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1.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(2): 336-342, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535057

RESUMO

Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) heralds increased mortality in cirrhosis, mandating strategies for prophylaxis. Norfloxacin has been the recommended choice for SBP prevention. However, its use has raised concerns about antibiotic resistance. Rifaximin has been suggested as an alternative. We investigated the efficacy of rifaximin against norfloxacin in primary and secondary prophylaxis of SBP. Methods: In this open-labeled randomized trial, patients with either advanced cirrhosis having ascitic fluid protein levels (<1.5 g/l), Child-Pugh score ≥9 points, serum bilirubin ≥3 mg/dl or impaired renal function (primary prophylaxis group), or those with prior SBP (secondary prophylaxis group) received either norfloxacin (400 mg once daily) or rifaximin (550 mg twice daily). All patients were followed for six months, with the primary endpoint being the development of incident SBP. Results: 142 patients were assessed for eligibility, of which 132 met the enrolment criteria; 12 were lost to follow-up, while 4 discontinued treatment. In patients on primary prophylaxis, occurrence of SBP was similar (14.3% vs. 24.3%, P = 0.5), whereas in secondary prophylaxis SBP recurrence was lower with rifaximin (7% vs. 39% P = 0.004). Rifaximin significantly reduced the odds for SBP development in secondary prophylaxis [OR (95% CI0.14 (0.02-0.73; P = 0.02)]. Patients receiving rifaximin as secondary prophylaxis also had fewer episodes of hepatic encephalopathy (23.1% vs. 51.5%, P = 0.02). 180-day survival between the arms in either group was similar (P = 0.5, P = 0.2). Conclusion: In comparison to norfloxacin, rifaximin significantly reduces incident events of SBP, as well as HE when used as a secondary prophylaxis, whereas for primary prophylaxis both have similar effects (NCT03695705). Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03695705.

2.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(2): 398-408, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535083

RESUMO

Background & aims: There is no "gold standard" tool for the assessment of frailty in cirrhosis. This study compares Liver Frailty Index (LFI), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Fried Frailty Criteria (FFC), and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) for frailty assessment and ascertains its impact on predicting mortality and hospitalizations in a cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. Methods: 116 patients were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. Frailty assessment was done using LFI, SPPB, FFC, and CFS. All patients were followed up for 6 months. The primary outcome was the first of either all-cause unplanned hospitalization or all-cause mortality occurring within 6 months of the study period. Results: 100 (86.2%) males and 16 (13.8%) females with a mean age of 50.2 (48.4-51.9, 95% CI) years were included. The most common cause of cirrhosis was alcoholic liver disease (47.4%) followed by hepatitis C (12.9%) and Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (10.3%). There was no significant difference in prevalence of frailty based on LFI (43.1%), FFC (36.2%), CFS (44%), and SPPB (47.4%) (P > 0.05). Frail patients had worse outcomes compared to the Not frail group. At 6 months, the mortality rate in Frail patients was 42% versus 1.5% for the Not frail; hospitalization in Frail patients occurred in 92% versus 6% in the Not frail. On multivariable analysis, independent predictors of mortality were Frailty [OR 14 (1.4-54.2)], alcohol-related cirrhosis [OR 4.2 (1.1-16.3)], Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) [OR 2.1 (1.4-2.9)] and Chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) [OR 0.1 (0.1-0.4)] scores. Conclusions: LFI, SPPB, FFC, and CFS are comparable in frailty assessment in patients with cirrhosis. Importantly, comparability of the commonly used scores for frailty assessment and prediction of hospitalization and mortality allows flexibility for clinical application.

4.
Hepatol Int ; 16(2): 433-446, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) presenting as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) carries a high short-term mortality. Alteration of gut microbiota is a crucial component implicated in its pathogenesis, whose modulation has been suggested as a potential therapeutic tool. We evaluated the safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and its efficacy in improving short-term survival and clinical severity scores in patients with SAH-ACLF. METHODS: Thirty-three patients [13 in the FMT arm; 20 in the standard of care arm (SOC)] with SAH-ACLF were included in this open-label study. A single FMT session was administered as a freshly prepared stool suspension from pre-identified healthy family member stool donors through a nasojejunal tube. Patients were followed up on days 7, 28, and 90. RESULTS: Survival at 28 and 90 days was significantly better in the FMT arm (100% versus 60%, p = 0.01; 53.84% versus 25%, p = 0.02). Hepatic encephalopathy resolved in 100% versus 57.14% (FMT versus SOC, p = 0.11) patients, while ascites resolved in 100% versus 40% survivors (p = 0.04). Major adverse event rates, including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and gastrointestinal bleeding, were similar in both groups (p = 0.77; p = 0.70). Median IL1beta decreased by 21.39% (IQR - 73.67 to 7.63) in the FMT group, whereas it increased in the SOC by 27.44% (IQR - 0.88 to 128.11) (p = 0.01). Percentage changes in bilirubin and ALT between baseline and day 7 emerged as predictors of 90-day mortality. CONCLUSION: FMT is safe, improves short-term and medium-term survival, and leads to improvement in clinical severity scores in patients with SAH-ACLF. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: NCT03827772 available from http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03827772 CTRI Reference number: CTRI/2019/02/017538 dated 7 February 2019.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatite Alcoólica , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(5): 395-406, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266624

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with neuropsychiatric changes. Also, patients with cirrhosis may develop overt or minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Sustained virological response (SVR) with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) may improve the neuropsychiatric manifestations and quality of life (QoL). Consecutive patients (with and without cirrhosis, all genders and aged 18-65 years) with hepatitis C were assessed at enrolment and at 12 weeks after therapy completion for mood (Beck's Depression Inventory [BDI]), anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD-7]), QoL (SF-36 ver.2) and computer-based tests for number connection (NCT), visual memory, Stroop test and reaction times. We recruited 385 viraemic chronic HCV patients (76.1% male, 21.0% cirrhotic, mean age 39.4 ± 14.2 years, 59.3% genotype 3, mean HCV RNA load 5.8 log). Overall SVR-12 rates were 90.6%, with cure rates 87.6% and 91.4% in patients with and without cirrhosis, respectively. Patients who achieved SVR-12 had mean percentage reduction in BDI (11.3%, p = .000), GAD (8.6%, p = .001) and Stroop test (58.4%, p = .001), with improved NCT (1.7%, p = .001), visual memory (13.7%, p = .001) and digit span (23.8%, p = .002). On multivariate logistic regression, adherence (OR, 17.5 [95% CI 2.80-110.50], p = .000), high ALT (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.00-1.05]), and BDI score (OR 1.73 [95% CI 1.42-3.26] p = .039) predicted cure. SVR-12 was associated with improved visual memory ≥5.5 (AUC-0.708; sensitivity 62.5%, specificity 63%, p = .000) and % correct Stroop test responses >26.6% (AUC-0.918, sensitivity 94.4% specificity 80.4%, p = .000). In conclusion, given the cumulative evidence of the safety of DAAs and efficacy of improving cognitive and neuropsychological and quality-of-life outcomes irrespective of age and gender, as shown in our study, future recommendations should focus on integrated universal HCV care to enable HCV elimination.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 56(1): e11-e19, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with high short-term mortality in those with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 electrolyte solution can ensure rapid gut catharsis, which may resolve HE more effectively than lactulose. In this open-label-randomized trial, we compared PEG+lactulose versus lactulose alone in ACLF with HE grade ≥2 for efficacy and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive PEG (2 L q12 h) followed by lactulose (30 mL q8 h) or standard medical treatment [SMT, lactulose (titrated 30 mL q8 h)]. Endpoints were HE grade improvement at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days using hepatic encephalopathy scoring algorithm (HESA), ammonia reduction, HE resolution, and survival benefit. RESULTS: Of 60 patients, 29 were randomized to PEG+lactulose arm and 31 to SMT. In the PEG arm, early reduction in HESA score was noted in more persons [18 (62.1%) vs. 10 (32.2%); P=0.021] with a shorter median time to HE resolution [4.5 (3 to 9) d vs. 9 (8 to 11) d; P=0.023]. On multivariate analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR),1.06 (1.00 to 1.13); P=0.03], HESA score [HR, 6.01 (1.27 to 28.5); P=0.024], and model for end-stage liver disease [HR, 1.26 (1.01 to 1.53); P=0.022] were predictors of mortality at 28 days. Ammonia level or reduction did not correlate with HE grades. Adverse events included excessive diarrhea (20.6% vs. 9.6%) in the PEG and SMT arms, albeit without dyselectrolytemia or worsened renal function. In the PEG versus SMT arm, survival at 28 days were 93.1% versus 67.7% (P=0.010) and at 90 days was 68.9% versus 48.3% (P=0.940), respectively, with fewer persons relapsing with HE in the PEG arm. CONCLUSIONS: PEG resulted in early and sustained HE resolution with improved short-term survival making, it a suitable and safe drug in patients with acute HE in ACLF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Doença Hepática Terminal , Encefalopatia Hepática , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactulose/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(6): 682-690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has variable etiological risk factors. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and surgical resection (SR) are frequently used as curative treatment options. In the present study, we assessed the etiological factors and efficacy of RFA and SR in patients with unifocal HCC in a real-life setting. METHODS: Of 870 patients with HCC seen over a period of nine years, 785 patients were assessed for stage and etiological risk factors. Of these, 110 (14%) patients with single HCC who were either treated with RFA (n = 72) or SR (n = 38) were evaluated for their outcomes in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) over 3 years. RESULTS: Of 785 patients [median age 60 (range 51-65) years, males (n = 685, 87.3%)] with HCC, viral hepatitis [HBV and HCV with or without alcohol = 502 (63.9%)] was the most common etiology; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcohol as an etiology showed increase over the years. About 677 (86.2%) patients had evidence of cirrhosis; NASH and HBV were predominant causes in noncirrhotic patients. Even though the groups were not matched, in 110 patients subjected to either RFA [mean tumor size, 2.2 (1.9-2.8) cm] or SR [mean tumor size, 7.1 (4.8-9.7) cm], tumor progression was observed in 49 (68%) and 16 (42%) patients in RFA and SR groups, respectively, with superior DFS in the SR group (P < 0.01). Of total 31 deaths, 20 (27.8%) deaths were in the RFA group and 11 (28.9%) in the SR group with no difference in OS at 3 years. CONCLUSION: Viral hepatitis with or without alcohol is the commonest etiological factor for HCC in Northern India; NASH and alcohol are increasing over the years. In a real-life setting, in patients with unifocal HCC, there is no difference in overall 3-year survival subjected to SR or RFA with better DFS in the SR group.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101148, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) is 8-10% as compared to 3·6% in the general population in Punjab, India. We assessed the real-world efficacy and safety of free-of-charge generic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), sofosbuvir with an NS5A inhibitor (ledipasvir, daclatasvir or velpatasvir)±ribavirin in the microelimination of CHC in PWID in a public health setting. METHODS: An integrated care team at 25 sites provided algorithm based DAAs treatment to PWID supervised by telemedicine clinics between 18th June 2016 and 31st July 2019. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR-12); the secondary endpoints were treatment completion, adherence, safety, and adverse events. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01110447. FINDINGS: We enrolled 3477 PWID (87·2% men; mean age 33·6±12·5 years; 83·8% rural; 6·8% compensated cirrhosis). While 2280 (65·5%) patients completed treatment, 1978 patients completed 12 weeks of follow up for SVR-12. SVR-12 was achieved in 91·1% of patients per protocol, 49.5% as per intention to treat (ITT) and 90·1% in a modified ITT analysis. Of 546 (15·7%) patients with treatment interruptions, 99 (19·7%) could be traced to test for SVR-12 with a cure rate of 77·8%. There were no major adverse events or consequent treatment discontinuation. INTERPRETATION: Integrated care of PWID with CHC with DAAs is safe and effective. Measures for reducing treatment interruptions will further improve outcomes. FUNDING: The Government of the state of Punjab, India under the Mukh Mantri Punjab Hepatitis C Relief Fund (MMPHCRF) project, funds the project.

10.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 18(3): 127-137, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691399
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the reported risk score models for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality are based on the levels of inflammatory markers, comorbidities or various treatment modalities, and there is a paucity of risk score models based on clinical symptoms and comorbidities. METHODS: To address this need, age, clinical symptoms and comorbidities were used to develop a COVID-19 scoring system (CSS) for early prediction of mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The CSS was developed with scores ranging from 0 to 9. A higher score indicates higher risk with good discrimination quality presented by Mann Whitney U test and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). RESULTS: Patient age of ≥60 y, cough, breathlessness, diabetes and any other comorbidity (with or without diabetes) are significant and independent risk factors for non-survival among COVID-19 patients. The CSS showed good sensitivity and specificity (i.e. 74.1% and 78.5% at CSS≥5, respectively), with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 82.8%, which was close to the diagnostic accuracy detected in the validation cohort (81.9%). In the validation cohort, high (8-9), medium (5-7) and low (0-4) CSS groups had 54.80%, 28.60% and 6.5% observed mortality, respectively, which was very close to the predicted mortality (62.40%, 27.60% and 5.2%, respectively, by scoring cohort). CONCLUSIONS: The CSS shows a positive relationship between a higher score and proportion of mortality and, as its validation showed, it is useful for the prediction of risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients at an early stage, so that referral for triage and admission can be predetermined even before admission to hospital.

12.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 305-311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous ablation is an important part of management strategy for liver tumors. While radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation are the most widely used ablative techniques, cryoablation (CA) has several technical advantages but has been underused till recently. In this study, we report the initial experience with percutaneous CA of liver tumors. METHODS: This was a retrospective evaluation of consecutive patients with liver tumors who underwent percutaneous CA between October 2018 and August 2019. The ablation procedures were performed under combined ultrasound and computed tomography guidance using argon-helium-based CA systems. The baseline tumor characteristics (including size and location), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, and Child-Pugh score were recorded. Each patient underwent a follow-up after 1 month and at 3 months subsequently. Technical success, complete response, local tumor progression, and overall survival were evaluated. RESULTS: Nine patients (mean age, 62.4 years, median age, 66 years, five men and four women) with 10 liver tumors (mean size, 2.22 cm) underwent CA. Seven (77.8%) patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and 2 patients had solitary liver metastasis. One patient with HCC had two lesions, while the rest had only one lesion. Of the two metastatic lesions, one was from carcinoma of the cervix and the other was from jejunal neuroendocrine tumor. Five tumors were located adjacent to the gallbladder, two lesions were adjacent to the right portal vein, two lesions were subcapsular, and one lesion was adjacent to the stomach. Technical success was achieved in all the patients. Complete response was achieved in 7 (77.8%) patients. The median follow-up period was 7 months (range, 3-12 months). There was no local tumor progression and no death during the follow-up period. No procedure-related complication was seen. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous CA of hepatic tumors is technically feasible and is a safe and effective ablative technique.

13.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 400-403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994721

RESUMO

Hepatitis E is one of the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Chronic infection with hepatitis E is less common and limited to immunosuppressed patients and is usually due to genotype 3 of the virus. Genotype 1, the most prevalent strain in the South Asian region, is seldom known to be associated with chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a case of chronic hepatitis E with genotype 1 in a post-liver transplant setting. In the index case, previously compensated cryptogenic cirrhosis was decompensated by an acute hepatitis E infection, which necessitated liver transplantation because of acute chronic liver failure. This later progressed to chronicity. This case may have significant implications in management, especially in the post-liver transplant setting.

14.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 354-386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994718

RESUMO

Renal dysfunction is very common among patients with chronic liver disease, and concomitant liver disease can occur among patients with chronic kidney disease. The spectrum of clinical presentation and underlying etiology is wide when concomitant kidney and liver disease occur in the same patient. Management of these patients with dual onslaught is challenging and requires a team approach of hepatologists and nephrologists. No recent guidelines exist on algorithmic approach toward diagnosis and management of these challenging patients. The Indian National Association for Study of Liver (INASL) in association with Indian Society of Nephrology (ISN) endeavored to develop joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of patients who have simultaneous liver and kidney disease. For generating these guidelines, an INASL-ISN Taskforce was constituted, which had members from both the societies. The taskforce first identified contentious issues on various aspects of simultaneous liver and kidney diseases, which were allotted to individual members of the taskforce who reviewed them in detail. A round-table meeting of the Taskforce was held on 20-21 October 2018 at New Delhi to discuss, debate, and finalize the consensus statements. The evidence and recommendations in these guidelines have been graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system with minor modifications. The strength of recommendations (strong and weak) thus reflects the quality (grade) of underlying evidence (I, II, III). We present here the INASL-ISN Joint Position Statements on Management of Patients with Simultaneous Liver and Kidney Disease.

15.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(1): 21-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679045

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) with transient elastography (TE) and liver histology for measuring liver stiffness in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Thirty-two patients with chronic liver disease (CVH and NAFLD) were evaluated by ElastPQ and TE within 7 days of liver biopsy. Within the CVH group, subgroup analysis was carried out in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and without ESRD. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were calculated for ElastPQ and TE. RESULTS: There were 15 patients with CVH and 17 patients with NAFLD. In the CVH group, there were 8 patients with ESRD and 7 patients without ESRD. Taking liver histopathology as the gold standard, liver stiffness measurement by ElastPQ (ρ = 0.826;P < 0.0001) and TE (ρ = 0.649; P < 0.0001) correlated significantly with the stage of fibrosis. AUROCs of ElastPQ and TE for the diagnosis of any fibrosis (F ≥ 1), significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2), and advanced fibrosis (F ≥ 3) were 0.907, 0.959, 0.926 and 0.870, 0.770, 0.881, respectively, in both CVH and NAFLD groups. However, the accuracy of both these techniques was poor in patients with CVH and ESRD (AUROCs for ElastPQ and TE of 0.667 and 0.167 for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis, respectively, and 0.429 and 0.143 for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy of both ElastPQ and TE for detecting significant fibrosis was excellent in patients with NAFLD (AUROC of 1.000 and 0.936, respectively). ElastPQ was superior to TE in the diagnosis of significant fibrosis in the combined analysis (P = 0.0149) and in the CVH group (P = 0.0391), while both modalities were comparable in patients of the NAFLD group (P = 0.2539). CONCLUSION: ElastPQ may be equally accurate as Fibroscan, and large prospective studies are required to validate the same.

16.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(1): 97-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679050

RESUMO

Malnutrition and sarcopenia are common in patients with chronic liver disease and are associated with increased risk of decompensation, infections, wait-list mortality and poorer outcomes after liver transplantation. Assessment of nutritional status and management of malnutrition are therefore essential to improve outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. This consensus statement of the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver provides a comprehensive review of nutrition in chronic liver disease and gives recommendations for nutritional screening and treatment in specific clinical scenarios of malnutrition in cirrhosis in adults as well as children with chronic liver disease and metabolic disorders.

18.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(2): 270-272, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746454

RESUMO

Hypercalcemia is a rare metabolic abnormality seen in patients with cirrhosis and is usually considered a paraneoplastic manifestation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Idiopathic hypercalcemia in cirrhosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is considered when all the causes of hypercalcemia have been ruled out. Here, we report a rare case of idiopathic hypercalcemia presenting as acute kidney injury in a case of decompensated cirrhosis, managed with adequate hydration and injection of ibandronate and intranasal calcitonin, leading to the normalization of serum calcium and resolution of acute kidney injury.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e042280, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite treatment availability, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) public health burden is rising in India due to lack of timely diagnosis. Therefore, we aim to assess incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for one-time universal screening followed by treatment of people infected with HCV as compared with a no screening policy in Punjab, India. STUDY DESIGN: Decision tree integrated with Markov model was developed to simulate disease progression. A societal perspective and a 3% annual discount rate were considered to assess incremental cost per QALY gained. In addition, budgetary impact was also assessed with a payer's perspective and time horizon of 5 years. STUDY SETTING: Screening services were assumed to be delivered as a facility-based intervention where active screening for HCV cases would be performed at 22 district hospitals in the state of Punjab, which will act as integrated testing as well as treatment sites for HCV. INTERVENTION: Two intervention scenarios were compared with no universal screening and treatment (routine care). Scenario I-screening with ELISA followed by confirmatory HCV-RNA quantification and treatment. Scenario II-screening with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit followed by confirmatory HCV-RNA quantification and treatment. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime costs; life years and QALY gained; and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for each of the above-mentioned intervention scenario as compared with the routine care. RESULTS: Screening with ELISA and RDT, respectively, results in a gain of 0.028 (0.008 to 0.06) and 0.027 (0.008 to 0.061) QALY per person with costs decreased by -1810 Indian rupees (-3376 to -867) and -1812 Indian rupees (-3468 to -850) when compared with no screening. One-time universal screening of all those ≥18 years at a base coverage of 30%, with ELISA and RDT, would cost 8.5 and 8.3 times more, respectively, when compared with screening the age group of the cohort 40-45 years old. CONCLUSION: One-time universal screening followed by HCV treatment is a dominant strategy as compared with no screening. However, budget impact of screening of all ≥18-year-old people seems unsustainable. Thus, in view of findings from both cost-effectiveness and budget impact, we recommend beginning with screening the age cohort with RDT around mean age of disease presentation, that is, 40-45 years, instead of all ≥18-year-old people.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
20.
Liver Int ; 41(1): 150-157, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors may impact the severity and outcome of alcoholic liver disease. The present study evaluated this effect in patients with alcohol-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODOLOGY: One thousand two hundred and sixteen prospectively enrolled patients with ACLF (males 98%, mean age 42.5 ± 9.4 years, mean CTP, MELD and AARC scores of 12 ± 1.4, 29.7 ± 7 and 9.8 ± 2 respectively) from the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database were analysed retrospectively. Patients with or without metabolic risk factors were compared for severity (CTP, MELD, AARC scores) and day 30 and 90 mortality. Information on overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidaemia were available in 1028 (85%), 1019 (84%), 1017 (84%) and 965 (79%) patients respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 392 (32%) patients died at day 30 and 528 (43%) at day 90. Overweight/obesity, T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were present in 154 (15%), 142 (14%), 66 (7%) and 141 (15%) patients, respectively, with no risk factors in 809 (67%) patients. Patients with overweight/obesity had higher MELD scores (30.6 ± 7.1 vs 29.2 ± 6.9, P = .007) and those with dyslipidaemia had higher AARC scores (10.4 ± 1.2 vs 9.8 ± 2, P = .014). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased day 30 mortality (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.24, P = .023). None of other metabolic risk factors, alone or in combination, had any impact on disease severity or mortality. On multivariate analysis, overweight or obesity was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (aHR 1.91, 95% CI 1.41-2.59, P < .001), independent of age, CTP, MELD and AARC scores. CONCLUSION: Overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia increase the severity of alcohol-associated ACLF, and the former also increases the short-term mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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