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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 303-314, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564720

RESUMO

Under the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), a legally binding document adopted by 196 States Parties, countries are required to develop their capacity to rapidly detect, assess, notify and respond to unusual health events of potential international concern. To support countries in monitoring and enhancing their capacities and complying with the IHR (2005), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the IHR Monitoring and Evaluation Framework (IHR MEF). This framework comprises four complementary components: the State Party Annual Report, the Joint External Evaluation, after-action reviews and simulation exercises. The first two are used to review capacities and the second two to help to explore their functionality. The contribution of different disciplines, sectors, and areas of work, joining forces through a One Health approach, is essential for the implementation of the IHR (2005). Therefore, WHO, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and other international and national partners, has actively worked on facilitating the inclusion of the relevant sectors, in particular the animal health sector, in each of the four components of the IHR MEF. Other tools complement the IHR MEF, such as the WHO/OIE IHR-PVS [Performance of Veterinary Services] National Bridging Workshops, which facilitate the optimal use of the results of the IHR MEF and the OIE Performance of Veterinary Services Pathway and create an opportunity for stakeholders from animal health and human health services to work on the coordination of their efforts. The results of these various tools are used in countries' planning processes and are incorporated in their National Action Plan for Health Security to accelerate the implementation of IHR core capacities. The present article describes how One Health is incorporated in all components of the IHR MEF.


Assuntos
Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Saúde Única , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Saúde Única/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 291-302, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564721

RESUMO

Animals, and the health systems which ensure their protection, play a vital role in the security and economic and social well-being of humanity, and are therefore a key component of the One Health concept. For global and national health security, prevention is better than cure, and targeting 'risk at source' in animal populations is a vital strategy in safeguarding the planet from risks of emerging zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Neglected zoonoses - such as rabies and brucellosis - continue to have a significant global impact on human health and are also best managed at their animal source. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has built international consensus on the principles of good governance and the quality of Veterinary Services, which are incorporated within its international standards. The OIE has a proven track record in the provision of Member Country support based on these standards, especially since the advent of its flagship Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Pathway programme in 2006-2007. To date, approximately 140 countries have benefited from the structured and sustainable process of animal health systems evaluation and planning afforded by the PVS Pathway. The PVS Tool, the basic methodology upon which the PVS Pathway is based, addresses One Health by evaluating the Veterinary Authority's ability to coordinate with other Competent Authorities that have a role to play in One Health, most notably public health, food safety, and environmental authorities. Despite the undoubted success of the PVS Pathway, the OIE felt that it was time to consider how the programme might be developed to adapt to new challenges. Consequently, during 2017-2018, the OIE embarked on a process of PVS evolution, during which it carried out extensive consultation and further tailored the PVS Pathway to a changing global context. These improvements, which include both fundamental adaptations to the PVS Pathway methods and the development of new PVS Pathway activities targeting topics such as multisectoral collaboration, rabies and AMR, have further strengthened and embedded the One Health approach within the PVS Pathway.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Saúde Pública , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
3.
Neuroscience ; 266: 216-23, 2014 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24561216

RESUMO

Fear conditioning has been proposed as an important factor involved in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined fear processing in PTSD patients with mild symptoms and in individuals who did not develop symptoms (both groups consisting of victims of a bank robbery), through the study of fear-conditioned response. Conditioned responses were quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR) and the facial thermal response, the latter being measured by high-resolution functional thermal infrared (fIR) imaging. We found: (a) a change of the physiological parameters with respect to the baseline condition in both control subjects and PTSD patients during the conditioning phase; (b) the permanence of the conditioning effect in the maintenance phase in both control and PTSD patients; (c) patients and controls did differ for the variation across the phases of the physiological parameters rather than for their absolute values, showing that PTSD patients had a prolonged excitation and higher tonic component of autonomic activity. These results, although preliminary, indicate that the analysis of SCR and facial thermal response during the conditioning paradigm is a promising psychometric method of investigation, even in the case of low level of PTSD symptom severity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to discriminate between control subjects and PTSD patients with mild symptoms through infrared thermal imaging. It may suggest feasible approaches for diagnostic screening in the early phases of the disorder and in the assessment of preventive measures and therapies.


Assuntos
Medo/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Condicionamento (Psicologia) , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Temperatura Cutânea
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