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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849946

RESUMO

Multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) represents a rapid, highly reproducible, and sensitive diagnostic technology for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which are characterized by a wide range of T cell perturbations and a broad clinical and genetic heterogeneity. MFC data from CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were examined in 100 patients referred for Primary Immunodeficiencies to our center. Naïve, central memory, effector memory, and terminal effector memory cell differentiation stages were defined by the combined expression CD45RA/CD27 for CD4 and CD45RA/CCR7 for CD8. Principal component analysis (PCA), a non-hypothesis driven statistical analysis, was applied to analyze MFC data in order to distinguish the diverse PIDs. Among severe lymphopenic patients, those affected by severe combined and combined immunodeficiency (SCID and CID) segregated in a specific area, reflecting a homogenous, and a more severe T cell impairment, compared to other lymphopenic PID, such as thymectomized and partial DiGeorge syndrome patients. PID patients with predominantly antibody defects were distributed in a heterogeneous pattern, but unexpectedly PCA was able to cluster some patients' resembling CID, hence warning for additional and more extensive diagnostic tests and a diverse clinical management. In conclusion, PCA applied to T cell MFC data might help the physician to estimate the severity of specific PID and to diversify the clinical and diagnostic approach of the patients.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736942

RESUMO

Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) exhibit T lymphopenia and profound impairments in cellular and humoral immunity. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) deficiency is a rare form of SCID that usually presents in the first months of life with severe and opportunistic infections, failure to thrive and high risk of mortality unless treated. Here, we reported an atypical and delayed onset of IL7Rα-SCID in a 15-month-old girl presenting with thrombocytopenia. Immunological investigations showed a normal lymphocyte count with isolated CD4-penia, absence of naïve T cells, marked hypergammaglobulinemia, and maternal T cell engraftment. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the IL-7Rα gene: c.160T>C (p.S54P) and c.245G>T (p.C82F). The atypical onset and the unusual immunological phenotype expressed by our patient highlights the diagnostic challenge in the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and in particular in SCID patients where prompt diagnosis and therapy greatly affects survival.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

4.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple monogenic disorders present as very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) or as IBD with severe and atypical features. Establishing a genetic diagnosis may change patients' management and prognosis. In this study, we describe the diagnostic approach to suspected monogenic IBD in a real clinical setting, discussing genetic and phenotypic findings and therapeutic implications of molecular diagnosis. METHODS: Information of patients with VEO-IBD and early onset IBD with severe/atypical phenotypes (EO-IBD s/a) managed between 2008-2017 who underwent a genetic workup were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were included, and 12 (13%) reached a genetic diagnosis. Candidate sequencing (CS) was performed in 47 patients (50%), and next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 84 patients (90%). Candidate sequencing had a good diagnostic performance only when guided by clinical features specific for known monogenic diseases, whereas NGS helped finding new causative genetic variants and would have anticipated one monogenic diagnosis (XIAP) and consequent bone marrow transplant (BMT). Patients with monogenic IBD more frequently were male (92% vs 54%; P = 0.02), had extraintestinal findings (100% vs 34%; P < 0.001), and had disease onset ≤1 month of life (25% vs 1%; P = 0.006). Genetic diagnosis impacted patient management in 11 patients (92%), 7 of whom underwent BMT. CONCLUSION: A genetic diagnosis can be established in a significant proportion of suspected monogenic IBD and has an impact on patients' management. Candidate sequencing may be deployed when clinical findings orientate toward a specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing should be preferred in patients with nonspecific phenotypes.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031743

RESUMO

Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837984

RESUMO

We described for the first time a female patient with the simultaneous presence of two homozygous mutations in MYD88 and CARD9 genes presenting with pyogenic bacterial infections, elevated IgE, and persistent EBV viremia. In addition to defective TLR/IL1R-signaling, we described novel functional alterations into the myeloid compartment. In particular, we demonstrated a defective production of reactive oxygen species exclusively in monocytes upon E. coli stimulation, the inability of immature mono-derived DCs (iDCs) to differentiate into mature DCs (mDCs) and the incapacity of mono-derived macrophages (MDMs) to resolve BCG infection in vitro. Our data do not provide any evidence for digenic inheritance in our patient, but rather for the association of two monogenic disorders. This case illustrates the importance of using next generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the most accurate and early diagnosis in atypical clinical and immunological phenotypes, and with particular concern in consanguineous families. Indeed, besides the increased susceptibility to recurrent invasive pyogenic bacterial infections due to MYD88 deficiency, the identification of CARD9 mutations underline the risk of developing invasive fungal infections emphasizing the careful monitoring for the occurrence of fungal infection and the opportunity of long-term antifungal prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Viremia/genética , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(1): 51-60, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269248

RESUMO

Selective IgA deficiency is defined as absolute or partial when serum IgA level is < 7 mg/dl or 2 SD below normal for age, respectively. Few data are available on partial selective IgA deficiency, as probably most children with low serum IgA are seldom referred to a specialist clinic in common pediatric practice. The aim of our study was to better define the profile of both symptomatic forms and their clinical outcome in a pediatric immunology setting. Thus, clinical and immunological data from 103 symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency (53 absolute and 50 partial), 4-18 years of age, were collected at diagnosis and 80 patients (44 absolute and 36 partial) were monitored for a mean period of 5 years. Also, the prevalence of TNFRSF13B mutations has been assessed in 56 patients. The most common clinical features were infections (86/103; 83%), allergy (39/103; 38%), and autoimmunity (13/103; 13%). No significative differences were observed between absolute and partial selective IgA deficiency patients. However, a significative difference in the rate of IgA normalization between partial and absolute selective IgA deficiency patients (33 vs 9%, p = 0.01) was detected. Furthermore, a lower incidence of infections was associated to a normalization reversal compared to a final absolute or partial defect status (12 vs 53 and 64% respectively, p < 0.01).Conclusions: Regardless of a diagnosis of absolute or partial defect, monitoring of symptomatic patients with selective IgA deficiency is recommended overtime for prompt identification and treatment of associated diseases. Further, diagnostic workup protocols should be revisited in children with IgA deficiency. What is Known: ● Selective IgA Deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency and is usually asymptomatic. ● Symptomatic pediatric patients with selective IgA deficiency mostly suffer with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. What is New: ● Symptomatic children with partial IgA defect may have similar clinical, immunological, and genetic features than symptomatic children with absolute IgA deficiency. ● Symptomatic children with partial IgA deficiency deserve accurate monitoring for associated diseases as per children with absolute IgA deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência de IgA/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Deficiência de IgA/complicações , Deficiência de IgA/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Prevalência
10.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(4): e266-e269, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jagunal homolog 1 (JAGN1) gene was identified as a novel responsible for severe congenital neutropenia. The protein encoded by this gene is required for neutrophil differentiation, survival and function in microbial activity. JAGN1-deficient human neutrophils are characterized by alterations in trafficking within the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi compartments because of ultrastructural defects in endoplasmic reticulum and susceptibility to apoptosis. OBSERVATIONS: We report a patient exhibiting an intermittent neutropenia, for which a next-generation sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation in the JAGN1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The patient extends the clinical variability associated to JAGN1 mutations, and this case highlights the importance of genetic investigations in patients with suspected neutropenia.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Neutropenia/congênito , Neutropenia/genética , Pré-Escolar , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação
11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(5): 713-721, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) usually characterized by the absence of both T and NK cells, but preserved numbers of B lymphocytes (T-B+NK-SCID). The detection of larger (>100 bp) genomic duplications or deletions can be more difficult to be detected by PCR-based methods or standard NGS protocols, and a broad range of mutation detection techniques are necessary. METHODS: We report four unrelated Italian patients (two females and two males) with SCID phenotype. Protein expression, functional studies, molecular analysis by standard methods and NGS, and transcripts studies were performed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. RESULTS: Here, we describe four JAK3-deficient patients from four unrelated families. The first patient is homozygous for the known c.1951 C>T mutation causing the amino acidic change p.R651W. The other two patients, originating from the same small Italian town, resulted compound heterozygotes for the same g.15410_16542del deletion and two different novel mutations, g.13319_13321delTTC and c.933T>G (p.F292V), respectively. The fourth patient was compound heterozygous for the novel mutations p.V599G and p.W709R. Defective STAT5 phosphorylation after IL2 or IL15 stimulation corroborated the mutation pathogenicity. Concerning g.15410_16542del mutation, probably due to an unequal homologous recombination between Alu elements of JAK3 gene, microsatellites analysis revealed that both unrelated Pt2 and Pt3 and their carrier family members shared the same haplotype. These data support the hypothesis of a founder effect for the g.15410_16542del mutation that might have inherited in both unrelated families from the same ancient progenitor. CONCLUSION: Different molecular techniques are still required to obtain a definitive diagnosis of AR-SCID particularly in all cases in which a monoallelic mutation is found by standard mutation scanning methods.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Deleção de Sequência , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/patologia
12.
Clin Immunol ; 193: 52-59, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410324

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a phagocytic disorder characterized by a defective production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Although infections and granuloma formation are the most common manifestations in CGD patients, a significant number of patients experienced autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases suggesting that adaptive immune abnormalities might be involved. Here we investigated T-cell compartment and showed that CGD patients had a skewed TCRV-beta distribution in CD8+ T cells, particularly in older patients, and a reduced proliferative responses toward mitogens compared to healthy donors (HD). Afterwards we studied the role of gp91phox protein in causing these alterations and demonstrated that human T cells do not express gp91phox and TCR-stimulated ROS generation is gp91phox-NADPH oxidase independent. Finally, we proved that the NADPH oxidase is not active in the T cell compartment even when forcing gp91phox expression transducing T cells from X-CGD and HD with a SIN lentiviral vector (LVV) encoding the gp91phox cDNA.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/fisiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/imunologia , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 28(8): 801-809, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency of phagocytes, characterized by life-threatening infections and hyperinflammation. Due to survival improvement, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is becoming increasingly relevant. Here, we report our 20 year experience. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinic, endoscopic, and histologic features, as well as the management of CGD-IBD patients referred to the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital in Rome, Italy. RESULTS: Of 20 patients with CGD, 9 presented with CGD-IBD at diagnosis and/or during follow-up. Symptoms occurred at a median age of 16 years (range 3.2-42), with a median delay of 6 months for endoscopic confirmation. Patients mainly complained of nonspecific diarrhea (55%), with discrepancy between symptom paucity and severe endoscopic appearance, mainly represented by extensive colonic involvement (44%). Histology revealed at least 2 characteristic features (epithelioid granulomas, pigmented macrophages, and increased eosinophils) in 78% of patients. Eight of 9 patients received oral mesalamine, and 5 required systemic steroids. One patient received azathioprine due to steroid dependence. No patient required biological therapy or surgery. Clinical remission was obtained in all patients, but the majority complained of mild relapses. Two episodes of severe infection occurred early after steroid therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Penetrance of CGD-IBD increases with age. Clinical manifestations may be subtle, and clinicians should have a low threshold to recommend endoscopy. Treatment with NSAIDs and/or steroids achieves a good response, but relapses usually occur. Infection surveillance is mandatory during treatment, to prevent opportunistic infections. A close collaboration between pediatric immunologists and gastroenterologists is pivotal, including combined follow-up.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 8: 798, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769923

RESUMO

Mutations of the recombinase-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in humans are associated with a broad range of phenotypes. For patients with severe clinical presentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the only curative treatment; however, high rates of graft failure and incomplete immune reconstitution have been observed, especially after unconditioned haploidentical transplantation. Studies in mice have shown that Rag-/- natural killer (NK) cells have a mature phenotype, reduced fitness, and increased cytotoxicity. We aimed to analyze NK cell phenotype and function in patients with mutations in RAG and in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) genes. Here, we provide evidence that NK cells from these patients have an immature phenotype, with significant expansion of CD56bright CD16-/int CD57- cells, yet increased degranulation and high perforin content. Correlation was observed between in vitro recombinase activity of the mutant proteins, NK cell abnormalities, and in vivo clinical phenotype. Addition of serotherapy in the conditioning regimen, with the aim of depleting the autologous NK cell compartment, may be important to facilitate engraftment and immune reconstitution in patients with RAG and NHEJ defects treated by HSCT.

16.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 95, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512628

RESUMO

WHIM syndrome is a condition in which affected persons have chronic peripheral neutropenia, lymphopenia, abnormal susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection, and myelokathexis. Myelokathexis refers to the retention of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow (BM), which accounts for degenerative changes and hypersegmentation. Most patients present heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations of the gene encoding CXCR4. Consequently, aberrant CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling impairs the receptor downregulation causing hyperactivation (gain-of-function) that affects BM homing for myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis and the release of neutrophils in the bloodstream. We report the case of a 26-year-old female with severe foot and hand cutaneous warts since childhood, recalcitrant genital condylomatas, bacterial infections, and intraepithelial cervical neoplasia. Laboratory tests revealed severe B lymphopenia and HPV high and low risk types. HIV testing was negative. Not only CXCR4 but also GATA2, NEMO, and CD40L gene mutations were excluded. BM smears revealed, in the presence of a normal cellularity, hyperplasia of myeloid cells (MPO positive) and karyorrhexis, especially in neutrophils and eosinophils. Of note, neutrophils with altered lobation of nuclei connected by long thin chromatin filaments were observed. Our patient presented a clinical and histological picture reminiscent of WHIM in the presence of normal peripheral neutrophil counts and wild-type CXCR4 gene. Although the BM did not reveal a classical pattern of myelokathexis, the observation of consistent signs of neutrophil dysplasia has fuelled the hypothesis of a novel WHIM variant or a novel immunodeficiency. We speculate that abnormalities that affect CXCR4/CXCL12 pair, including GRK levels or activity, might be responsible for this WHIM-like disorder.

17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1893, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312354

RESUMO

Monogenic defects in genes related to primary immunodeficiencies can be responsible for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mutations in the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) gene have been described in several patients suffering from IBD and, in particular, with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEOIBD) features. We report a VEOIBD child with a novel XIAP gene mutation characterized by a complicated disease course, which is unresponsive to several medical treatment options. A next-generation sequencing was performed and revealed a de novo hemizygous mutation in XIAP gene: c.565T>C p.L189P. After mutation discovery, we investigated the XIAP protein expression and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2) signaling by western blotting. Flow-cytometry was used to analyze intracellular protein expression in different cell subsets and T cell apoptosis. We observed reduced protein expression in lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, an Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cell line as well as increased apoptosis, and impairment in NOD2 signaling. The child was successfully treated with HLA-haploidentical hemapoietic stem cells transplant, acquired from his mother, after ex vivo elimination of α/ß T cells and CD19 B cells. One year after the transplant, we repeated the analysis to appreciate the changes in his impairments. The recovery of XIAP protein expression, function, and normalization of apoptosis were observed. Our report emphasizes the important role of genetic analysis in the diagnosis of VEOIBD, illustrates the complete immunological and gastrointestinal recovery after transplant, and shows one of the few successful transplant cases of XIAP patients.

18.
Clin Immunol ; 178: 20-28, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732860

RESUMO

Activated PI3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) was recently reported as a novel primary immunodeficiency caused by heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD gene. Here we describe immunological studies in a 19year old APDS patient for whom genetic diagnosis was discovered by Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) analysis. In addition to the progressive lymphopenia and defective antibody production we showed that the ability of the patient's B cells to differentiate in vitro is severely reduced. An in depth analysis of the myeloid compartment showed an increased expression of CD83 activation marker on monocytes and mono-derived DC cells. Moreover, monocytes-derived macrophages (MDMs) failed to solve the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guèrin (BCG) infection in vitro. Selective p110δ inhibitor IC87114 restored the MDM capacity to kill BCG in vitro. Our data show that the constitutive activation of Akt-mTOR pathway induces important alterations also in the myeloid compartment providing new insights in order to improve the therapeutic approach in these patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Técnicas In Vitro , Inflamação , Linfopenia/genética , Linfopenia/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/imunologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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