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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 353, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucella spp. isolation is increasingly reported in cetaceans, although associated pathologies, including lesions of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems, are less frequently described. Concerning the nervous system, Brucella sp. infection causing meningitis, meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis have been extensively reported in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), and less frequently in other cetacean species. CASE PRESENTATION: A juvenile female common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) was found stranded alive in Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain) in 2005, but died shortly after. On physical examination, the dolphin showed a moderate body condition and was classified as code 2 (fresh dead) at the time of necropsy. The main gross findings were severe multiorgan parasitism, thickened and congested leptomeninges, and (sero)fibrino-suppurative and proliferative arthritis of the shoulder joint. Histopathological examination revealed the distinct features of a sub-acute systemic disease associated with Cetacean Morbillivirus (CeMV) infection. However, brain lesions diverged from those reported in systemic CeMV infection. This led to suspect that there was a coinfecting pathogen, based on the characteristics of the inflammatory response and the lesion distribution pattern in the central nervous system. Brucella sp. was detected in the brain tissue by PCR and Brucella antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the brain and shoulder joint lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The zoonotic potential of marine mammal strains of Brucella has been demonstrated both in natural and laboratory conditions. In this study, PCR detected Brucella sp. in the brain of a common bottlenose dolphin stranded in the Canary Islands; the dolphin was also co-infected with CeMV. This is the first detection of Brucella sp. infection in a stranded cetacean in this archipelago. Therefore, we stress the importance of taking adequate measures during the handling of these species to prevent the transmissions of the infection to humans.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Animais , Brucella , Feminino , Meningoencefalite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Espanha
2.
Vet Ital ; 55(2): 131-141, 2019 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274174

RESUMO

In order to study the capability of a Bluetongue virus serotype 2 (BTV­2) field isolate to cross the placental barrier, 2 groups of 5 pregnant ewes were infected with a field BTV­2 Italian strain (Group A) or with the same strain passaged once in Culicoides cells (Kc) (Group B). Following infection, EDTA­blood and serum samples were collected weekly and tested for the presence of BTV RNA/infectious virus and anti­BTV­2 antibodies, respectively. At lambing, precolostral EDTA­blood and serum samples were collected from lambs and tested as before. The lambs were then sampled as scheduled for the dams. All sheep seroconverted on day 12 post­infection (pi) and remained seropositive throughout the sampling period (day 68 pi). BTV was isolated from day 7 pi to day 14 pi in animals of Group A and from day 5 pi to day 12 pi in animals of Group B. None of the 14 lambs born had pre­colostral antibodies. Three lambs born from two ewes of Group B were viraemic at birth and in one lamb infectious virus was isolated from blood up to 11 days of age. This study proved for the first time that a single passage of BTV­2 field strain in Kc cells is able to give to BTV the ability to cross the placenta barrier and infect foetal tissues.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/fisiologia , Bluetongue/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Placenta/virologia , Animais , Bluetongue/virologia , Linhagem Celular/virologia , Ceratopogonidae , Feminino , Itália , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Sorogrupo , Carneiro Doméstico
3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936878

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV; Paramyxoviridae) causes epizootic and interepizootic fatalities in odontocetes and mysticetes worldwide. Studies suggest there is different species-specific susceptibility to CeMV infection, with striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) ranking among the most susceptible cetacean hosts. The pathogenesis of CeMV infection is not fully resolved. Since no previous studies have evaluated the organ-specific immunopathogenetic features of CeMV infection in tissues from infected dolphins, this study was aimed at characterizing and comparing immunophenotypic profiles of local immune responses in lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen), lung and CNS in CeMV-molecularly (RT-PCR)-positive cetaceans from Western Mediterranean, Northeast-Central, and Southwestern Atlantic. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses targeted molecules of immunologic interest: caspase 3, CD3, CD20, CD57, CD68, FoxP3, MHCII, Iba1, IFNγ, IgG, IL4, IL10, lysozyme, TGFß, and PAX5. We detected consistent CeMV-associated inflammatory response patterns. Within CNS, inflammation was dominated by CD3+ (T cells), and CD20+ and PAX5+ (B cells) lymphocytes, accompanied by fewer Iba1+, CD68+, and lysozyme+ histiocytes, mainly in striped dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. Multicentric lymphoid depletion was characterized by reduced numbers of T cells and B cells, more pronounced in Guiana dolphins. Striped dolphins and bottlenose dolphins often had hyperplastic (regenerative) phenomena involving the aforementioned cell populations, particularly chronically infected animals. In the lung, there was mild to moderate increase in T cells, B cells, and histiocytes. Additionally, there was a generalized increased expression of caspase 3 in lymphoid, lung, and CNS tissues. Apoptosis, therefore, is believed to play a major role in generalized lymphoid depletion and likely overt immunosuppression during CeMV infection. No differences were detected regarding cytokine immunoreactivity in lymph nodes, spleen, and lung from infected and non-infected dolphins by semiquantitative analysis; however, there was striking immunoreactivity for IFNγ in the CNS of infected dolphins. These novel results set the basis for tissue-specific immunophenotypic responses during CeMV infection in three highly susceptible delphinid species. They also suggest a complex interplay between viral and host's immune factors, thereby contributing to gain valuable insights into similarities, and differences of CeMV infection's immunopathogenesis in relation to body tissues, CeMV strains, and cetacean hosts.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213363, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893365

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is a major natural cause of morbidity and mortality in cetaceans worldwide and results in epidemic and endemic fatalities. The pathogenesis of CeMV has not been fully elucidated, and questions remain regarding tissue tropism and the mechanisms of immunosuppression. We compared the histopathologic and viral immunohistochemical features in molecularly confirmed CeMV-infected Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Southwestern Atlantic (Brazil) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Northeast-Central Atlantic (Canary Islands, Spain) and the Western Mediterranean Sea (Italy). Major emphasis was placed on the central nervous system (CNS), including neuroanatomical distribution of lesions, and the lymphoid system and lung were also examined. Eleven Guiana dolphins, 13 striped dolphins, and 3 bottlenose dolphins were selected by defined criteria. CeMV infections showed a remarkable neurotropism in striped dolphins and bottlenose dolphins, while this was a rare feature in CeMV-infected Guiana dolphins. Neuroanatomical distribution of lesions in dolphins stranded in the Canary Islands revealed a consistent involvement of the cerebrum, thalamus, and cerebellum, followed by caudal brainstem and spinal cord. In most cases, Guiana dolphins had more severe lung lesions. The lymphoid system was involved in all three species, with consistent lymphoid depletion. Multinucleate giant cells/syncytia and characteristic viral inclusion bodies were variably observed in these organs. Overall, there was widespread lymphohistiocytic, epithelial, and neuronal/neuroglial viral antigen immunolabeling with some individual, host species, and CeMV strain differences. Preexisting and opportunistic infections were common, particularly endoparasitism, followed by bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. These results contribute to understanding CeMV infections in susceptible cetacean hosts in relation to factors such as CeMV strains and geographic locations, thereby establishing the basis for future neuro- and immunopathological comparative investigations.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/virologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Golfinhos/virologia , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Masculino , Infecções por Morbillivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Stenella/virologia
5.
Vet Ital ; 55(4): 363-367, 2019 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955559

RESUMO

Bacteria of the genus Brucella cause brucellosis, an infectious disease common to humans as well as to terrestrial and aquatic mammals. Since 1994 several cases of Brucella spp. infection have been reported in marine mammals worldwide. While sero-epidemiological data suggest that Brucella spp. infection is widespread globally, detecting Brucella spp.-associated antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissues from infected animals is often troublesome. The present study was aimed at investigating, by means of IHC based upon the utilization of an anti-Brucella LPS monoclonal antibody (MAb), the central nervous system (CNS) immunoreactivity shown by B. ceti-infected, neurobrucellosis-affected striped dolphins. The aforementioned MAb, previously characterized by means of ELISA and Western Blotting techniques, was able to immunohistochemically detect smooth brucellae both within the CNS from B. ceti-infected striped dolphins and within a range of tissues from Brucella spp.-infected domestic ruminants. In conclusion, the results of the present study are of relevance both from the B. ceti infection's diagnostic and pathogenetic standpoints.

6.
Vet Ital ; 55(4): 369-373, 2019 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955560

RESUMO

An outbreak of neurological disorders in a flock of 20 sheep coming from a rural farm in Civitella Roveto, Italy, occurred in winter 2015. All the animals showed tonic-clonic convulsions followed by muscle paralysis associated with dilated pupils, tremor, tachycardia, tachypnea and diarrhea. The presence of bundles of dry broom of Spartium junceum L. in the feed, eaten by the animals supported the hypothesis of plant intoxication. Two animals died after worsening of clinical signs. The anatomopathological findings and the laboratory results ruled out viral or bacterial infections or accidental exposure to other toxics. Phytochemical study showed the presence of large amount of cytisine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, in all parts of the plant eaten by the animals. Clinical and pathological findings, the complete remission of clinical signs after the exclusion of dry broom from the diet, together with the results of phytochemical analyses results corroborated the hypothesis of S. junceum L. intoxication.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11577, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068967

RESUMO

Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are rare in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, in 2014 a pod of 7 specimens stranded alive along the Italian coast of the Central Adriatic Sea: 3 individuals died on the beach after a few hours due to internal damages induced by prolonged recumbency; the remaining 4 whales were refloated after great efforts. All the dead animals were genetically related females; one was pregnant. All the animals were infected by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and the pregnant whale was also affected by a severe nephropathy due to a large kidney stone. Other analyses ruled out other possible relevant factors related to weather conditions or human activities. The results of multidisciplinary post-mortem analyses revealed that the 7 sperm whales entered the Adriatic Sea encountering adverse weather conditions and then kept heading northward following the pregnant but sick leader of the pod, thereby reaching the stranding site. DMV infection most likely played a crucial role in impairing the health condition and orientation abilities of the whales. They did not steer back towards deeper waters, but eventually stranded along the Central Adriatic Sea coastline, a real trap for sperm whales.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Cachalote , Animais , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
8.
J Virol Methods ; 258: 24-28, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730392

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a real-time RT-PCR to detect and quantitate feline morbillivirus (FeMV) RNA in biological samples. Primers and probe were targeted on a conserved region of FeMV P/V/C gene. To validate the assay with field samples, a total number of specimens of cats have been recruited including 264 urine and blood samples and compared with a generic RT-PCR targeting the L protein encoding gene of morbilliviruses. In addition, 385 tissue samples from 35 carcasses of cats have been also employed. RNA titres were low in all tested samples. Results also indicated the absence of cross-reaction with related morbilliviruses and existing pathogens of cats. In tissues with low levels of FeMV RNA, the presence of viral antigen was also evidenced by immunohistochemistry targeting the N viral protein. This newly described assay allows for a rapid, accurate and reliable quantitative detection of FeMV RNA that can be applied for diagnostics and research studies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Animais , Gatos , Primers do DNA/genética , Morbillivirus/genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 115: 363-365, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709108

RESUMO

A case of Vibrio parahaemolyticus- and V. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy in 2016 is herein reported, along with a minireview on V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus infections in aquatic mammals. Macroscopically, two abscesses were found in the dolphin's forebrain, along with an extensive, bilateral, parasitic broncho-pneumonia. Histologically, a suppurative-to-pyogranulomatous meningo-encephalitis involved the brain but not the cerebellum. Microbiological investigations yielded isolation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus from the aforementioned abscesses and from the brain parenchyma, respectively, with simultaneous recovery of Shewanella algae from the heart and of Photobacterium damselae from a blowhole swab. Although V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, which are widely distributed across marine ecosystems worldwide, likely played a role in the development of the suppurative meningo-encephalitis in this dolphin, we are not aware of previous isolations of any of these two bacteria neither from cetacean brain lesions, nor from abscesses in aquatic mammals.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Meningites Bacterianas/veterinária , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio alginolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Itália , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/patologia , Meningoencefalite/microbiologia , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/patologia
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 46: 130-137, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876612

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. A large distemper epidemic sustained by an Arctic-lineage strain occurred in Italy in 2013, mainly in the Abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. Two badgers were collected by the end of September 2015 in a rural area of the Abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be CDV-positive by real time RT-PCR and IHC in several tissues. The genome of CDV isolates from badgers showed Y549H substitution in the mature H protein. By employing all publicly available Arctic-lineage H protein encoding gene sequences, six amino acid changes in recent Italian strains with respect to Italian strains of dogs from 2000 to 2008, were observed. A CDV strain belonging to the European-wildlife lineage was also identified in a fox found dead in the same region in 2016, proving co-circulation of an additional CDV lineage.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Cinomose/virologia , Mustelidae/virologia , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/patologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/classificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cães/virologia , Feminino , Histocitoquímica , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Lobos/virologia
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 105: 111-4, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27033917

RESUMO

A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1).


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Photobacterium , Pleuropneumonia/veterinária , Ureaplasma , Animais , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Itália , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pleuropneumonia/epidemiologia , Pleuropneumonia/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 101: 89-92, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267096

RESUMO

This study reports the results of seroepidemiological investigations carried out against Morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. on blood serum samples collected from 70 cetacean specimens found stranded along the Italian coastline between 1998 and 2014. A total number of 23 serum samples (32.8%) obtained from Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Balaenoptera physalus and Globicephala melas harboured anti-Morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies. Ten sera (16%) collected from S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus were found positive against T. gondii, while no antibodies against Brucella spp. were found. These data reveal that stranded cetaceans provide a unique opportunity for monitoring the health status of free-ranging animals living in the Mediterranean Sea, in order to investigate the level of exposure of cetacean populations to selected infectious agents representing a serious threat for aquatic mammals.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Cadáver , Cetáceos/microbiologia , Cetáceos/parasitologia , Cetáceos/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Baleia Comum , Itália/epidemiologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Stenella
14.
Vet Ital ; 51(1): 5-16, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25842208

RESUMO

In 2011, strains of West Nile Virus (WNV) belonging to lineage 1 spread for the first time in Sardinia region (Italy). In contrast to previous WNV Italian incursion, the strains were found in Culex modestus and, more surprisingly, they were able to cause severe clinical signs in the affected birds. Based on the partial sequence of the NS3 encoding gene, the Sardinian WNV strains demonstrated a high similarity with the other WNV strains recently detected in the Mediterranean Basin. Nonetheless, the 2011 Sardinian sequences were grouped in a distinct sub-cluster. Both the NS3-249P and NS3-249T genotypes were detected in the Sardinian outbreaks confirming that the co-circulation of different genotypes in the affected population might be common for WNV as for many RNA viruses. No association, however, was observed between virulence and viral genotype.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Animais , Genótipo , Cavalos , Itália/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia
15.
Vet J ; 203(2): 233-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25577021

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is a metastrongyloid nematode infesting the respiratory system of domestic cats worldwide. Troglostrongylus brevior and Troglostrongylus subcrenatus, two lungworms thought to infest wild felids, have been found recently in domestic cats from Spain and Italy. These unexpected findings have raised doubts about the assumed past and present occurrence of Troglostrongylus spp., especially T. brevior, in domestic hosts and suggest that there may have been missed detection or misdiagnosis. The present retrospective study evaluated the presence of lungworms in cats from Italy with a diagnosis of respiratory parasitism or with compatible lung lesions from 2002 to 2013. Sixty-eight samples of DNA and larvae from cats with a diagnosis of aelurostrongylosis, and 53 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung samples from cats confirmed as lungworm infested or with compatible lesions, were investigated using two DNA-based assays specific for A. abstrusus or T. brevior. All DNA and larval samples were positive for A. abstrusus and one was additionally positive for T. brevior. Most paraffin-embedded lung tissues were positive only for A. abstrusus, but two samples tested positive for both lungworms and one for T. brevior only. This study supports the major role of A. abstrusus in causing feline respiratory parasitism in endemic areas of Italy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Itália/epidemiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metastrongyloidea/genética , Metastrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Estrongilídios/genética , Estrongilídios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
16.
Vet Ital ; 50(4): 301-5, 2014 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25546068

RESUMO

Mesotheliomas are rare neoplasm affecting on rare occasions both animals and humans and which arise from the mesothelial cells lining the coelomic cavities. We report herein the histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical findings in a dog affected by sclerosing peritoneal mesothelioma, a rare variant of canine mesothelioma, and submitted to laparotomy in December 2012 (Teramo, Italy). Our data confirm that mesothelioma still represents a diagnostic challenge and that immunohistochemistry can be extremely useful as supportive diagnostic technique.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Animais , Cães , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Esclerose
17.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e82356, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24465373

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy) by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3) from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/patogenicidade , Lobos/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Causas de Morte , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Europa (Continente) , Itália , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
18.
J Virol ; 87(19): 10752-62, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23903827

RESUMO

Understanding the factors governing host species barriers to virus transmission has added significantly to our appreciation of virus pathogenesis. Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), a transmissible lung cancer of sheep that has rarely been found in goats. In this study, in order to further clarify the pathogenesis of OPA, we investigated whether goats are resistant to JSRV replication and carcinogenesis. We found that JSRV induces lung tumors in goats with macroscopic and histopathological features that dramatically differ from those in sheep. However, the origins of the tumor cells in the two species are identical. Interestingly, in experimentally infected lambs and goat kids, we revealed major differences in the number of virus-infected cells at early stages of infection. These differences were not related to the number of available target cells for virus infection and cell transformation or the presence of a host-specific immune response toward JSRV. Indeed, we also found that goats possess transcriptionally active endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs) that likely influence the host immune response toward the exogenous JSRV. Overall, these results suggest that goat cells, or at least those cells targeted for viral carcinogenesis, are not permissive to virus replication but can be transformed by JSRV.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Retrovirus Jaagsiekte de Ovinos/patogenicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Adenomatose Pulmonar Ovina/virologia , Replicação Viral , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Cabras , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Hibridização In Situ , Retrovirus Jaagsiekte de Ovinos/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adenomatose Pulmonar Ovina/complicações , Adenomatose Pulmonar Ovina/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Ovinos
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 193(1-3): 30-8, 2013 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23298562

RESUMO

Dourine is trypanosomosis that affects equids, it's mainly sexually transmitted. The disease was first eradicated in Italy in the 1940s, but there was then a serious epidemic in the mid-70s. After sporadic reports at the end of the 1990s, in May 2011 it was reported once more. Clinical diagnosis of dourine can be complex, as clinical signs and gross lesions are not always present. Direct laboratory diagnosis is also problematic, given the low number of parasites normally present in infected tissues and the mild, short-lasting parasitaemia. This article describes the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data enabling confirmation of the suspicion of dourine in Italy in the 2011 epidemic.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Mal do Coito (Veterinária)/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Itália/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
20.
Vet Ital ; 48(3): 329-33, 335-9, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês, Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23038080

RESUMO

Canine testicular tumours frequently occur and share relevant features with their human counterparts, thus being a putative model in comparative oncology. The authors present data on canine testicular tumours submitted to the Istituto G. Caporale over the last 12 years. In total, 183 testicular neoplasms were diagnosed: 108 seminomas, 37 Sertoli cell tumours, 18 interstitial Leydig cell tumours, 10 mixed tumours, 9 other primary tumours and one metastatic neoplasm. A systematic and more detailed collection of data (signalling, history, clinical signs and follow-up) enables a better evaluation of clinical and biological features of animal tumours, as well as a clear assessment of the real impact, if any, of specific intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
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