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Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371806


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcopenia is considered an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has the potential to increase muscle mass and performance by stimulating protein synthesis and reducing muscle catabolism. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of HMB supplementation on muscle mass and function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Changes in frailty during the study were also estimated, and the safety of HMB supplementation was verified. METHODS: This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Twenty-four patients (14 HMB and 10 placebo) affected by liver cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. Each patient received dedicated counseling, which included nutrition and physical activity recommendations for chronic liver disease patients. Patients were randomized to receive 3 g/day of HMB or placebo (sorbitol powder) for 12 consecutive weeks. A diet interview, anthropometry, electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA), quadriceps ultrasound, physical performance battery, Liver Frailty Index (LFI), and cognitive tests were completed at enrolment (T0), at 12 weeks (T1), and 24 weeks after enrolment (T2). RESULTS: At baseline, the two groups were similar in demography, severity of liver disease, muscle mass, muscle function, and cognitive tests. LFI at baseline was higher in patients in the HMB group vs. those in the placebo group (4.1 ± 0.4 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, p < 0.01). After treatment, a statistically significant increase in muscle function was seen in the HMB group (chair stand test: 14.2 ± 5 s vs. 11.7 ± 2.6 s, p < 0.05; six-minute walk test: 361.8 ± 68 m vs. 409.4 ± 58 m, p < 0.05). Quadriceps muscle mass measured by ultrasound also increased (4.9 ± 1.8 vs. 5.4 ± 1.8 mm, p < 0.05) after HMB, while LFI decreased (4.1 ± 0.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.4, p < 0.05). HMB was well tolerated by patients, and no adverse events were documented. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the efficacy of 12-week beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in promoting improvements in muscle performance in compensated cirrhotic patients. LFI was also ameliorated. Further studies with a greater number of patients are required to reinforce this hypothesis.

Suplementos Nutricionais , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Valeratos/administração & dosagem , Antropometria , Impedância Elétrica , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/etiologia , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
Dig Liver Dis ; 51(11): 1508-1512, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601536


BACKGROUND: Since the use of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score for establishing the prognosis of cirrhotic patients has been introduced, questions have been raised whether complications of liver cirrhosis would provide additional information. Myosteatosis, sarcopenia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are frequent in cirrhosis and may affect prognosis. Aim of the study was analyzing if these factors are independently related to survival and may improve the accuracy of MELD. METHODS: 249 cirrhotics that underwent abdominal CT-scan were enrolled. For each patient, information about previous episodes of HE and muscle alterations were obtained. Patients were followed until transplantation or death. RESULTS: History of HE, MELD, sarcopenia and myosteatosis were independently associated with mortality. The MELD-Sarco-Myo-HE score added accuracy to the MELD score alone for 6- and 3-months mortality. By removing HE, as the only not quantifiable parameter of the model, no relevant decrease in accuracy for 6- and 3-months mortality detection was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of MELD in predicting 3- and 6-months mortality may be improved by considering the muscle alterations. A model considering the above parameters may classify more accurately over 30% of the patients.

Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
Liver Int ; 39(10): 1937-1942, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152475


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known on nutritional parameters in patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH). The study aims to assess the prevalence and the clinical impact of sarcopenia in patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH). A control group of cirrhotic patients was also studied. Both groups were followed up to establish the relationship between sarcopenia and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with NCPH (51 PVT and 16 INCPH) were included in the study group and 104 patients with liver cirrhosis in the control group. The axial plane passing through the intersomatic disk between L3 and L4 was evaluated for the quantitative analysis of muscle mass and the skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated. The presence of sarcopenia was established according to SMI validated cut off. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was present in the 38% of patients with INCPH, 35% of patients with chronic PVT, 32% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and 54% of decompensated cirrhotics. During a mean follow-up of 51 ± 62 months, there was no difference in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients with NCPH for incidence of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, esophageal varices, variceal bleeding and death. However, the incidence of refractory variceal bleeding requiring TIPS placement was significantly higher in comparison with the non-sarcopenic ones (29% vs 7%, P = 0.01 at log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NCPH sarcopenia is similar to that observed in cirrhotic patients. Moreover, the rate of refractory variceal bleeding was higher in sarcopenic patients suggesting a clinical negative impact of muscle depletion.

Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ascite/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose Venosa/etiologia