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1.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) on mortality in patients with coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is debated. From a cohort of 1352 consecutive patients admitted with Covid-19 to Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital in Bergamo, Italy, between February and April 2020, we selected and studied hypertensive patients to assess whether antecedent (prior to hospitalization) use of RASIs might affect mortality from Covid-19 according to age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial hypertension was present in 688 patients. Overall mortality (in-hospital or shortly after discharge) was 35% (N = 240). After adjusting for 26 medical history variables via propensity score matching, antecedent use of RASIs (N = 459, 67%) was associated with a lower mortality in older hypertensive patients (age above the median of 68 years in the whole series), whereas no evidence of a significant effect was found in the younger group of the same population (P interaction = 0.001). In an analysis of the subgroup of 432 hypertensive patients older than 68 years, we considered two RASI drug subclasses, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs, N = 156) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, N = 140), and assessed their respective effects by taking no-antecedent-use of RASIs as reference. This analysis showed that both antecedent use of ACEIs and antecedent use of ARBs were associated with a lower Covid-19 mortality (odds ratioACEI = 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.36--0.91, P = 0.018) (odds ratioARB = 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29--0.82, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: In the population of over-68 hypertensive Covid-19 patients, antecedent use of ACEIs or ARBs was associated with a lower all-cause mortality, whether in-hospital or shortly after discharge, compared with no-antecedent-use of RASIs.

3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930466

RESUMO

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complement activation contributes to lung dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed whether C5 blockade with eculizumab could improve disease outcome. METHODS: In this single-centre, academic, unblinded study two 900 mg eculizumab doses were added-on standard therapy in ten COVID-19 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 and receiving Continuous-Positive-Airway-Pressure (CPAP) ventilator support from ≤24 hours. We compared their outcomes with those of 65 contemporary similar controls. Primary outcome was respiratory rate at one week of ventilator support. Secondary outcomes included the combined endpoint of mortality and discharge with chronic complications. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of eculizumab-treated patients and controls were similar. At baseline, sC5b-9 levels, ex vivo C5b-9 and thrombi deposition were increased. Ex vivo tests normalised in eculizumab-treated patients, but not in controls. In eculizumab-treated patients respiratory rate decreased from 26.8±7.3 breaths/min at baseline to 20.3±3.8 and 18.0±4.8 breaths/min at one and two weeks, respectively (p<0.05 for both), but did not change in controls. Between-group changes differed significantly at both time-points (p<0.01). Changes in respiratory rate correlated with concomitant changes in ex vivo C5b-9 deposits at one (rs = 0.706, p = 0.010) and two (rs = 0.751, p = 0.032) weeks. Over a median (IQR) period of 47.0 (14.0-121.0) days, four eculizumab-treated patients died or had chronic complications versus 52 controls [HRCrude (95% CI): 0.26 (0.09-0.72), p = 0.010]. Between-group difference was significant even after adjustment for age, sex and baseline serum creatinine [HRAdjusted (95% CI): 0.30 (0.10-0.84), p = 0.023]. Six patients and 13 controls were discharged without complications [HRCrude (95% CI): 2.88 (1.08-7.70), p = 0.035]. Eculizumab was tolerated well. The main study limitations were the relatively small sample size and the non-randomised design. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19, eculizumab safely improved respiratory dysfunction and decreased the combined endpoint of mortality and discharge with chronic complications. Findings need confirmation in randomised controlled trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Biomedicines ; 9(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944575

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) dysregulation is implicated in several diseases, given their involvement in extracellular matrix degradation and cell motility. In lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a pulmonary rare disease, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been detected at high levels in serum and urine. LAM cells, characterized by a mutation in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1 or TSC2, promote cystic lung destruction. The role of MMPs in invasive and destructive LAM cell capability has not yet been fully understood. We evaluated MMP-2 and MMP-7 expression, secretion, and activity in primary LAM/TSC cells that bear a TSC2 germline mutation and an epigenetic modification and depend on epidermal growth factor (EGF) for survival. 5-azacytidine restored tuberin expression with a reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-7 levels and inhibits motility, similarly to rapamycin and anti-EGFR antibody. Both drugs reduced MMP-2 and MMP-7 secretion and activity during wound healing and decreased their expression in lung nodules of a LAM mouse model. In LAM/TSC cells, MMP-2 and MMP-7 are dependent on tuberin expression, cellular adhesion, and migration. MMPs appears sensitive to rapamycin and anti-EGFR antibody only during cellular migration. Our data indicate a complex and differential modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-7 in LAM/TSC cells, likely critical for lung parenchyma remodeling during LAM progression.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461706

RESUMO

Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy (PTTM) is a rare condition associated with neoplastic disorders, predominantly gastric cancer, leading to pre-capillary Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). The pathologic mechanism involved is a fibrocellular intimal proliferation of small pulmonary vessels sustained by nests of carcinomatous cells lodged in pulmonary vasculature. Clinical presentation is nonspecific, including progressive dyspnea and dry cough. Diagnosis of PTTM is extremely challenging ante-mortem and prognosis is poor. Here we describe the case of a middle-aged man, without known previous cancer history. The clinical course was rapidly unfavorable, with progressive dyspnea and PH associated with hemodynamic instability, eventually culminating in patient's death. PTTM diagnosis was made post-mortem. PTTM should be considered in any patient presenting with unexplained PH, especially if it is rapidly progressive, poorly responsive to standard approaches or there is suspected history of malignancy. A prompt diagnosis of PTTM could help in bringing light into this still under-recognized condition.

8.
Respir Med ; 187: 106577, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: current data on the impact of acute illness severity on exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency of COVID-19 survivors, evaluated at cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), are limited. METHODS: in this post-hoc analysis of our previous observational, prospective, cohort study on mechanisms of exercise intolerance in COVID-19 survivors, we aimed at evaluating the impact of acute COVID-19 severity on exercise capacity, pulmonary function testing (PFT) and chest computed tomography (CT) outcomes. RESULTS: we enrolled 75 patients (18 with mild-to-moderate disease, 18 with severe disease, and 39 with critical disease). Mean (standard deviation - SD) follow-up time was 97 (26) days. Groups showed a similar PFT and CT residual involvement, featuring a mildly reduced exercise capacity with comparable mean (SD) values of peak oxygen consumption as percentage of predicted (83 (17) vs 82 (16) vs 84 (15), p = 0.895) among groups, as well as the median (interquartile range - IQR) alveolar-arterial gradient for O2 in mmHg at exercise peak (20 (15-28) vs 27 (18-31) vs 26 (21-21), p = 0.154), which was in the limit of normal. In addition, these patients featured a preserved mean ventilatory efficiency evaluated through the slope of the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide output during exercise (27.1 (2.6) vs 29.8 (3.9) vs 28.3 (2.6), p = 0.028), without a clinically relevant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Disease severity does not impact on exercise capacity in COVID-19 survivors at 3 months after discharge, including a ventilatory response still in the limit of normal.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 1837-1885, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. METHODS: Ten systematic literature searches were performed to answer ten different key questions. The retrieved evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The literature searches mostly assessed the available evidence on the management of COVID-19 patients in terms of antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. Most evidence was deemed as of low certainty, and in some cases, recommendations could not be developed according to the GRADE system (best practice recommendations were provided in similar situations). The use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies may be considered for outpatients at risk of disease progression. For inpatients, favorable recommendations were provided for anticoagulant prophylaxis and systemic steroids administration, although with low certainty of evidence. Favorable recommendations, with very low/low certainty of evidence, were also provided for, in specific situations, remdesivir, alone or in combination with baricitinib, and tocilizumab. The presence of many best practice recommendations testified to the need for further investigations by means of randomized controlled trials, whenever possible, with some possible future research directions stemming from the results of the ten systematic reviews.

11.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 16(1): 759, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123380

RESUMO

Background: In COVID-19, higher than expected level of intrapulmonary shunt has been described, in association with a discrepancy between the initial relatively preserved lung mechanics and the hypoxia severity. This study aim was to measure the shunt fraction and variations of PaO2/FiO2 ratio and oxygen alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a O2) at different FiO2. Methods: Shunt was measured by a non-invasive system during spontaneous breathing in 12 patients hospitalized at COVID-19 Semi-Intensive Care Unit of Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy, between October 22 and November 23, 2020. Results: Nine patients were men, mean age (±SD) 62±15 years, mean BMI 27.5±4.8 Kg/m2. Systemic hypertension, diabetes type 2 and previous myocardial infarction were referred in 33%, 17%, and 7%, respectively. Mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 234±66 and 11 patients presented a bilateral chest X-ray involvement. Mean shunt was 21±6%. Mainly in patients with a more severe respiratory failure, we found a progressive decrease of PaO2/FiO2 ratio with higher FiO2. Considering (A-a O2), we found a uniform tendency to increase with FiO2 increasing. Even in this case, the more severe were the patients, the higher was the slope, suggesting FiO2 insensitiveness due to a shunt effect, as strengthened by our measurements. Conclusion: Relying on a single evaluation of PaO2/FiO2 ratio, especially at high FiO2, could be misleading in COVID-19. We propose a two steps evaluation, the first at low SpO2 value (e.g., 92-94%) and the second one at high FiO2 (i.e., >0.7), allowing to characterize both the amendable (ventilation/perfusion mismatch), and the fixed (shunt) contribution quote of respiratory impairment, respectively.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 605909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981713

RESUMO

Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis can develop in a sporadic form (S-LAM) or in women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes potentially involved in cystic lung destruction, and in the process of migration of LAM cells. The aim of the study was to explore the role of MMP-2 and MMP-7, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -C and -D in women with LAM, including patients with minor pulmonary disease (i.e., <10 lung cysts), and TSC with or without LAM. Methods: We evaluated 50 patients: 13 individuals affected by S-LAM, 20 with TSC-LAM, of whom six with minor pulmonary disease, and 17 with TSC without pulmonary involvement. Sixteen healthy women were used as controls. Results: MMP-2 resulted higher in LAM compared to healthy volunteers, and TSC patients (p = 0.040). MMP-7 was higher in TSC-LAM patient, with even greater values in patients with TSC-LAM minor pulmonary disease, than in S-LAM patients, and in controls (p = 0.001). VEGF-D level was lower than 800 pg/mL in all healthy controls and resulted higher in S-LAM and TSC-LAM than in TSC patients and controls (p < 0.001). VEGF-C values were not statistically different in the study population (p = 0.354). The area under ROC curves (AUCs) of MMP-2, and MMP-7 for predicting LAM diagnosis were of 0.756 ± 0.079 (p = 0.004), and 0.828 ± 0.060 (p < 0.001), respectively. Considering only patients with TSC, the AUCs for MMP-2, and MMP-7 in predicting LAM were 0.694 ± 0.088 (p = 0.044), and 0.713 ± 0.090 (p = 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-7 could be promising biomarkers for LAM diagnosis.

14.
Adv Ther ; 38(7): 3816-3830, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043208

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preliminary results from the SABINA (SABA use IN Asthma) program showed lower overuse of short-acting ß2-agonist (SABA) in Italy compared to other European countries. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether SABINA's results might have been affected by the Italian National Health System and pharmaceutical market dynamics, by examining patients' characteristics in relation to SABA prescription/purchase habits. METHODS: Multiple approaches were used: (1) a retrospective study using the General Practitioners' (GPs) Italian IQVIA Longitudinal Patient Database (LPD) to assess SABA overuse (more than two canisters/year) and its association with exacerbation risk; (2) a survey conducted across 200 Italian pharmacies to calculate the proportions of SABA purchases without a prescription; (3) a cross-sectional study on the specialists' IQVIA Patient Analyzer database to understand the SABA prescription habits of specialists. RESULTS: Among SABA users identified through IQVIA LPD, the proportion of patients having more than two SABA canisters/year was 32%. Overall, patients prescribed more than two SABA canisters/year by GPs had 30% higher risk of exacerbations than patients with a maximum of two SABA canisters/year. The joint evaluation of IQVIA LPD and survey's findings revealed that IQVIA LPD tracks three out of four SABA canisters dispensed. The survey showed that, on average, SABA users purchased four canisters/year. Patients prescribed SABA by specialists were more frequently men, younger, thinner, and had higher spirometry values. CONCLUSION: SABA overuse is common in Italy, with a share of consumption not regulated by medical prescriptions. Because SABA overuse increases exacerbation risk, changes to national guidelines should be encouraged to ensure implementation of global recommendations.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808904

RESUMO

Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea is essential for patients' management. We investigated the feasibility and ability of forced oscillation techniques (FOT) in distinguishing between acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in a clinical emergency setting. We enrolled 49 patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for dyspnea and acute respiratory failure for AECOPD, or ADHF, and 11 healthy subjects. All patients were able to perform bedside FOT measurement. Patients with AECOPD showed a significantly higher inspiratory resistance at 5 Hz, Xrs5 (179% of predicted, interquartile range, IQR 94-224 vs. 100 IQR 67-149; p = 0.019), and a higher inspiratory reactance at 5 Hz (151%, IQR 74-231 vs. 57 IQR 49-99; p = 0.005) than patients with ADHF. Moreover, AECOPD showed higher heterogeneity of ventilation (respiratory system resistance difference at 5 and 19 Hz, Rrs5-19: 1.49 cmH2O/(L/s), IQR 1.03-2.16 vs. 0.44 IQR 0.22-0.76; p = 0.030), and a higher percentage of flow limited breaths compared to ADHF (10%, IQR 0-100 vs. 0 IQR 0-12; p = 0.030). FOT, which resulted in a suitable tool to be used in the ED setting, has the ability to identify distinct mechanical properties of the respiratory system in AECOPD and ADHF.

16.
Eur J Radiol ; 138: 109676, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate chest computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings in severe COVID-19 patients after discharge and correlate CT pulmonary involvement with PFT results. METHODS: COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital between February 25 and May 2, 2020, were retrospectively included according to the following criteria: (a) COVID-19 defined as severe based on the WHO interim guidance (i.e., clinical signs of pneumonia plus respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min, severe respiratory distress, and/or SpO2 < 90 % on room air); (b) chest radiograph in the acute setting; (c) post-discharge unenhanced chest CT; and (d) post-discharge comprehensive PFT. Imaging findings were retrospectively evaluated in consensus by two readers, and volume of abnormal lung was measured on CT using 3D Slicer software. Differences between demographics, comorbidities, acute radiographic findings, PFT, and post-discharge clinical and laboratory data of patients with normal and abnormal CT findings were assessed by Mann-Whitney or Fisher tests, and the compromised lung volume-PFT association by Pearson correlation after removing possible outliers. RESULTS: At a median of 105 days from symptom onset, 74/91 (81 %) patients had CT abnormalities. The most common CT pattern was combined ground-glass opacity and reticular pattern (46/74, 62 %) along with architectural distortion (68/74, 92 %) and bronchial dilatation (66/74, 89 %). Compromised lung volume had a median value of 15 % [11-23], was higher in dyspneic patients, and negatively correlated with the percentage of predicted DLCO, VA, and FVC values (r = -0.39, -0.5, and -0.42, respectively). These PFT parameters were significantly lower in patients with CT abnormalities. Impairment of DLCO and KCO was found in 12 (13 %) cases, possibly implying an underlying pulmonary vasculopathy in this subgroup of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most severe COVID-19 survivors still had physiologically relevant CT abnormalities about three months after the disease onset, with an impairment of diffusion capacity on PFT. A pulmonary vasculopathy was suggested in a minor proportion of patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência ao Convalescente , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Alta do Paciente , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 609440, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681246

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread rapidly. Here we discuss the dramatic situation created by COVID-19 in Italy, particularly in the province of Bergamo (the most severely affected in the first wave), as an example of how, in the face of an unprecedented tragedy, acting (albeit belatedly)-including imposing a very strict lockdown-can largely resolve the situation within approximately 2 months. The measures taken here ensured that Bergamo hospital, which was confronted with rapidly rising numbers of severely ill COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization, was able to meet the initial challenges of the pandemic. We also report that local organization and, more important, the large natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 of the Bergamo population developed during the first wave of the epidemic, can explain the limited number of new COVID-19 cases during the more recent second wave compared to the numbers in other areas of Lombardy. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of coordinating the easing of containment measures to avoid what is currently observed in other countries, especially in the United States, Latin American and India, where this approach has not been adopted, and a dramatic resurgence of COVID-19 cases and an increase in the number of hospitalisations and deaths have been reported.

19.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(8): 1562-1567, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the decrease in dyspnea in neuromuscular diseases after air stacking (AS) occurs mostly in patients with decreased inspiratory muscle force and ensuing chest wall restriction or heterogeneous ventilation across the lungs. DESIGN: Interventional, before-after study. SETTING: A neurorehabilitation inpatient and outpatient center. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen consecutive adult patients affected by neuromuscular diseases (N=15). INTERVENTIONS: AS treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients had vital capacity (VC) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) measured. We measured Borg score, oxygen saturation, and ventilation heterogeneity across the lung as estimated from the difference between respiratory resistance at 5 and 19 Hz (R5-19) with the forced oscillation technique before and 5, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after applying AS. RESULTS: Before AS, Borg score was significantly related to R5-19 (r2 0.46, P<.05) but not to VC % predicted, SNIP % predicted, and time since symptom onset. After AS, average Borg score gradually decreased (P=.005), whereas inspiratory flow resistance at 5 Hz, R5-19, and inspiratory reactance at 5 Hz tended to improve, despite not reaching statistical significance. The decrease in dyspnea at 60 and 120 minutes after AS significantly correlated with baseline R5-19 (r2 0.49, P<.01 and r2 0.29, P<.05, respectively), but not with VC % predicted, SNIP % predicted, time since symptom onset, and clinical severity score for patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that dyspnea in neuromuscular diseases is related to heterogeneous ventilation rather than inspiratory muscle force and/or lung volumes decrease. Restoring ventilation distribution across the lungs with AS appears to improve dyspnea.


Assuntos
Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/reabilitação , Doenças Neuromusculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/reabilitação , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria
20.
Respiration ; 100(4): 291-297, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease awareness is a challenge in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this analysis was to explore the association between COPD optimal and suboptimal awareness, clinical parameters, and the following patient-reported outcomes: modified Medical Research Council (mMRC), Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (TSQM-9), COPD Assessment Test (CAT), Morisky Medication-Taking Adherence Scale (MMAS-4), and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). METHODS: This post hoc analysis of the SAT study included all enrolled patients for whom awareness (Disease Awareness in COPD Questionnaire - DACQ) was assessed at baseline and 12 months. DACQ scores ≥80 were considered an indicator of an optimal awareness. RESULTS: 367 patients (25.8% women, median age 72 years) were included in the analysis. At enrollment, 74 patients (20.2%) had a DACQ score ≥80. Patients with suboptimal awareness, compared to those in which awareness was optimal, had higher median scores for CAT (p = 0.0001) and mMRC (p = 0.0031), a lower median TSQM-9 global score (p < 0.0001), and higher median B-IPQ score (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients who had exacerbations during the previous year was higher in patients with suboptimal COPD awareness than in those with DACQ score ≥80 (42.8 vs. 21.4%, p = 0.0009). During the 12-month observation period, illness perception, adherence, and treatment satisfaction were found to be independent factors significantly associated with level of disease awareness. CONCLUSION: The results of our post hoc analysis suggest that patients' awareness of their COPD disease is related to both clinical outcomes and how they perceive and manage their condition.

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