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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827360

RESUMO

Background: Aminoglycosides are the most prescribed antibiotics in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Reducing exposure to antibiotics in the NICU is highly desirable, particularly through benchmarking methods. Methods: Description of aminoglycosides prescriptions in 23 French NICU using the same computerized system over a 4-year period (2017-2020). A benchmarking program of antibiotics prescription was associated. Results: The population included 53,818 patients. Exposition rates to gentamicin and amikacin were 31.7% (n = 17,049) and 9.1% (n = 4894), respectively. Among neonates exposed to gentamicin, 90.4% of gentamicin and 77.6% of amikacin treatments were started within the 1st week of life. Among neonates exposed to amikacin, 77.6% started amikacin within the 1st week. The average daily dose of gentamicin at first prescription increased over the study period from 3.9 in 2017 to 4.4 mg/kg/d in 2020 (p < 0.0001). Conversely, the corresponding amikacin daily doses decreased from 13.0 in 2017 to 12.3 mg/kg/d in 2020 (p = 0.001). The time interval between the first 2 doses of gentamicin was mainly distributed in 3 values during the first week of life: 49.4% at 24 h, 26.4% at 36 h, and 22.9% at 48 h. At first amikacin prescription, the time interval was distributed in 4 categories: 48% at 24 h, 4.1% at 30 h, 8.5% at 36 h, and 37.1% at 48 h. As compared to literature guidelines, the rates of overdose and underdose in gentamicin (1.5% and 2.7%) and amikacin (0.3% and 1.0%). They significantly decreased for gentamicin over the study period. In multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with GENT overdose were the year of admission, prematurity, length of stay, and duration of the treatment. Conclusion: This prescription strategy ensured a low rate of overdose and underdose, and some benefits of the benchmarking program is suggested.

2.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(11): 749-756, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early access of medicines occurs with an uncertainty in the evidence even higher than the one experienced when price and reimbursement status is negotiated. Our aim is discussing the role of managed entry agreements (MEA) within early access programs (EAP) in Italy. METHODS: The discussion relied on a Focus Group, participated by twelve experts, including clinicians and representatives of regulatory authorities, regional and local pharmaceutical departments, pharmaceutical companies, and an association advocating for active citizenship. RESULTS: The Focus Group emphasised that the topic under discussion should be embedded into a more general reform of EAP in Italy. The 648 List mostly includes mature products and indications that are rarely launched into the market afterwards. The 5% Fund is affected by an important administrative burden uncertainty of the timing of reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: Starting from the discussion on MEA and EAP, the Focus Group recommended a new legislation better regulating EAP, that early access concerns specific classes of medicines selected on the grounds of the need to guarantee a rapid access and to collect real world data, that early access can be accompanied by outcome-based and population-based MEA, and that MEA are embedded into the subsequent price and reimbursement negotiation.

3.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior antiangiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The postprogression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5%, and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2, or >2 prior treatment, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48-0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049128, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure and explain financial toxicity (FT) of cancer in Italy, where a public healthcare system exists and patients with cancer are not expected (or only marginally) to pay out-of-pocket for healthcare. SETTING: Ten clinical oncological centres, distributed across Italian macroregions (North, Centre, South and Islands), including hospitals, university hospitals and national research institutes. PARTICIPANTS: From 8 October 2019 to 11 December 2019, 184 patients, aged 18 or more, who were receiving or had received within the previous 3 months active anticancer treatment were enrolled, 108 (59%) females and 76 (41%) males. INTERVENTION: A 30-item prefinal questionnaire, previously developed within the qualitative tasks of the project, was administered, either electronically (n=115) or by paper sheet (n=69). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: According to the protocol and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology, the final questionnaire was developed by mean of explanatory factor analysis and tested for reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's α test and item-total correlation) and stability of measurements over time (test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient and weighted Cohen's kappa coefficient). RESULTS: After exploratory factor analysis, a score measuring FT (FT score) was identified, made by seven items dealing with outcomes of FT. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the FT score was 0.87 and the item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 0.74. Further, nine single items representing possible determinants of FT were also retained in the final instrument. Test-retest analysis revealed a good internal validity of the FT score and of the 16 items retained in the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The Patient-Reported Outcome for Fighting FInancial Toxicity (PROFFIT) instrument consists of 16 items and is the first reported instrument to assess FT of cancer developed in a country with a fully public healthcare system. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03473379.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508610

RESUMO

Some concerns have been raised about potential bias in patient-reported outcome (PRO) results from open-label cancer randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We investigated if open-label trials favor the experimental treatment over the standard treatment more frequently than blinded trials. We also examined if the effect of treatment concealment differs for distal vs more proximal PROs. We assessed 538 RCTs with a PRO endpoint conducted in the most prevalent cancers, of which 366 (68.0%) were open-label, 148 (27.5%) were blinded, and 24 (4.5%) were categorized as unclear. In our multivariable logistic regression model, we did not observe a statistically significant association of the independent variable treatment concealment (open-label vs blinded) on the dependent variable measuring the proportion of trials favoring the experimental treatment (adjusted odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 1.79, 2-sided P = .40. This was also the case when comparing distal and proximal PROs. Our findings provide novel evidence-based data that support the validity of PRO results from open label cancer RCTs.

7.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371705

RESUMO

The pediatric population suffers from a lack of age-appropriate medicines leading to unsafe situations when off-labelled or unlicensed drugs are used. Assessing the best option to administrate medicines when manipulations are required is essential in order to improve child care. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the administered dose provided by three dosage forms and their techniques of administration. Different techniques of administration were assessed, covering three oral dosage forms (commercially available tablets, capsules, oral suspensions) using two APIs not available in a children-adapted dosage form. Techniques of administration were simulated and administered doses were determined using HPLC-UV. Means were compared to the target dose while distributions of doses were compared between each technique. For both APIs, mean administered doses obtained with capsules and tablets were significantly different from the target dose, whereas there was no statistical difference with oral suspensions. Distributions of doses showed significant difference between the three dosage forms. This study demonstrates that manipulations of solid oral dosage forms provide dramatic underdosing leading to unsafe situations. Compounded oral suspension is the best option to avoid underdosing and dose variation. This solution should be prioritized when age-appropriate commercial medicines are not available.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.

9.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(7): 3264-3275, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430363

RESUMO

Objective: This review summarizes the current status of neoadjuvant therapy and discusses the choice of new clinical research endpoints for non-small cell lung cancer. Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a recognized practice in patients with resectable and locally advanced lung cancer. With the introduction of molecular targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), the overall survival (OS) of patients with lung cancer has been significantly improved, and the original traditional clinical research endpoints are no longer suitable for existing clinical research. In order to accelerate the process of clinical trials and the development and approval of drugs, it is necessary to find suitable alternative indicators as the main indicators of clinical research. Methods: Therefore, this article focuses on clinical trials using disease-free survival (DFS), progression free survival, and pathological evaluation indicators, pathologic complete response and major pathologic response, as surrogate endpoints. We search related literature through PubMed database and clinical trials through clinicaltrials.gov. Conclusions: Pathologic complete response and major pathologic response are recommended as surrogate endpoints in the era of neoadjuvant immunotherapy, and secondary endpoints are listed for the prediction of pathological results. In addition, the definitions of major pathological response (MPR) and PCR should be standardized, and a new pathological evaluation standard should be developed, which is applicable to all current treatment methods. Keywords: Neoadjuvant therapy; resectable lung cancer; clinical research endpoint; pathological response.

10.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2917-2936, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295688

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become the standard of care for the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC), either as single agents or combined with chemotherapy. The evidence sustaining their role for poor performance status (ECOG PS ≥2) patients is limited. Methods: We search PubMed and the proceedings of international oncology meetings to perform a systematic review to assess the outcomes poor PS NSCLC patients who received ICIs as first-line treatment. A meta-analysis included retrospective studies focusing on pembrolizumab monotherapy in PD-L1 ≥50% NSCLC. We reported the global objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and landmark progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS, respectively) in ECOG PS ≥2 and 0-1 patients, respectively. Results: Forty-one studies were included in the systematic review. Thirty-two retrospective studies focused on pembrolizumab monotherapy in PD-L1 ≥50% cases. In total, 1,030 out of 5,357 (19%) of patients across 30 studies presented with a PS ≥2 at pembrolizumab initiation. In 18 studies with detailed clinical information, worse outcomes in poor PS compared to good PS patients were documented. The meta-analysis revealed that ORR and DCR within the PS ≥2 patient population were 30.9% and 41.5% respectively (55.2% and 71.5% in PS 0-1 patients). The rates of PFS (at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months) and OS (at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months) were approximately double in the good PS compared to the poor PS group of patients. In the three prospective trials where of ICIs in PS 2 populations, the diverse strictness in PS definition likely contributed to the differential outcomes observed. Six retrospective studies dealt with chemo-immunotherapy combinations. Conclusions: Still with limited prospective evidence sustaining the role of immunotherapy in previously untreated NSCLC with poor PS, 19% of patients in retrospective series dealing with pembrolizumab in PD-L1 ≥50% tumors had an ECOG PS ≥2. Clinical effort encompassing the definition of poor PS, of the factors conditioning it, and the development of dedicated treatment strategies is required to improve the outcomes in this patient population.

11.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(6): 2890-2916, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295687

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of oncogene-addicted non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been changed by the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Albeit great benefits are achieved with target therapies, resistance invariably occurs and recourse to alternative treatments is unavoidable. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) role and the best setting of immunotherapy administration in oncogene-driven NSCLC are matter of debate. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review through PubMed, in order to gather all the available information regarding ICI activity and efficacy in oncogene-addicted NSCLC, from both prospective trials and retrospective series. A meta-analysis of objective response rate in different molecular subgroups was provided. Combinatorial strategies including ICIs and related toxicities were also recorded. Results: Eighty-seven studies were included in the qualitative analysis. EGFR mutation may be a biomarker of poor response to single-agent ICIs (7% of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients achieved disease response in prospective trials), while encouraging results have been shown with combination strategies. KRAS-mutated disease (response rate, RR, 22%) has different clinical and pathological characteristics, and the co-existence of additional mutations (e.g., STK11 or TP53) influence tumor microenvironment and response to immunotherapy. Other molecular alterations have been marginally considered prospectively, and data from clinical practice are variegated, given poor effectiveness of ICIs in ALK-rearranged disease (RR 9.5%, pooling the data of retrospective studies) or some encouraging results in BRAF-(RR 25%, retrospective data) or MET-driven one (with estimations conditioned by the presence of both exon 14 skipping mutations and gene amplification in reported series). Conclusions: In oncogene-addicted NSCLC (with the exception of KRAS-mutated), ICIs are usually administered at the failure of other treatment options, but administering single-agent immunotherapy in later disease phases may limit its efficacy. With the progressive administration of TKIs and ICIs in early-stage disease, molecular characterization will become fundamental in this setting.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200267

RESUMO

In resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC), the powerful positive prognostic effect and the potential predictive value for a lack of benefit from the combination of adjuvant/peri-operative chemotherapy for the MSI-high status was demonstrated. Given the high sensitivity of MSI-high tumors for immunotherapy, exploratory trials showed that combination immunotherapy induces a high rate of complete pathological response (pCR), potentially achieving cancer cure without surgery. INFINITY is an ongoing phase II, multicentre, single-arm, multi-cohort trial investigating the activity and safety of tremelimumab and durvalumab as neoadjuvant (Cohort 1) or potentially definitive (Cohort 2) treatment for MSI-high/dMMR/EBV-negative, resectable GC/GEJC. About 310 patients will be pre-screened, to enroll a total of 31 patients, 18 and 13 in Cohort 1 and 2, at 25 Italian Centres. The primary endpoint of Cohort 1 is rate of pCR (ypT0N0) and negative ctDNA after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, of Cohort 2 is 2-year complete response rate, defined as absence of macroscopic or microscopic residual disease (locally/regionally/distantly) at radiological examinations, tissue and liquid biopsy, during non-operative management without salvage gastrectomy. The ongoing INFINITY proof-of-concept study may provide evidence on immunotherapy and the potential omission of surgery in localized/locally advanced GC/GEJC patients selected for dMMR/MSI-high status eligible for radical resection.

14.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(12): e1887-e1894, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: COVID-19 cancer patients (C19-CP) represent a population at high risk for mortality, whose clinical characteristics are still unknown in the second SARS-CoV-2 wave. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare epidemiology and clinical presentation of C19-CP referring to the emergency department (ED) of our institution (San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy), in a 3-week observation period of the first and second COVID-19 waves, starting from the introduction of the corresponding national lockdowns. METHODS: We retrieved ED admissions from March 9 to 29, 2020, for the first wave, and from October 24 to November 13, 2020, for the second wave. We collected clinical characteristics of consecutive patients with molecularly confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also considered untested or SARS-CoV-2-negative cancer patients referring to the ED in the reference time frames. RESULTS: C19-CP in the second wave exceeded those in the first wave despite the nonsignificant difference (39 of 576 v 8 of 163; P = .5). Compared with nononcological patients, C19-CP were older (median age 70 years [interquartile range 61-77] v 60 years [interquartile range 45-73]; P = .02) and presented more often with ≥ 2 comorbidities (40.4% v 24.3%; P = .02). Compared with nononcological patients, in C19-CP, respiratory failure (29 of 47 v 321 of 692; P = .049) and hospitalization (37 of 47 v 363 of 692; P = .0004) were higher, with comparable frequencies across the waves. Five of 24 and 10 of 27 hospitalized cancer patients in the first and second waves developed SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: C19-CP were a vulnerable population, irrespective of the COVID-19 waves. This highlights the need to prioritize vaccinations in oncological patients to safeguard and guarantee optimal anticancer care.

15.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019675, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178121

RESUMO

Introduction: Rearranged during transfection (RET) gene fusions are rare genetic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Selective RET-inhibitors such as selpercatinib have shown therapeutic activity in early clinical trials; however, their efficacy in the real-world setting is unknown. Methods: A retrospective efficacy and safety analysis was performed on data from RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients who participated in a selpercatinib access program (named patient protocol) between August 2019 and January 2021. Results: Data from 50 patients with RET fusion-positive advanced NSCLC treated with selpercatinib at 27 centers in 12 countries was analyzed. Most patients were Non-Asian (90%), female (60%), never-smokers (74%), with a median age of 65 years (range, 38-89). 32% of the patients had known brain metastasis at the time of selpercatinib treatment. Overall, 13 patients were treatment-naïve, while 37 were pretreated with a median of three lines of therapy (range, 1-8). The objective response rate (ORR) was 68% [95% confidence interval (CI), 53-81] in the overall population. The disease control rate was 92%. The median progression-free survival was 15.6 months (95% CI, 8.8-22.4) after a median follow-up of 9 months. In patients with measurable brain metastases (n = 8) intracranial ORR reached 100%. In total, 88% of patients experienced treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), a large majority of them being grade 1 or 2. The most common grade ⩾ 3 TRAEs were increased liver enzyme levels (in 10% of patients), prolonged QTc time (4%), abdominal pain (4%), hypertension (4%), and fatigue/asthenia (4%). None of patients discontinued selpercatinib treatment for safety reasons. No new safety concerns were observed, nor where there any treatment-related death. Conclusions: In this real-world setting, the selective RET-inhibitor selpercatinib demonstrated durable systemic and intracranial antitumor activity in RET fusion-positive NSCLC and was well tolerated.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) show variable efficacy in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive (EGFR+) NSCLC patients, even in patients harbouring the same mutation. Co-alterations may predict different outcomes to TKIs. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all consecutive EGFR+ advanced NSCLC treated with first-line TKIs at our Institutions. NGS with a 22 genes clinical panel was performed on diagnostic specimens. PD-L1 expression was also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 106 analysed specimens, 59 showed concomitant pathogenic mutations. No differences in OS (mOS 22.8 vs. 29.5 months; p = 0.088), PFS (mPFS 10.9 vs. 11.2 months; p = 0.415) and ORR (55.9% vs. 68.1%; p = 0.202) were observed comparing patients without and with co-alterations. Subgroup analysis by EGFR mutation type and TKIs generation (1st/2nd vs. 3rd) did not show any difference too. No correlations of PD-L1 expression levels by co-mutational status were found. Significant associations with presence of co-alterations and younger age (p = 0.018) and baseline lymph nodes metastases (p = 0.032) were observed. Patients without concomitant alterations had a significant higher risk of bone progression (26.5% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenic co-alterations does not seem to predict survival nor efficacy of EGFR TKIs in previously untreated advanced NSCLC.

17.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 224-231, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated the cumulative poor prognostic role of concomitant medications on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, creating and validating a drug-based prognostic score to be calculated before immunotherapy initiation in patients with advanced solid tumours. This 'drug score' was calculated assigning score 1 for each between proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotic administration until a month before cancer therapy initiation and score 2 in case of corticosteroid intake. The good risk group included patients with score 0, intermediate risk with score 1-2 and poor risk with score 3-4. METHODS: Aiming at validating the prognostic and putative predictive ability depending on the anticancer therapy, we performed the present comparative analysis in two cohorts of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively, receiving first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy through a random case-control matching and through a pooled multivariable analysis including the interaction between the computed score and the therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy). RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. After the case-control random matching, 589 patients from the pembrolizumab cohort and 589 from the chemotherapy cohort were paired, with no statistically significant differences between the characteristics of the matched subjects. Among the pembrolizumab-treated group, good, intermediate and poor risk evaluable patients achieved an objective response rate (ORR) of 50.0%, 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated group, patients achieved an ORR of 37.0%, 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.4346). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of good, intermediate and poor risk groups was 13.9 months, 6.3 months and 2.8 months, respectively, within the pembrolizumab cohort (p < 0.0001), and 6.2 months, 6.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively, within the chemotherapy cohort (p = 0.0280). Among the pembrolizumab-treated patients, the median overall survival (OS) for good, intermediate and poor risk patients was 31.4 months, 14.5 months and 5.8 months, respectively, (p < 0.0001), whereas among the chemotherapy-treated patients, it was 18.3 months, 16.8 months and 10.6 months, respectively (p = 0.0003). A similar trend was reported considering the two entire populations. At the pooled analysis, the interaction term between the score and the therapeutic modality was statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0052), PFS (p = 0.0003) and OS (p < 0.0001), confirming the significantly different effect of the score within the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our 'drug score' showed a predictive ability with respect to ORR in the immunotherapy cohort only, suggesting it might be a useful tool for identifying patients unlikely to benefit from first-line single-agent pembrolizumab. In addition, the prognostic stratification in terms of PFS and OS was significantly more pronounced among the pembrolizumab-treated patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Polimedicação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 28(7): R207-R216, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949971

RESUMO

Obesity represents a well-known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma development. Several studies evaluated the relationship between obesity and outcome in patients with non-metastatic and metastatic renal cell carcinoma using different parameters such as BMI, visceral fat area and s.c. fat area. These studies suggest that obesity is associated with a better prognosis in renal cell carcinoma patients. This phenomenon is called obesity paradox and it was found in other diseases in which obesity represents an established risk factor such as heart failure, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, hypertension and coronary heart disease. The purpose of this review is to analyze the mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma development, to describe the evidence available to date about the link obesity-outcome and to evaluate the mechanisms to explain this apparently paradoxical relationship.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 549, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor in several cancer conditions. We previously found a significant prognostic value of CIN on overall survival (OS), in a pooled dataset of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving first line chemotherapy from 1996 to 2001. However, the prognostic role of CIN in NSCLC is still debated. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis pooling data prospectively collected in six randomized phase 3 trials in NSCLC conducted from 2002 to 2016. Patients who never started chemotherapy and those for whom toxicity data were missing were excluded. Neutropenia was categorized on the basis of worst grade during chemotherapy: absent (grade 0), mild (grade 1-2), or severe (grade 3-4). The primary endpoint was OS. Multivariable Cox model was applied for statistical analyses. In the primary analysis, a minimum time (landmark) at 180 days from randomization was applied in order to minimize the time-dependent bias. RESULTS: Overall, 1529 patients, who received chemotherapy, were eligible; 572 of them (who received 6 cycles of treatment) represented the landmark population. Severe CIN was reported in 143 (25.0%) patients and mild CIN in 135 (23.6%). At multivariable OS analysis, CIN was significantly predictive of prognosis although its prognostic value was entirely driven by severe CIN (hazard ratio [HR] of death 0.71; 95%CI: 0.53-0.95) while it was not evident with mild CIN (HR 1.21; 95%CI: 0.92-1.58). Consistent results were observed in the out-of-landmark group (including 957 patients), where both severe and mild CIN were significantly associated with a reduced risk of death. CONCLUSION: The pooled analysis of six large trials of NSCLC treatment shows that CIN occurrence is significantly associated with a longer overall survival, particularly in patients developing severe CIN, confirming our previous findings.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.

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