma (7.7 minutes per day more, 95% CI: -4.8, 20.2, P = .23) at age 4 years. Comparable null results were observed in the cross-sectional analyses. Interaction with BMI could not be assessed; however, previous asthma or wheeze status and sex were not found to modify these associations. CONCLUSION: This analysis found no evidence of asthma hindering physical activity in these young children. These results are encouraging, as they indicate that the Australian asthma and physical activity public health campaigns are being effectively communicated and adopted by the public.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817718

RESUMO

Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991-1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999-2003, and ECRHS III in 2010-2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protective causal effect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean ß (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21-95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36-130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Exercício Físico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Allergy ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between grass pollen exposure and early markers of asthma exacerbations such as lung function changes and increase in airway inflammation is limited. We investigated the associations between short-term grass pollen exposure and lung function and airway inflammation in a community-based sample, and whether any such associations were modified by current asthma, current hay fever, pollen sensitization, age, and other environmental factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional and short-term analyses of data from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study (MACS) participants (n = 936). Lung function was assessed using spirometry. Airway inflammation was assessed by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled breath condensate pH and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Daily pollen counts were collected using a volumetric spore trap. The associations were examined by linear regression. RESULTS: Higher ambient levels of grass pollen 2 days before (lag 2) were associated with lower mid-forced expiratory flow (FEF25%-75% ) and FEV1 /FVC ratio (Coef. [95% CI] = -119 [-226, -11] mL/s and -1.0 [-3.0, -0.03] %, respectively) and also 3 days before (lag 3). Increased levels of grass pollen a day before (lag 1) were associated with increased FeNO (4.35 [-0.1, 8.7] ppb) and also at lag 2. Adverse associations between pollen and multiple outcomes were greater in adults with current asthma, hay fever, and pollen sensitization. CONCLUSION: Grass pollen exposure was associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation 1-2 days after exposure and airway obstruction 2-3 days after exposure. Adults and individuals with asthma, hay fever, and pollen sensitization may be at higher risk.

16.
J Asthma ; : 1-18, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence on whether having current, ever asthma and asthma control is associated with levels of total, moderate and vigorous physical activity. METHODS: We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases, limiting searches to English language papers from inception until Oct 2019. We synthesized the evidence comparing levels of total, moderate and vigorous physical activity between adults with and without current asthma or ever asthma by random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 25 studies were included, with 18 of these included in meta-analyses. A meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies found that adults with current asthma were less active, with 942.12 steps fewer per day, than adults without current asthma (SMD = -0.39, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.24, I2 = 0). Meta-analysis of four-high quality cross-sectional studies found that those with current or ever asthma were more likely to be inactive than those without asthma (binary OR current asthma = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.82, 0.89, I2 = 45.6%, and binary OR ever asthma = 0.83, 0.75, 0.91, I2 = 0, respectively). Meta-analysis, inclusive of all 10 cross-sectional studies with binary ORs, supported this finding. There was also some evidence that adults with current asthma and ever asthma (6 studies with categorical ORs) were less likely to exercise moderately and vigorously, but these meta-analyses were limited by high heterogeneity. No synthesis of the studies considering asthma control was possible. CONCLUSION: Adults with current or ever asthma had lower levels of total, moderate and vigorous physical activity than those without asthma and may be missing out on the health benefits of being physically active. The association between asthma control and physical activity warrants further investigation.

17.
Med J Aust ; 213(6): 269-275, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between exposure during early life to mine fire smoke and parent-reported indicators of respiratory and atopic illness 2-4 years later. DESIGN, SETTING: The Hazelwood coalmine fire exposed a regional Australian community to markedly increased air pollution during February - March 2014. During June 2016 - October 2018 we conducted a prospective cohort study of children from the Latrobe Valley. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-nine children exposed to smoke in utero, 81 exposed during early childhood (0-2 years of age), and 129 children conceived after the fire (ie, unexposed). EXPOSURE: Individualised mean daily and peak 24-hour fire-attributable fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure during the fire period, based on modelled air quality and time-activity data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parent-reported symptoms, medications use, and contacts with medical professionals, collected in monthly online diaries for 29 months, 2-4 years after the fire. RESULTS: In the in utero exposure analysis (2678 monthly diaries for 160 children exposed in utero or unexposed), each 10 µg/m3 increase in mean daily PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased reports of runny nose/cough (relative risk [RR], 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.17), wheeze (RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.18-2.07), seeking health professional advice (RR, 1.17; 95% CI 1.06-1.29), and doctor diagnoses of upper respiratory tract infections, cold or flu (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.60). Associations with peak 24-hour PM2.5 exposure were similar. In the early childhood exposure analysis (3290 diaries for 210 children exposed during early childhood, or unexposed), each 100 µg/m3 increase in peak 24-hour PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased use of asthma inhalers (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01-1.58). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to mine fire smoke in utero was associated with increased reports by parents of respiratory infections and wheeze in their children 2-4 years later.


Assuntos
Fogo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Carvão Mineral , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fumaça/análise
18.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-11, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677468

RESUMO

Birth during pollen seasons may influence food allergy risk but no study has assessed pollen exposure. Using the HealthNuts population-based cohort of 5276 infants, we assessed grass pollen exposures, in utero and up to the first 6 months of life, on hen's egg, sesame and peanut allergy outcomes at 12 months. Cumulative pollen exposure in the first 7 days of life increased risk of peanut sensitization aMOR (adjusted multinomial odds ratio) = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01-1.44). Exposure between first 4-6 months of life increased risk of hen's egg aMOR = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.004-1.04) and sensitization to all foods aMOR = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.003-1.04). Grass pollen exposure was associated with food challenge diagnosed food allergy, but only among infants with a maternal history of food allergy. Exposure to grass pollen in the intrauterine period and infancy may be important but more studies are needed to replicate these findings.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are a diverse range of sugars secreted in breast milk that have direct and indirect effects on immunity. The profiles of HMOs produced differ between mothers. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the relationship between maternal HMO profiles and offspring allergic diseases up to age 18 years. METHODS: Colostrum and early lactation milk samples were collected from 285 mothers enrolled in a high-allergy-risk birth cohort, the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Nineteen HMOs were measured. Profiles/patterns of maternal HMOs were determined using LCA. Details of allergic disease outcomes including sensitization, wheeze, asthma, and eczema were collected at multiple follow-ups up to age 18 years. Adjusted logistic regression analyses and generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between HMO profiles and allergy. RESULTS: The levels of several HMOs were highly correlated with each other. LCA determined 7 distinct maternal milk profiles with memberships of 10% and 20%. Compared with offspring exposed to the neutral Lewis HMO profile, exposure to acidic Lewis HMOs was associated with a higher risk of allergic disease and asthma over childhood (odds ratio asthma at 18 years, 5.82; 95% CI, 1.59-21.23), whereas exposure to the acidic-predominant profile was associated with a reduced risk of food sensitization (OR at 12 years, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.67). CONCLUSIONS: In this high-allergy-risk birth cohort, some profiles of HMOs were associated with increased and some with decreased allergic disease risks over childhood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and realize the potential for intervention.

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While direct effects of occupational exposures on an individual's respiratory health are evident, a new paradigm is emerging on the possible effects of pre-conception occupational exposure on respiratory health in offspring. We aimed to study the association between parental occupational exposure starting before conception and asthma in their offspring (at 0-15 years of age). METHODS: We studied 3985 offspring participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Their mothers or fathers (n = 2931) previously participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Information was obtained from questionnaires on parental job history pre- and post-conception which was linked to an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). We assessed the association between parental occupational exposure and offspring asthma, applying logistic regression models, clustered by family and adjusted for study centre, offspring sex, parental characteristics (age, asthma onset, place of upbringing, smoking) and grandparents' level of education. RESULTS: Parental occupational exposure to microorganisms, pesticides, allergens or reactive chemicals pre-conception or both pre- and post-conception was not related to offspring asthma; in general, subgroup analyses confirmed this result. However, maternal exposure both pre- and post-conception to allergens and reactive chemicals was associated with increased odds for early-onset asthma in offspring (0-3 years of age); odds ratio 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02-2.84) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.98-2.77), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find evidence that parental occupational exposure, defined by an asthma JEM before conception only or during pre- and post-conception vs non-exposed, was associated with offspring asthma.

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