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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 170: 103577, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999017

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Cystoscopy represents the gold standard in the diagnosis of suspicious bladder lesions. However, the procedure is invasive and burdened by pain, discomfort and infective complications. Cytology, which represents an alternative diagnostic possibility is limited by poor sensitivity. Considering the limitations of both procedures, and the necessity to perform multiple evaluations in patients who are in follow-up for bladder cancer, an improved non-invasive methodology is required in the clinical management of this disease. Liquid biopsy, e.g. the detection of clinical biomarkers in urine, represent a promising novel and non-invasive approach that could overcome those limitations and be integrated into the current clinical practice. The aim of this review is to summarize the state of the art of this approach and the latest novelties regarding detection, prognosis and surveillance of bladder cancer.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836005

RESUMO

Prostate and bladder cancer represent the two most frequently diagnosed genito-urinary malignancies. Diet has been implicated in both prostate and bladder cancer. Given their prolonged latency and high prevalence rates, both prostate and bladder cancer represent attractive candidates for dietary preventive measures, including the use of nutritional supplements. Flavonols, a class of flavonoids, are commonly found in fruit and vegetables and are known for their protective effect against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, a higher dietary intake of flavonols was associated with a lower risk of both bladder and prostate cancer in epidemiological studies. In this systematic review, we gathered all available evidence supporting the anti-cancer potential of selected flavonols (kaempferol, fisetin and myricetin) against bladder and prostate cancer. A total of 21, 15 and 7 pre-clinical articles on bladder or prostate cancer reporting on kaempferol, fisetin and myricetin, respectively, were found, while more limited evidence was available from animal models and epidemiological studies or clinical trials. In conclusion, the available evidence supports the potential use of these flavonols in prostate and bladder cancer, with a low expected toxicity, thus providing the rationale for clinical trials that explore dosing, settings for clinical use as well as their use in combination with other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.

3.
Oncology ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer aggravates COVID-19 prognosis. Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is particularly frequent in cancer patients, who need to attend hospitals regularly. Since March, 2020, all cancer patients having access to the Oncology Unit at the "Andrea Tortora" Hospital (Pagani, Salerno - referred to as "the Hospital") as inpatients or outpatients receiving intravenous therapy have been screened for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR nasal swab. The ongoing COICA (COVID-19 Infection in Cancer Patients) study is an ambispective, multicenter, observational study designed to assess the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients. The aim of the study presented here was to explore potential differences in COVID-19 related outcomes among screening-detected vs. non-screening detected SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. METHODS: The COICA study enrolled cancer patients who had received any anti-cancer systemic therapy within 3 months since the day they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR. The target accrual is 128 patients, and the study was approved by the competent Ethics Committee. Only the sub-group of patients enrolled at the Hospital was considered in this unplanned interim analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of screening-based vs. non screening based diagnosis. RESULTS: Since March, 15 2020 until August, 15 2021, a total of 931 outpatients and 230 inpatients were repeatedly screened for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR nasal swab at the Hospital. Among these, 71 asymptomatic patients were positive on routine screening and five patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 outside the institutional screening. Seven patients died because of COVID-19. At univariate analysis, non-screening vs. screening detected SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with significantly higher odds of O2 Therapy (OR= 16.2; 95% CI =2.2 to 117.1; p =0.006),hospital admission (OR=31.5; 95% CI=3.1 to 317.8; p=0.003 ), admission to ICU (OR=23.0; 95% CI = 2.4 to 223.8; p= 0.007) and Death (OR=8.8; 95%CI= 1.2 to 65.5; p =0.034). CONCLUSION: Routine screening with RT-PCR may represent a feasible and effective strategy in reducing viral circulation and possibly COVID-19 mortality in patients with active cancer having repeated access to hospital facilities.

4.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior antiangiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The postprogression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5%, and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2, or >2 prior treatment, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48-0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.

5.
BJU Int ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical outcomes with programmed-death ligand-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC) who have vs have not undergone radical surgery (RS) or radiation therapy (RT) prior to developing metastatic disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study collecting clinicopathological, treatment and outcomes data for patients with aUC receiving ICIs across 25 institutions. We compared outcomes (observed response rate [ORR], progression-free survival [PFS], overall survival [OS]) between patients with vs without prior RS, and by type of prior locoregional treatment (RS vs RT vs no locoregional treatment). Patients with de novo advanced disease were excluded. Analysis was stratified by treatment line (first-line and second-line or greater [second-plus line]). Logistic regression was used to compare ORR, while Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used for PFS and OS. Multivariable models were adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: We included 562 patients (first-line: 342 and second-plus line: 220). There was no difference in outcomes based on prior locoregional treatment among those treated with first-line ICIs. In the second-plus-line setting, prior RS was associated with higher ORR (adjusted odds ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.19-5.74]), longer OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88) and PFS (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89) vs no prior RS. This association remained significant when type of prior locoregional treatment (RS and RT) was modelled separately. CONCLUSION: Prior RS before developing advanced disease was associated with better outcomes in patients with aUC treated with ICIs in the second-plus-line but not in the first-line setting. While further validation is needed, our findings could have implications for prognostic estimates in clinical discussions and benchmarking for clinical trials. Limitations include the study's retrospective nature, lack of randomization, and possible selection and confounding biases.

6.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575598

RESUMO

Nucleocytoplasmic transport has been found dysregulated in many types of cancer and is often described as a poor prognostic factor. Specifically, Exportin-1 (XPO1) has been found overexpressed in many tumors and has become an attractive target in molecular oncology and therapeutics development. The selective inhibitor of nuclear export, Selinexor, is one of the most scientifically interesting drugs that targets XPO1 in clinical development. In this review, we summarized the most relevant preclinical and clinical results achieved for non-solid tumors, sarcomas, and other kind of solid tumors.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439171

RESUMO

Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) are rare cancers whose management can be challenging due to various presentation patterns, multiple organ involvement, and a high local and distant recurrence rate. Histopathology and prognostic factors analysis are essential to predict the behaviour of the disease and plan the best therapeutic strategy. To date, surgery is still the main therapeutic option that guarantees a chance of cure from the primary disease. While chemotherapy and radiotherapy seem to be good options for controlling metastatic and recurrent irresectable disease, their role in the treatment of primary RPS remains unclear. This literature review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the multidisciplinary aspects of RPS management in high-volume centres, summarising the diagnostic path, the prognostic factors, and the most suitable therapeutic options.

9.
Future Oncol ; 17(30): 3987-3994, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278815

RESUMO

The objective of the current research was to explore the potential prognostic value of readily available clinical and pathologic variables in bladder cancer. The novel association found between cholesterol levels and prognosis may provide the rationale for exploring novel treatments. Patients included had histologically confirmed urothelial bladder cancer and were treated with at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy. A total of 245 patients at low, intermediate and high risk, presenting with 0-1, 2 or 3-4 risk factors, including positive lymph nodes, Hb <12.8, NLR ≥2.7 and cholesterol levels ≥199, were included. Five-year cancer-specific survival rate was 0.67, 0.78 and 0.94 at high, intermediate and low risk, respectively. Total cholesterol levels at the time of cystectomy may represent a commonly assessable prognostic factor and may be incorporated in a clinically meaningful risk-group classification model.

10.
Curr Oncol ; 28(4): 2420-2438, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287240

RESUMO

Tumors of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (TuNSs) are rare and heterogeneous malignancies, presenting different histological features and clinical behavior. We reviewed the literature about etiology, biology, and clinical features of TuNSs to define pathologic features and possible treatment strategies. From a diagnostic point of view, it is mandatory to have high expertise and perform an immunohistochemical assessment to distinguish between different histotypes. Due to the extreme rarity of these neoplasms, there are no standard and evidence-based therapeutic strategies, lacking prospective and large clinical trials. In fact, most studies are retrospective analyses. Surgery represents the mainstay of treatment of TuNSs for small and localized tumors allowing complete tumor removal. Locally advanced lesions require more demolitive surgery that should be always followed by adjuvant radio- or chemo-radiotherapy. Recurrent/metastatic disease requires palliative chemo- and/or radiotherapy. Many studies emphasize the role of specific genes mutations in the development of TuNSs like mutations in the exons 4-9 of the TP53 gene, in the exon 9 of the PIK3CA gene and in the promoter of the TERT gene. In the near future, this genetic assessment will have new therapeutic implications. Future improvements in the understanding of the etiology, biology, and clinical features of TuNSs are warranted to improve their management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais , Seios Paranasais , Humanos , Cavidade Nasal , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/etiologia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 682449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168997

RESUMO

Background: Immune-Oncology (IO) improves Overall Survival (OS) in metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic impact of previous Cytoreductive Nephrectomy (CN) and radical nephrectomy (RN), with curative intent, in patients treated with IO is not well defined. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the impact of previous nephrectomy on outcome of mRCC patients treated with IO. Methods: 287 eligible patients were retrospectively collected from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the MeetUro association. Patients treated with IO as second and third line were included, whereas patients treated with IO as first line were excluded. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were performed to compare Progression Free Survival (PFS) and OS between groups. In our analysis, both CN and RN were included. The association between nephrectomy and other variables was analyzed in univariate and multivariate setting using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: 246/287 (85.7%) patients had nephrectomy before IO treatment. Median PFS in patients who underwent nephrectomy (246/287) was 4.8 months (95%CI 3.9-5.7) vs 3.7 months (95%CI 1.9-5.5) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.78; 95%CI 0.53 to 1.15; p = 0.186). Median OS in patients who had previous nephrectomy (246/287) was 20.9 months (95%CI 17.6-24.1) vs 13 months (95%CI 7.7-18.2) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.504; 95%CI 0.337 to 0.755; p = 0.001). In the multivariate model, nephrectomy showed a significant association with OS (HR log rank 0.638; 95%CI 0.416 to 0.980), whereas gland metastases were still associated with better outcome in terms of both OS (HR log rank 0.487; 95%CI 0.279 to 0.852) and PFS (HR log rank 0.646; 95%CI 0.435 to 0.958). Conclusions: IO treatment, in patients who had previously undergone nephrectomy, was associated with a better outcome in terms of OS. Further prospective trials would assess this issue in order to guide clinicians in real word practice.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 651745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046347

RESUMO

Background: Three or four cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard neoadjuvant treatment prior to cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Although NCCN guidelines recommend 4 cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine, three cycles are also commonly administered in clinical practice. In this multicenter retrospective study, we assessed a large and homogenous cohort of patients with urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) treated with three or four cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine followed by radical cystectomy, in order to explore whether three vs. four cycles were associated with different outcomes. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed muscle-invasive UBC included in this retrospective study had to be treated with either 3 (cohort A) or 4 (cohort B) cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine as neoadjuvant therapy before undergoing radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy. Outcomes including pathologic downstaging to non-muscle invasive disease, pathologic complete response (defined as absence of disease -ypT0), overall- and cancer-specific- survival as well as time to recurrence were compared between cohorts A vs. B. Results: A total of 219 patients treated at 14 different high-volume Institutions were included in this retrospective study. Patients who received 3 (cohort A) vs. 4 (cohort B) cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine were 160 (73,1%) vs. 59 (26,9%).At univariate analysis, the number of neoadjuvant cycles was not associated with either pathologic complete response, pathologic downstaging, time to recurrence, cancer specific, and overall survival. Of note, patients in cohort B vs. A showed a worse non-cancer specific overall survival at univariate analysis (HR= 2.53; 95 CI= 1.05 - 6.10; p=0.046), although this finding was not confirmed at multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that 3 cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine may be equally effective, with less long-term toxicity, compared to 4 cycles in the neoadjuvant setting.

13.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 121(4): 837-847, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961279

RESUMO

Standard treatment of Parkinson's disease involves the dopaminergic medications. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an important neurosurgical intervention often used as alternative treatment to drug therapy; however, it can be associated with increase of impulsive behaviors. This descriptive review focused on studies investigating the correlation between Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease patients, arguing, the action's mechanism and the specific role of the subthalamic nucleus. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studies and review articles for additional citations. From initial 106 studies, only 15 met the search criteria. Parkinson's Disease patients with and without Deep Brain Stimulation were compared with healthy controls, through 16 different tasks that assessed some aspects of impulsivity. Both Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and medication were associated with impulsive behavior and influenced decision-making processes. Moreover, findings demonstrated that: Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) occurred soon after surgery, while, in pharmacological treatment, they appeared mainly after the initiation of treatment or the increase in dosage, especially with dopamine agonists. The subthalamic nucleus plays a part in the fronto-striato-thalamic-cortical loops mediating motor, cognitive, and emotional functions: this could explain the role of the Deep Brain Stimulation in behavior modulation in Parkinson's Disease patients. Indeed, increase impulsivity has been reported also after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus independently by dopaminergic medication status.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956891

RESUMO

On March 2019 the World Health Organization declared Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Several recent reports disclose that the outcome of the infection is related to age, sex and can be influenced by underlying clinical conditions. Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonisms are the most common chronic disease which can cause, directly or indirectly, the patient to be more exposed to other diseases, mostly respiratory system's ones. Our primary outcome is to evaluate if PD patients are more susceptible than non-PD to take COVID-19 infection. Second, to detect if the infection course is worse in PD-COVID+ patients versus non-PD. This is a retrospective observational study on a cohort of 18 patients (13 PD- 5 non-PD), hospitalized in a Rehabilitative Unit during the occurrence of SARS-CoV2 epidemic outbreak. All patients performed laboratory tests, lung Computed Tomography (CT) and have been tested for COVID-19 thorough pharyngeal swab. PD and non-PD groups were comparable for age, gender and Hoehn and Yahr stage. Seventy-seven (77)% of PD and 60% of non-PD resulted positive for COVID-19. PD-COVID+ and PD-COVID- did not differ for age, disease duration and L-dopa daily dose. PD COVID-19+ subjects were mainly asymptomatic (50%) while non-PD ones were all symptomatic, mostly with respiratory difficulties. PD doesn't seem to be a risk factor to take SARS-COV2 infection, even if our study is related to a limited sample size. Our results, together with those of other recent studies, highlight the need to evaluate the actual susceptibility of patients with Parkinson's disease to develop COVID-19 disease, and how the infection may influence the risk of clinical worsening and increase of mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
15.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(5): e286-e298, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a deadly disease. Enzalutamide is an oral second-generation anti-androgen that is active in mCRPC. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) count correlates with overall survival (OS) in mCRPC, whereas detection of the androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) in CTC predicts poor response to oral second-generation anti-androgens. Also, loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) in CTC is a biomarker of poor prognosis in mCRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this translational study, we employed flow cytometry to assess total, PTEN-, and AR-V7+ CTC count per 7.5 mL of whole blood in a prospective cohort of patients with mCRPC receiving enzalutamide. RESULTS: CTCs were assessed in a total of 45 men with mCRPC at baseline and at 12 weeks. Overall, CTC, PTEN- CTC, and AR-V7+ CTC detection rate was high, at baseline, with 84.4%, 71.1%, and 51.1% of samples showing at least 1 cell/7.5-mL blood, respectively, and after 3 months, with 93.3%, 64.4%, and 77.7% of samples showing at least 1 cell/7.5-mL blood, respectively. Median radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and OS were 6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-9) and 14.3 (95% CI, 12.8-20.3) months, respectively. Median (interquartile range) total CTC count at baseline was 5 (3; 8), whereas median (interquartile range) PTEN- CTC count was 2 (0; 4) and median (interquartile range) AR-V7+ CTC count was 1 (0; 3). At baseline, ≥ 5 versus < 5 total CTC count was associated with worse rPFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.35; 95% CI, 1.14-4.84; P= .021) and OS (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.45-6.54; P = .003), whereas ≥ 2 versus < 2 PTEN- CTC count was associated with worse rPFS (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.8-8.72; P= .001) and OS (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.12-5; P= .025). Finally, ≥ 1 versus < 1 AR-V7+ CTC count was also associated with worse rPFS (HR, 5.05; 95% CI, 2.4-10.64; P< .001) and OS (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.1-4.58; P= .026). CONCLUSIONS: Despite multiple limitations, including the small sample size, our preliminary study suggests that assessment of CTC via flow cytometry may provide potentially useful prognostic and predictive information in advanced prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted. Micro-Abstract: In this study, men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, scheduled to start enzalutamide, were assessed for circulating tumor cell count and molecular characterization (total, PTEN-, and AR-V7+ circulating tumor cell count) by the use of flow cytometry. We found that flow cytometry could be used to enumerate circulating tumor cells, but also to assess molecular biomarkers on their surface.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Benzamidas , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrilas , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Feniltioidantoína , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptores Androgênicos
16.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 173, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902630

RESUMO

Sarcomas are rare, ubiquitous and heterogeneous tumors usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, target therapy, and radiotherapy. However, 25-50% of patients experience local relapses and/or distant metastases after chemotherapy with an overall survival about 12-18 months. Recently, immuno-therapy has revolutionized the cancer treatments with initial indications for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma (immune-checkpoint inhibitors).Here, we provide a narrative review on the topic as well as a critical description of the currently available trials on immunotherapy treatments in patients with sarcoma. Given the promising results obtained with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and CAR-T cells, we strongly believe that these new immunotherapeutic approaches, along with an innovative characterization of tumor genetics, will provide an exciting opportunity to ameliorate the therapeutic management of sarcomas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Sarcoma , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Sarcoma/terapia
17.
Front Neurol ; 12: 615356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716923

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the study is to compare the accuracy of unstructured preoperative Computed Tomography (CT) reports from non-tertiary diagnostic centers with intraoperative findings in a large cohort of patients with Chronic Otitis Media (COM) undergone surgery. Methods: From 2012 to 2019, a total number of 301 patients were considered for our purposes. All patients with clinical evidence of COM had preoperative non-contrast high resolution CT scan of the temporal bone in non-tertiary diagnostic centers, performed within 3 months before surgery. Results: The accuracy of CT reports was analyzed in terms of nature, anatomical site, disease extension, bony erosion, vascular structures abnormalities relevant to surgical planning, and Eustachian tube patency. Compared to post-surgical findings, CT reporting critical analysis revealed a tendency to overestimation of bony erosion, coupled to underestimated description of facial canal/lateral semi-circular canal, vascular structures, and Eustachian tube. Conclusion: Discrepancies between CT reports and surgical findings in middle ear opacification can be at least in part due to limited expertise of general radiologists in ENT neuroimaging. To limit this lack of information and the limited accuracy of middle ear structures depiction, here we propose a structured checklist to adopt in the case of a temporal bone CT scan for COM, in order to optimize the communication with surgeons and provide all the crucial information for an accurate surgical planning.

18.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(3): 121-125, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to collect data about of the outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients who progressed after immune checkpoint inhibitors in order to enhance data about efficacy and safety of treatment beyond immune-oncology (IO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 162 eligible patients, progressing to IO, were enrolled from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro association. Baseline characteristics, outcome data and toxicities were retrospectively collected. Descriptive analysis was made using median values and ranges. Kaplan-Meier method and Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test were performed to compare differences between groups. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients (68.5%) were treated after IO progression. In all, 51 patients (31.5%) did not receive further treatment for clinical deterioration. Median IO progression free survival (PFS) was 4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.1-4.8). IO-PFS tends to be longer in patients reporting adverse events (AE) of any grade (5.03 [95% CI: 3.8-6.1] vs. 2.99 [95% CI: 2.4-3.5] months P=0.004). Subsequent therapies included cabozantinib (n=79, 48%), everolimus (n=11, 6.7%), and others (n=21, 12.9%).Median PFS post-IO was 6.5 months (95% CI: 5.1-7.8). Cabozantinib showed longer PFS compared with everolimus (7.6 mo [95% CI: 5.2-10.1] vs. 3.2 mo [95% CI: 1.8-4.5]) (hazard ratio: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1026-0.7968) and other drugs (4.3 mo [95% CI: 1.3-7.4]) (hazard ratio: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.35-1.23). All grade AE were reported in 83 patients (74%) and G3 to G4 AE in 39 patients (35%). Target therapies post-IO showed median overall survival of 14.7 months (95% CI: 0.3-21.4). CONCLUSIONS: In our real world experience after progression to IO, vascular endotelial groth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, given to patients, proved to be active and safe choices. Cabozantinib was associated with a better outcome in terms of median PFS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103198, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316417

RESUMO

Although both docetaxel and androgen-receptor-axis-targeted (ARAT) agents have yielded survival improvements in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) compared to ADT alone in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) patients, the optimal therapeutic choice remains to be established. We analyzed estimates of the hazard ratios for death (OS-HRs) in patients treated in the first-line setting enrolled in the GETUG-AFU15, CHAARTED, STAMPEDE, LATITUDE, ENZAMET, and TITAN trials. Overall, men with mCSPC receiving ADT with vs. without either an ARAT agent or docetaxel as first-line systemic therapy showed a pooled OS-HR of 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.61-0.78), with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.045, I2 = 52.5 %). Network meta-analysis showed an OS-HR in patients receiving an ARAT agent vs. docetaxel of 0.78 (95 %CI: 0.67-0.91). In conclusion, the evidence analysed indicates that an ARAT agent may provide improved OS outcomes compared to docetaxel. Prospective randomized trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Castração , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Assist Technol ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337294

RESUMO

Home automation (HA) is either a "smart" house or a supportive environment, which enables the patients to regain an active role in daily life. HA could allow people affected by Parkinson Disease (PD) to better manage their daily lives. This study aims to evaluate the effects of domotics on quality of life, and personal/social autonomy in PD patients. We enrolled 40 with PD undergoing neurorehabilitation, who were randomized into either the control (CG) or the experimental group (EG). Two different rehabilitative approaches were used: the CG was submitted to a traditional training, whilst the EG underwent HA training, in which the activities were carried out through the use of assistive technologies. In both the training, the exercises were performed in small samples of 3-5 patients. Results showed that both CG and EG had a significant improvement in global cognitive functioning, executive functions, and instrumental autonomy. However, only in the EG, we observed a significant increase in social adaptation, activities of daily living and quality of life. This pilot study suggests that HA training could be a useful tool for the rehabilitation of patients with PD, improving social and cognitive functioning, personal autonomy and quality of life.

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