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1.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792888

RESUMO

There is enough clinical evidence that a T-tube use in biliary reconstruction at adult liver transplantation (LT) does not significantly modify the risk of biliary stricture/leak, and it may even sustain infective and metabolic complications. Thus, the policy on T-tube use has been globally changing, with progressive application of more restrictive selection criteria. However, there are no currently standardized indications in such change, and many LT Centers rely only on own experience and routine. A nation-wide survey was conducted among all the 20 Italian adult LT Centers to investigate the current policy on T-tube use. It was found that 20% of Centers completely discontinued the T-tube use, while 25% Centers used it routinely in all LT cases. The remaining 55% of Centers applied a selective policy, based on criteria of technical complexity of biliary reconstruction (72.7%), followed by low-quality graft (63.6%) and high-risk recipient (36.4%). A T-tube use > 50% of annual caseload was not associated with high-volume Center status (> 70 LT per year), an active pediatric or living-donor transplant program, or use of DCD grafts. Only 10/20 (50%) Centers identified T-tube as a potential risk factor for complications other than biliary stricture/leak. In these cases, the suspected pathogenic mechanism comprised bacterial colonization (70%), malabsorption (70%), interruption of the entero-hepatic bile-acid cycle (50%), biliary inflammation due to an indwelling catheter (40%) and gut microbiota changes (40%). In conclusion, the prevalence of T-tube use among the Italian LT Centers is still relatively high, compared to the European trend (33%), and the potential detrimental effect of T-tube, beyond biliary stricture/leak, seems to be somehow underestimated.

2.
Liver Int ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sarcopenia in liver transplantation (LT) cirrhotic candidates has been connected with higher dropouts and graft losses after transplant. The study aims to create an "urgency" model combining sarcopenia and MELDNa to predict the risk of dropout and identify an appropriate threshold of post-LT futility. METHODS: A total of 1,087 adult cirrhotic patients were listed for a first LT during Jan2012-Dec2018. The study population was split into a Training (n=855) and a Validation Set (n=232). RESULTS: Using a competing-risk analysis of cause-specific hazards, we created the Sarco-Model2 . According to the model, one extra-point of MELDNa was added for each 0.5-cm2 /m2 reduction of Total Psoas Area (TPA)<6.0 cm2 /m2 . At external validation, the Sarco-Model2 showed the best diagnostic ability for predicting the risk of 3-month dropout in patients with MELDNa<20 (AUC=0.93; p=0.003). Using the net reclassification improvement, 14.3% of dropped-out patients were correctly reclassified using the Sarco-Model2 . As for the futility threshold, transplanted patients with TPA<6.0 cm2 /m2 and MELDNa 35-40 (n=16/833, 1.9%) had the worse results (6-month graft loss=25.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In sarcopenic patients with MELDNa<20, the "urgency" Sarco-Model2 , should be used to prioritize the list, while MELDNa value should be preferred in patients with MELDNa ≥20. The Sarco-Model2 played a role in more than 30% of the cases in the investigated allocation scenario. In sarcopenic patients with a MELDNa value of 35-40, "futile" transplantation should be considered.

3.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13608, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of and the risk factors for breakthrough-IFI (b-IFI) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) according to the new definition proposed by Mycoses-Study-Group-Education-and-Research-Consortium (MSG-ERC) and the European-Confederation-of-Medical-Mycology (ECMM). METHODS: Multicenter prospective study of adult patients who underwent OLT at three Italian hospitals, from January 2015 to December 2018. Targeted antifungal prophylaxis (TAP) protocol was developed and shared among participating centers. Follow-up was 1-year after OLT. B-IFI was defined as infection occurring during exposure to antifungal prophylaxis. Risk factors for b-IFI were analysed among patients exposed to prophylaxis by univariable analysis. RESULTS: We enrolled 485 OLT patients. Overall compliance to TAP protocol was 64.3%, 220 patients received antifungal prophylaxis, 172 according to TAP protocol. Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed of IFI within 1 year after OLT. Of them, 11 presented with b-IFI within 17 (IQR 11-33) and 16 (IQR 4-30) days from OLT and from antifungal onset, respectively. Then out of 11 patients with b-IFI were classified as having high risk of IFI and were receiving anti-mould prophylaxis, nine with echinocandins and one with polyenes. Comparison of patients with and without b-IFI showed significant differences for prior Candida colonization, need of renal replacement therapy after OLT, re-operation, and CMV infection (whole blood CMV-DNA >100,000 copies/mL). Although non-significant, a higher rate of b-IFI in patients on echinocandins was observed (8.2% vs. 1.8%, p=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: We observed 5% of b-IFI among OLT patients exposed to antifungal prophylaxis. The impact of echinocandins on b-IFI risk in this setting should be further explored.

4.
Int J Med Robot ; 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common indication for associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS). Robotic liver resection has been done for HCC, but robotic ALPPS is a rare procedure. METHODS: To present three cases of totally robotic ALPPS in cirrhotic patients with HCC. RESULTS: Three cirrhotic male patients with HCC underwent ALPPS; the mean age was 54.3 years. MELD score was ≤9 and tumour size between 90 and 140 mm. The mean hypertrophy of the future liver remnant after the first stage was 77.5% and no postoperative liver failure was reported. Mean operative time of stage 1 was 7:30 h and of stage 2 was 4:37 h, without blood transfusion. The mean hospital stay for the first stage was 10 days and for the second stage was 9.3 days. No postoperative complication was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic ALPPS in cirrhotic patients with HCC is safe and feasible.

5.
Transplantation ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donation after circulatory death (DCD) in Italy, given its 20-min stand-off period, provides a unique bench-test for normothermic regional perfusion (NRP) and dual hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (D-HOPE). METHODS: We coordinated a multicenter retrospective Italian cohort study with 44 controlled DCD donors, who underwent NRP, to present transplant characteristics and results. To rank our results according to the high donor risk, we matched and compared a subgroup of 37 controlled DCD livers, preserved with NRP and D-HOPE, with static-preserved controlled DCD transplants from an established European program. RESULTS: In the Italian cohort, D-HOPE was used in 84% of cases, and the primary nonfunction rate was 5%. Compared to the matched comparator group, the NRP+D-HOPE-group showed a lower incidence of moderate and severe acute kidney injury (stage 2: 8% vs 27% and stage 3: 3% vs 27%, P=0.001). Ischemic cholangiopathy remained low (2-year proportion free: 97% vs 92%, P=0.317), despite the high-risk profile resulting from the longer donor warm ischemia in Italy (40 vs 18min, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that NRP and D-HOPE yield good results in DCD livers with prolonged warm ischemia.

6.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411220

RESUMO

Robotic approach to the liver may allow to perform difficult resections with a minimally invasive strategy in an easier way as compared to standard laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to review our experience with robotic major hepatectomies, reporting technical considerations, and describing the outcomes of patients that underwent either left (LRH) or right robotic hepatectomy (RRH). Our prospectively maintained database was screened to identify all patients that received a major liver resection for benign or malignant disease. Preoperative data and postoperative short-term and long-term outcomes were reported. 261 robotic procedures were performed in our Center between May 2014 and October 2020. 12 patients underwent robotic left hepatectomy (RLH) and 10 patients were treated by robotic right hepatectomy (RRH). In the RLH group, median operative time (OT) was 383 min, median estimated blood loss (EBL) was 300 ml, and median in-hospital stay was of 3 days. In the RRH group, median OT was 490 min, median EBL 725 ml, and median hospital stay was 5 days. Although one of the advantages of minimally invasive surgery is to obtain radical resections with parenchyma sparing strategies, patients that need a major hepatectomy may benefit of a robotic resection with good postoperative outcomes. Team learning curve and growth instead of personal progression is crucial to expand the limits of novel surgical techniques.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correct approach for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is debatable, since multiple options are currently available. Percutaneous ablation (PA) is associated in some series to reduced morbidity compared to liver resection (LR); therefore, minimally invasive surgery may play a significant role in this setting. METHODS: All consecutive patients treated by robotic liver resection (RLR) or PA between January 2014 and October 2019 for a newly diagnosed single HCC, less than 3 cm in size (very early/early stages according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)) on chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare short- and long-term outcomes to define the best approach in this specific cohort. RESULTS: 60 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 24 RLR and 36 PA. The two populations were homogeneous in terms of baseline characteristics. There were no statistically significant differences regarding the incidence of postoperative morbidity (RLR 38% vs. PA 19%, p = 0.15). The cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR) was significantly higher in patients who underwent PA, with the one, two, and three years of CIR being 42%, 69%, and 73% in the PA group and 17%, 27%, and 27% in the RLR group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RLR provides a significantly higher potential of cure and tumor-related free survival in cases of newly diagnosed single HCCs smaller than 3 cm. Therefore, it can be considered as a first-line approach for the treatment of patients with those characteristics in high-volume centers with extensive experience in the field of hepatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive approaches.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic surgery is still a challenge even in high-volume centers. Clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) represents the greatest contributor to major morbidity and mortality, especially following pancreatic distal resection. In this study, we compared robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) to open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) in terms of CR-POPF development and analyzed oncologic efficacy of RDP in the subgroup of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: We collected data from five high-volume centers for pancreatic surgery and performed a matched comparison analysis to compare short and long-term outcomes after ODP or RDP. Patients were matched with a 2:1 ratio according to age, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score, body mass index (BMI), final pathology, and TNM (Tumour, Node, Metastasis) staging system VIII ed. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-six patients who underwent 82 RDPs and 164 ODPs were included. No differences were found in the incidence of CR-POPF. In the PDAC group, median DFS and OS were 10.8 months and 14.8 months in the ODP group and 10.4 months and 15 months in the RDP group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic distal pancreatectomy is a safe surgical strategy for PDAC and incidence of CR-POPF is equivalent between RDP and ODP. RDP should be considered equivalent to ODP in terms of oncological efficacy when performed in high-volume and proficient centers.

10.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although laparoscopic liver resection has become the standard for minor resections, evidence is lacking for more complex resections such as the right posterior sectionectomy (RPS). We aimed to compare surgical outcomes between laparoscopic (LRPS) and open right posterior sectionectomy (ORPS). METHODS: An international multicenter retrospective study comparing patients undergoing LRPS or ORPS (January 2007-December 2018) was performed. Patients were matched based on propensity scores in a 1:1 ratio. Primary endpoint was major complication rate defined as Accordion ≥ 3 grade. Secondary endpoints included blood loss, length of hospital stay (LOS) and resection status. A sensitivity analysis was done excluding the first 10 LRPS patients of each center to correct for the learning curve. Additionally, possible risk factors were explored for operative time, blood loss and LOS. RESULTS: Overall, 399 patients were included from 9 centers from 6 European countries of which 150 LRPS could be matched to 150 ORPS. LRPS was associated with a shorter operative time [235 (195-285) vs. 247 min (195-315) p = 0.004], less blood loss [260 (188-400) vs. 400 mL (280-550) p = 0.009] and a shorter LOS [5 (4-7) vs. 8 days (6-10), p = 0.002]. Major complication rate [n = 8 (5.3%) vs. n = 9 (6.0%) p = 1.00] and R0 resection rate [144 (96.0%) vs. 141 (94.0%), p = 0.607] did not differ between LRPS and ORPS, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed similar findings in the previous mentioned outcomes. In multivariable regression analysis blood loss was significantly associated with the open approach, higher ASA classification and malignancy as diagnosis. For LOS this was the open approach and a malignancy. CONCLUSION: This international multicenter propensity score-matched study showed an advantage in favor of LRPS in selected patients as compared to ORPS in terms of operative time, blood loss and LOS without differences in major complications and R0 resection rate.

11.
JAMA Surg ; : e204095, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112390

RESUMO

Importance: Expansion of donor acceptance criteria for liver transplant increased the risk for early allograft failure (EAF), and although EAF prediction is pivotal to optimize transplant outcomes, there is no consensus on specific EAF indicators or timing to evaluate EAF. Recently, the Liver Graft Assessment Following Transplantation (L-GrAFT) algorithm, based on aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, platelet, and international normalized ratio kinetics, was developed from a single-center database gathered from 2002 to 2015. Objective: To develop and validate a simplified comprehensive model estimating at day 10 after liver transplant the EAF risk at day 90 (the Early Allograft Failure Simplified Estimation [EASE] score) and, secondarily, to identify early those patients with unsustainable EAF risk who are suitable for retransplant. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study was designed to develop a score capturing a continuum from normal graft function to nonfunction after transplant. Both parenchymal and vascular factors, which provide an indication to list for retransplant, were included among the EAF determinants. The L-GrAFT kinetic approach was adopted and modified with fewer data entries and novel variables. The population included 1609 patients in Italy for the derivation set and 538 patients in the UK for the validation set; all were patients who underwent transplant in 2016 and 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early allograft failure was defined as graft failure (codified by retransplant or death) for any reason within 90 days after transplant. Results: At day 90 after transplant, the incidence of EAF was 110 of 1609 patients (6.8%) in the derivation set and 41 of 538 patients (7.6%) in the external validation set. Median (interquartile range) ages were 57 (51-62) years in the derivation data set and 56 (49-62) years in the validation data set. The EASE score was developed through 17 entries derived from 8 variables, including the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, blood transfusion, early thrombosis of hepatic vessels, and kinetic parameters of transaminases, platelet count, and bilirubin. Donor parameters (age, donation after cardiac death, and machine perfusion) were not associated with EAF risk. Results were adjusted for transplant center volume. In receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, the EASE score outperformed L-GrAFT, Model for Early Allograft Function, Early Allograft Dysfunction, Eurotransplant Donor Risk Index, donor age × Model for End-stage Liver Disease, and Donor Risk Index scores, estimating day 90 EAF in 87% (95% CI, 83%-91%) of cases in both the derivation data set and the internal validation data set. Patients could be stratified in 5 classes, with those in the highest class exhibiting unsustainable EAF risk. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the developed EASE score reliably estimated EAF risk. Knowledge of contributing factors may help clinicians to mitigate risk factors and guide them through the challenging clinical decision to allocate patients to early liver retransplant. The EASE score may be used in translational research across transplant centers.

12.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 30(10): 1082-1089, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907480

RESUMO

Introduction: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been described to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but burdened, in its pioneering phase, by high morbidity and mortality. With the advent of minimally invasive (MI) techniques in liver surgery, surgical complications, including posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), have been dramatically reduced. The primary endpoint of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes of MI- versus open-ALPPS for HCC, with specific focus on PHLF. Methods: Data of patients submitted to ALPPS for HCC between 2012 and 2020 were identified from the ALPPS Italian Registry. Patients receiving an MI Stage 1 (MI-ALPPS) constituted the study group, whereas the patients who received an open Stage 1 (open-ALPPS) constituted the control group. Results: Sixty-six patients were enrolled from 12 Italian centers. Stage 1 of ALPPS was performed in 14 patients using an MI approach (21.2%). MI-ALPPS patients were discharged after Stage 1 at a significantly higher rate compared with open-ALPPS (78.6% versus 9.6%, P < .001). After Stage 2, major morbidity after MI-ALPPS was 8.3% compared with 28.6% reported after open-ALPPS. Mortality was nil after MI-ALPPS. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in MI-ALPPS (12 days versus 22 days, P < .001). Univariate logistic regression analysis (Firth method) found that both MI-ALPPS (odds ratio [OR] = 0.05, P = .040) and partial parenchymal transection (OR = 0.04, P = .027) were protective against PHLF. Conclusion: This national multicenter study showed that a less invasive approach to ALPPS first stage was associated with a lower overall risk of PHLF.

13.
Transplantation ; 104(10): 2078-2086, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated trends and outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) recipients with/without HIV infection. METHODS: LT recipients between 2008 and 2015 from the United Network for Organ Sharing and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and European Liver Transplant Registry were included. Trends and characteristics related to survival among LT recipients with HIV infection were determined. RESULTS: Among 73 206 LT patients, 658 (0.9%) were HIV-infected. The proportion of LT HIV-infected did not change over time (P-trend = 0.16). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) as indication for LT decreased significantly for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients (P-trends = 0.008 and <0.001). Three-year cumulative graft survival in LT recipients with and without HIV infection was 64.4% and 77.3%, respectively (P < 0.001), with improvements over time for both, but with HIV-infected patients having greater improvements (P-trends = 0.02 and 0.03). Adjusted risk of graft loss was 41% higher in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.41; P < 0.001). Among HIV-infected, model of end-stage liver disease (aHR, 1.04; P < 0.001), body mass index <21 kg/m (aHR, 1.61; P = 0.006), and HCV (aHR, 1.83; P < 0.001) were associated with graft loss, whereas more recent period of LT 2012-2015 (aHR, 0.58; P = 0.001) and donor with anoxic cause of death (aHR, 0.51; P = 0.007) were associated with lower risk of graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HIV infection account for only 1% of LTs in United States and Europe, with fewer LT for HCV disease over time. A static rate of LT among HIV-infected patients may reflect improvements in cirrhosis management and/or persistent barriers to LT. Graft and patient survival among HIV-infected LT recipients have shown improvement over time.

14.
Int J Surg ; 82: 210-228, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been increasingly used in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). Laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has shown several advantages over open surgery in dealing with GC, although it is still considered a demanding procedure. Robotic gastrectomy (RG) is now being employed with increased frequency worldwide and has been reported to overcome some limitations of conventional LG. The aim of this updated meta-analysis is to compare surgical and oncological outcomes of RG versus LG for gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane library database of published studies comparing RG and LG up to March 2020. The evaluated end-points were intra-operative, post-operative and oncological outcomes. Dichotomous data were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and continuous data were calculated by mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and a random-effect model was always applied. RESULTS: Forty retrospective studies describing 17,712 patients met the inclusion criteria. With respect to surgical outcomes, robotic compared with laparoscopic gastrectomy was associated with higher operating time [MD 44.73, (95%CI 36.01, 53.45) p < 0.00001] and less intraoperative blood loss [MD -18.24, (95%CI -25.21, -11.26) p < 0.00001] and lower rate of surgical complication in terms of Dindo-Clavien ≥ 3 classification [OR 0.66, (95%CI 0.49, 0.88) p = 0.005]. With respect to oncological outcomes, the RG group showed a significantly increased mean number of retrieved lymph nodes [MD 1.84, (95%CI 0.84, 2.84) p = 0.0003], but mean proximal and distal resection margin distance and the recurrence rate were not significantly different between the two approaches. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to safety, technical feasibility and oncological adequacy, robotic and laparoscopic groups were comparable, although the robotic approach seems to achieve better short-term surgical outcomes. Moreover, a higher rate of retrieved lymph nodes was observed in the RG group.

15.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the increase in overall life expectancy and the rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), more elderly patients are considered for hepatic resection. Traditionally, major hepatectomy has not been proposed to the elderly due to severe comorbidities. Indeed, only a few case series are reported in the literature. The present study aimed to compare short-term and long-term outcomes between laparoscopic major hepatectomy (LMH) and open major hepatectomy (OMH) in elderly patients with HCC using propensity score matching (PSM). METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective study including 184 consecutive cases of HCC major liver resection in patients aged ≥ 70 years in _8 European Hospital Centers. Patients were divided into LMH and OMH groups, and perioperative and long-term outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 122 patients were enrolled, 38 in the LMH group and 84 in the OMH group. Postoperative overall complications were lower in the LMH than in the OMH group (18 vs. 46%, p < 0.001). Hospital stay was shorter in the LMH group than in the OMH group (5 vs. 7 days, p = 0.01). Mortality at 90 days was comparable between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 1, 3, and 5 years. CONCLUSION: LMH for HCC is associated with appropriate short-term outcomes in patients aged ≥ 70 years as compared to OMH. LMH is safe and feasible in elderly patients with HCC.

17.
Int J Surg ; 82S: 97-102, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645441

RESUMO

Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC) has been a great challenge for surgeons, requiring advanced skills and expertise and was often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Resectability rates are up to 75% even in experienced centers. In patients with PHCC, radical liver and bile duct resection aiming R0 surgical margins offers the best long-term survival. Therefore, extensive resections with low FLR are commonly needed and PVE is offered to induce remnant liver hypertrophy for a long period. Associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is considered a promising approach inducing rapid remnant hypertrophy to prevent dropouts due to complications or tumor progression and increase resectability. Although poor results were reported initially, refinements in technique and risk adjustment of patient selection improved outcomes. The procedure is still under debate for the indication of PHCC. This article reviews the current literature on ALPPS in treatment of perihilar and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

18.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) demonstrated good long-term outcomes1 and can increase the rate of resectability in locally advanced ICC;2 however, the rates of postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grade III) and mortality range between 13.6 and 44% and 0 and 29%, respectively.3 Minimally invasive strategies may reduce the risk of postoperative morbidity, with the same oncologic outcomes.4,5 We report the first case of full robotic ALPPS for advanced ICC. METHODS: The patient was a 61-year-old male diagnosed with a 6.5 cm ICC involving segments IV, V, and VIII. The total clean liver volume was 1553 cc3, with a future liver remnant (FLR) volume of 21.6% (segments I, II, and III: 337 cc3). The procedure was performed by a senior hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgeon at the robotic console and a junior HPB surgeon at the table side. RESULTS: Computed tomography scan on postoperative day (POD) 9 after stage 1 showed that FLR increased up to 38%. The indocyanine green clearance test showed a plasma disappearance rate of 19.8%/min and a retention rate at 15 min of 5.1%; complete blood tests are available at the end of the video. ALPPS was completed on POD 14, the postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged in good general condition on POD 5. Final pathology showed a 6 cm ICC, G3, R0 margin (10 mm), T2-N0-M0. The patient started adjuvant capecitabine, and after 6 months was in good general condition without signs of local or systemic recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic ALPPS combines the opportunity to perform a curative resection in patients presenting with insufficient FLR with the advantages of a minimally invasive approach. It is feasible and oncologically accurate for ICC when performed in fully trained HPB centers.

19.
Int J Surg ; 82S: 109-114, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652296

RESUMO

Liver resection remains one of the most technically challenging surgical procedure in abdominal surgery due to the complex anatomical arrangement in the liver and its rich blood supply that constitutes about 20% of the cardiac output per cycle. The challenge for resection in cirrhotic livers is even higher because of the impact of surgical stress and trauma imposed on borderline liver function and the impaired ability for liver regeneration in cirrhotic livers. Nonetheless, evolution and advancement in surgical techniques as well as knowledge in perioperative management of liver resection has led to a substantial improvement in surgical outcome in recent decade. The objective of this article was to provide updated information on the recent developments in liver surgery, from preoperative evaluation, to technicality of resection, future liver remnant augmentation and finally, postoperative management of complications.

20.
Eur J Intern Med ; 79: 70-75, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616342

RESUMO

Background Early after surgery, liver transplant (LT) recipients often develop weight gain. Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease represent main drivers of morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify predictors of atherosclerotic vascular events (AVE) and to assess the impact of AVE on the long-term outcome. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from patients transplanted between 2000 and 2005 and followed-up in five Italian transplant clinics. Cox Regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of AVE, global mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results We analyzed data from 367 subjects during a median follow-up of 14 years. Thirty-seven post-LT AVE were registered. Patients with AVE more frequently showed pre-LT diabetes mellitus (DM) (48.6 vs 13.9%, p=0.000). In the post-LT period, patients with AVE satisfied criteria of metabolic syndrome in 83.8% vs. 36.7% of subjects without AVE (p=0.000). At multivariate analysis, pre-LT DM independently predicted AVE (HR 2.250, CI 4.848-10.440, p=0.038). Moreover, both pre-LT DM and AVE strongly predicted cardiovascular mortality (HR 5.418, CI 1.060-29.183, p=0.049, and HR 86.097, CI 9.510-779.480, p=0.000, respectively). Conclusions Pre-LT DM is the main risk factor for post-LT AVE. Pre-LT DM and post-LT AVE are strong, long-term predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Patients with pre-LT DM should obtain a personalized follow-up for prevention or early diagnosis of AVE.

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