Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 38
Filtrar
1.
J Pain Res ; 15: 1003-1010, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422656

RESUMO

Background: In the Italian Campania Region, 30.517 new cases of solid cancer have been diagnosed, in 2019. Of those, patients with metastatic disease are up to 20%. This class of patients is extremely diversified and copious, and the offer of radiotherapy may vary in different geographical areas within the same region. The aim of this observational multicenter retrospective and prospective trial is to evaluate the occurrence of metastatic metastatic cancer patients candidates for palliative radiotherapy in several areas of a great Italian region, the management of the disease through RT approaches, and its impact on cancer-related pain and overall HRQoL. Methods: This is a multicenter, retrospective and prospective observational investigation. The retrospective part of the study concerns all patients enrolled with a diagnosis of metastatic disease and treated in RT centers within the Campania Region between January 2019 and July 2020. The prospective phase is going to involve all the metastatic patients with an indication of palliative RT. Considering regional epidemiological data, we expect an enrollment of 12.500-21.000 patients in 5 years. Conclusion: The MAMETIC Trial in an observational study designed for investigating on the use of radiotherapy in patients with advanced disease within a regional area, and for evaluating the local response to the patient's request. It can be a unique opportunity, not only to highlight possible geographic differences but also to regularly collect and share data to standardize the therapeutic offer within the regional area. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT04595032, retrospectively registered.

2.
Future Oncol ; 17(29): 3893-3899, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296622

RESUMO

Oligometastatic prostate cancer is an intermediate state between localized disease and widespread metastasis. Its biological and clinical peculiarities are still to be elucidated. New imaging techniques contribute to the detection of patients with oligometastatic disease. PET/CT scanning with prostate-specific membrane antigen can improve the selection of men with true early, low-volume oligometastatic disease, who are candidates for metastasis-directed therapy. Clinical studies demonstrated that androgen deprivation therapy can be delayed in oligometastatic patients with a low tumor burden, although no survival benefit has been demonstrated at present. This article presents available evidence on the treatment strategies for oligometastatic prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Superfície , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 682449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-Oncology (IO) improves Overall Survival (OS) in metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic impact of previous Cytoreductive Nephrectomy (CN) and radical nephrectomy (RN), with curative intent, in patients treated with IO is not well defined. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the impact of previous nephrectomy on outcome of mRCC patients treated with IO. METHODS: 287 eligible patients were retrospectively collected from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the MeetUro association. Patients treated with IO as second and third line were included, whereas patients treated with IO as first line were excluded. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were performed to compare Progression Free Survival (PFS) and OS between groups. In our analysis, both CN and RN were included. The association between nephrectomy and other variables was analyzed in univariate and multivariate setting using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: 246/287 (85.7%) patients had nephrectomy before IO treatment. Median PFS in patients who underwent nephrectomy (246/287) was 4.8 months (95%CI 3.9-5.7) vs 3.7 months (95%CI 1.9-5.5) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.78; 95%CI 0.53 to 1.15; p = 0.186). Median OS in patients who had previous nephrectomy (246/287) was 20.9 months (95%CI 17.6-24.1) vs 13 months (95%CI 7.7-18.2) in patients who did not it (HR log rank 0.504; 95%CI 0.337 to 0.755; p = 0.001). In the multivariate model, nephrectomy showed a significant association with OS (HR log rank 0.638; 95%CI 0.416 to 0.980), whereas gland metastases were still associated with better outcome in terms of both OS (HR log rank 0.487; 95%CI 0.279 to 0.852) and PFS (HR log rank 0.646; 95%CI 0.435 to 0.958). CONCLUSIONS: IO treatment, in patients who had previously undergone nephrectomy, was associated with a better outcome in terms of OS. Further prospective trials would assess this issue in order to guide clinicians in real word practice.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 49(1): 11-17, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes 3% of all cancers, with a higher incidence in patients with age between 60 and 70 years. RCC frequently present as a metastatic tumor at diagnosis, and bones represent one of the most frequent sites. Many cases, mainly in young patients, includes the Xp11 translocation RCC. The cytological diagnosis of Xp11 translocation RCC in adult population it is rarely performed, likely for the morphological overlap with other adult renal cell carcinoma subtypes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyze a series of 92 adult patients with metastatic bone tumors, diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples, focusing mainly on the cytological, immunophenotypic and molecular features of Xp11 translocation RCC. RESULTS: In our series 6 of 92 (6.5%) cases were metastatic RCC (mRCC), among them 2 cases were metastasis from Xp11translocation RCC. Those cases showed a bloody background, with several groups of atypical cells arranged in syncytial groups or in papillary groups composed by atypical cells with abundant cytoplasm, with scattered clear cells. TFE3 was positive on immunocytochemical analysis and specific translocation t(Xp11.23) was detected by FISH analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with mRCC, it is necessary to consider also Xp11 translocation RCC among the diagnostic hypotheses. FNAC represents a valid tool to investigate bone lesions but cytological features of Xp11 translocation RCC are still poorly described and must necessarily be better defined.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos , Neoplasias Renais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos X , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/patologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Translocação Genética
6.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(1): 110-113, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab is the standard therapy for patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer wild-type BRCA after primary surgery. The most frequent side effects of bevacizumab in this setting are hypertension, thrombosis, hemorrhage, and proteinuria, while arthralgia has been poorly described. OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence, duration, and reversibility of arthralgia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to describe the occurrence and outcome of arthralgia in 114 patients with advanced ovarian cancer, given first-line treatment with a combination of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate a possible prognostic role of arthralgia, with progression-free survival as endpoint. RESULTS: 47 of 114 patients (41%) developed arthralgia during therapy. All patients had grade 1 or grade 2 arthralgia. Toxicity persisted after the end of bevacizumab in 17/47 patients (36%). Median progression-free survival for patients without arthralgia was 18 months (95% CI 14 to 24) compared with 29 months (95% CI 21 to not reached) for patients experiencing arthralgia (p=0.03). In order to avoid possible biases related to treatment duration, a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model including toxicity as a time dependent variable and age, stage, and residual disease after primary surgery was performed. In this model no variable showed a statistically significant association with progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: A high incidence of arthralgia (41%) was found and although rogression-free survival was worse for those patients who developed arthralgia, this was not maintained on multivariate analysis. Guidelines for treatment of this adverse event are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/imunologia , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. RESULTS: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 6123-6135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801862

RESUMO

Advanced, recurrent and metastatic endometrial cancer (EC) has a dismal prognosis due to poor response rates to conventional treatments. In the era of precision medicine, the improved understanding of cancer genetics and molecular biology has led to the development of targeted therapies, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This class of drugs that inhibit PARP enzymes has been investigated in many different types of tumors and its use in the treatment of gynecological malignancies has rapidly increased over the past few years. Data from several clinical trials showed that PARP inhibitors have a beneficial role in cancers with a defect in the homologous DNA recombination system, regardless of the BRCA mutational status. Since EC frequently shows mutations in PTEN and TP53 genes, indirectly involved in the homologous DNA recombination pathway, several in vivo and in vitro studies investigated the efficacy of PARP inhibitors in EC, showing promising results. This review will discuss the use of PARP inhibitors in endometrial cancer, summarizing data from preclinical studies and providing an overview of the ongoing trials, with a special focus on the development of combined treatment strategies with PARP inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785193

RESUMO

Few retrospective studies have shown a benefit in selected patients affected by heavily pre-treated, platinum-resistant ovarian carcinomas (PROCs) who have undergone cytoreduction at relapse. However, the role of tertiary and quaternary cytoreductive surgery is not fully defined. Our aim was to evaluate survival and surgical morbidity and mortality after maximal cytoreduction in this setting. We evaluated all consecutive patients undergoing cytoreduction for platinum-resistance over an 8-year period (2010-2018) in two different centers. Fifty patients (median age 52.5 years, range 34-75) were included; the median number of previous chemotherapy lines was three (range 1-7) and the median number of previous surgeries was one (range 1-4). Completeness of cytoreduction (CC = 0) was achieved in 22 patients (44%). Rates of major operative morbidity and 30-day mortality were 38% and 8%, respectively. Median follow-up was 35 months. The absence of tumor residual (CC = 0) was associated with a significantly better overall survival (OS) compared to the CC > 0 subgroup (median OS 32.9 months (95% CI 21.6-44.2) vs. 4.8 months (95% CI n.a.-9.8), hazard ratio (HR) 4.21 (95% CI 2.07-8.60), p < 0.001). Optimal cytoreduction is feasible and associated with promising OS in selected, heavily pre-treated PROCs. Further prospective studies are required to better define the role of surgery in platinum-resistant disease.

10.
Oncologist ; 25(10): e1509-e1515, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a public health emergency affecting frail populations, including patients with cancer. This poses the question of whether cancer treatments can be postponed or modified without compromising their efficacy, especially for highly curable cancers such as germ cell tumors (GCTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To depict the state-of-the-art management of GCTs during the COVID-19 pandemic, a survey including 26 questions was circulated by e-mail among the physicians belonging to three cooperative groups: (a) Italian Germ Cell Cancer Group; (b) European Reference Network-Rare Adult Solid Cancers, Domain G3 (rare male genitourinary cancers); and (c) Genitourinary Medical Oncologists of Canada. Percentages of agreement between Italian respondents (I) versus Canadian respondents (C), I versus European respondents (E), and E versus C were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and chi square test for trends for the questions with three or more options. RESULTS: Fifty-three GCT experts responded to the survey: 20 Italian, 6 in other European countries, and 27 from Canada. Telemedicine was broadly used; there was high consensus to interrupt chemotherapy in COVID-19-positive patients (I = 75%, C = 55%, and E = 83.3%) and for use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor primary prophylaxis for neutropenia (I = 65%, C = 62.9%, and E = 50%). The main differences emerged regarding the management of stage I and stage IIA disease, likely because of cultural and geographical differences. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the common efforts of GCT experts in Europe and Canada to maintain high standards of treatment for patients with GCT with few changes in their management during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Despite the chaos, disruptions, and fears fomented by the COVID-19 illness, oncology care teams in Italy, other European countries, and Canada are delivering the enormous promise of curative management strategies for patients with testicular cancer and other germ cell tumors. At the same time, these teams are applying safe and innovative solutions and sharing best practices to minimize frequency and intensity of patient contacts with thinly stretched health care capacity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Institutos de Câncer/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/tendências
11.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850461

RESUMO

Italy and worldwide are experiencing an outbreak of a new coronavirus-related disease, named COVID-19, declared by the WHO COVID-19 a pandemic. The fragility of cancer patients is well-known, with many cases affecting aged patients or those with several comorbidities that frequently result in a loss of independency and functionality. Therefore, cancer patients have been greatly affected by this health emergency and, due to their vulnerability to COVID-19, oncologic patient visits have been often delayed or canceled leading to possible under-treatment. Different solutions can be adopted for reducing travels to cancer screening centers and the overall impact of cancer screening visits. As a consequence, it has been recommended that, when possible, the follow-up visits for cancer patients treated with oral anticancer drugs could be performed telematically. Furthermore, many patients refuse hospital visits, even if necessary, because of fear of contagion. Moreover, in some regions in Italy even the very first non-urgent visits have been postponed with the consequent delay in diagnosis, which may negatively affect disease prognosis. For these reasons, new approaches are needed such as the telemedicine tool. Throughout organized and appropriate tools, it would be possible to manage patients' visits and treatments, to avoid the dangerous extension of waiting lists when the standard activities will resume. In this context, a number of hospital visits can be substituted with visits at small local health centers, and general practitioners'office, taking in turn, advantage of well-defined telemedicine path which will be developed in the post-emergency phase.

12.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 90: 102088, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827839

RESUMO

The treatment approach to cervix cancer has remained unchanged for several decades and new therapeutic strategies are now required to improve outcomes, as the prognosis is still poor. In the last years, a better understanding of HPV tumor-host immune system interactions and the development of new therapeutics targeting immune checkpoints generated interest in the use of immunotherapy in cervix cancer. Preliminary phase I-II trials demonstrated the efficacy, the duration of responses and the manageable safety of this approach. Currently, many phase II and III studies are ongoing in both locally advanced and metastatic cervical cancer, assessing immunotherapy as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We reviewed the published data and the therapeutic implications of the most promising novel immunotherapeutic agents under investigation in cervix cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
13.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(5): 2435-2442, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048043

RESUMO

Olaparib is the first poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor approved as maintenance therapy of recurrent ovarian cancer (OC) patients with a BRCA mutation. To achieve the maximum clinical benefit, adherence to olaparib must be persistent. However, in clinical practice, this is challenged by the frequent suboptimal management of toxicities. In view of the expanding use of olaparib also in Italy, physicians must learn how to adequately and promptly manage drug toxicities not to unnecessarily interrupt or reduce the dose. The experts agreed that nausea,vomiting, anemia, and fatigue are the most frequent events experienced by OC patients on olaparib, and that these toxicities usually develop early during treatment, are mainly of grade 1-2 and transient and can be managed with simple non-pharmacological interventions. By sharing their real-world experiences, the panel prepared, for each toxicity, an algorithm organized by grade and besides the procedures indicated in the local label, included supportive care interventions based also on nutritional and lifestyle modifications and psycho-oncology consultation. Moreover, in view of the tablet entry into the Italian market, the full and reduced dosages of capsules and tablets were compared. This practical guidance is intended to be a tool to support especially less-experienced physicians in the management of these complex patients, with the aim to help preventing the worsening of patients' conditions and the unnecessary interruption/reduction of olaparib dosage, which may jeopardize treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Mutação , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 38-44, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Olaparib is approved as maintenance therapy in patients with BRCA mutated platinum sensitive (PS) recurrent ovarian cancer (OC) after response to last platinum based therapy. Few data are available regarding the use out of the registration trials and on response to further treatments after progression. MATERIALS AD METHODS: In this non interventional, retrospective study, patients treated with olaparib in 13 centers, according to the label, have been collected and analyzed. Primary objectives of the study are to describe effectiveness and safety of olaparib in a real world setting with a focus on post progression treatments and response. RESULTS: 234 patients were analyzed. All patients were BRCA mutated and most of them had germline mutations. Around 50% of the patients received olaparib after 3 or more lines of platinum based chemotherapy achieving a radiologic complete (CR) or partial response. 12.4% patients with stable disease were also included. Median PFS was 14.7 months (95% CI:12.6-18), with statistically longer PFS in patients with normal serum Ca125 at baseline, a CR after last platinum based therapy and that received olaparib after second platinum based therapy. Median OS was not reached. Most frequent G3-G4 toxicity was anaemia (6%) with dose discontinuation and dose reduction in 11 (4.7%) and 49 (20.9%) of cases, respectively. Among 66 patients receiving further treatment after olaparib progression and evaluable for response, ORR was 22.2, 11.1% and 9.5% in patients with Platinum Free interval (PFI) of more than 12 months, between 6 and 12 months and less than 6 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Olaparib is effective and safe in real world setting. Data on post-progression treatments seem to suggest cross resistance with chemotherapy and need to be confirmed in larger studies because of the potential importance in clinical practice decisions.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(3): 535-540, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer cells often express Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). Cetuximab (CET), an anti-EGFR antibody, can be safely combined with carboplatin (C) and paclitaxel (P), a standard treatment for advanced/recurrent cervical cancer (ARCC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ARCC patients, ECOG PS ≤ 1, were randomized to CP for 6 cycles with or without CET (400 mg/m2 one week before starting CP, then 250 mg/m2 weekly) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Event-free survival (EFS) was the primary endpoint. With a 4.5 months expected median EFS and a 6.4 months predicted EFS (HR 0.70), 0.20 one-tailed α and 80% power, 89 events were required for the final intent-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: 108 patients were assigned to CP (n = 53) or CP-CET (n = 55). Median age was 50, 69% were PS0, 76% had recurrent disease, 91% had distant metastasis and 57% had received previous chemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 23 months, 102 patients had an event, 97 progressed and 61 died. Median EFS was 4.7 and 6.0 months (one-tail P = 0.43), median PFS was 5.2 and 7.6 months (one-tail P = 0.20) and median OS was 17.7 and 17 months (one-tail P = 0.27), with CP and CP-CET, respectively. There was no difference in the occurrence of severe adverse events, except for skin toxicity. Biomarker analysis, in a small subgroup of patients, suggests that PIK3CA mutation might be predictive of CET resistance. CONCLUSION: CP-CET was not more active than CP alone in unselected ARCC patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética
16.
Cancer ; 125 Suppl 24: 4609-4615, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967680

RESUMO

The majority of patients with advanced ovarian cancer progress after first-line therapy and require further treatment. Tumor biology, prior chemotherapy, responses to previous therapy, performance status, and toxicity are the characteristics that influence treatment choice. These criteria have been linked to the time between relapse and last platinum therapy: the platinum-free interval. Today, patients are classified as either those who are eligible for a new platinum-based therapy or those for whom platinum is not an option. A nonplatinum regimen should be administered to patients who are not candidates for platinum re-treatment. This group includes patients with early relapse after, or progression during, previous platinum-based chemotherapy and patients with platinum intolerability. A single agent such as weekly paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), gemcitabine, or topotecan represents the standard. For patients not treated with bevacizumab in the first line, this drug should be added to chemotherapy. For patients for whom platinum rechallenge is an option (because they are potentially platinum-responsive), different strategies are available with the incorporation of biological drugs targeting angiogenesis or the mechanisms of DNA repair. A BRCA mutation status predicts a better response to platinum and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition. PARP inhibitors and antiangiogenic drugs have proven efficacy as maintenance therapy after chemotherapy and concurrently with chemotherapy, respectively. These agents have changed current practice, although few biomarkers are available to guide decisions. Patients potentially responsive to platinum who cannot receive the drug again can be treated with a combination of trabectedin and PLD, the most active nonplatinum therapy in this setting.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
17.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 73: 1-9, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543930

RESUMO

Poly-ADP-ribosepolymerase inhibitors (PARPis) are the most active and interesting therapies approved for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. They have changed the clinical management of a disease characterized, in almost half of cases, by extreme genetic complexity and alteration of DNA damage repair pathways, particularly homologous recombination (HR) deficiency. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the available results of recent clinical trials on the three Food and Drug Administrationand European Medicines Agency approved PARPis in ovarian cancer: olaparib, niraparib, and rucaparib. Furthermore, we anticipate the future perspective of combination regimens with antiangiogenic, immunocheckpoint inhibitors, and other biological agents as strategies to overcome resistance mechanisms, potentiate the therapeutic efficacy, and expand their clinical use in non-HR deficient tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/enzimologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(29): 3347-3353, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825853

RESUMO

Purpose Platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) for patients with progressing ovarian cancer (OC) is more effective with a longer time interval from previous platinum treatment (platinum-free interval [PFI]). In 1999, it was hypothesized that prolonging PFI with single-agent non-PBC (NPBC) may offer a strategy to improve overall outcome. MITO-8 aimed to verify this hypothesis commonly used in clinical practice although it has not been prospectively tested. Methods MITO-8 is an open-label, prospective, randomized, superiority trial. Patients with OC who experienced disease progression 6 to 12 months after their last platinum treatment were randomly assigned 1:1 to the experimental sequence of NPBC followed by PBC at subsequent relapse or the standard reverse treatment sequence. Overall survival (OS) was the primary end point. Results Two hundred fifteen patients were enrolled (standard arm [n = 108]; experimental arm [n = 107]). The trial ended before planned because of slow enrollment. PFI was prolonged in the experimental arm (median, 7.8 v 0.01 months). There was no OS benefit in the experimental arm (median, 21.8 v 24.5 months; hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.94; P = .06). Progression-free survival after the sequence was significantly shorter in the experimental arm (median, 12.8 v 16.4 months; hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.92; P = .025). Global quality-of-life change after three cycles was worse in the experimental arm. Slight differences were observed in the incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion MITO-8 supports the recommendation that PBC not be delayed in favor of an NPBC in patients with partially platinum-sensitive OC. PBC should be used as a control arm in future trials of new drugs in this setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Dioxóis/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Esquema de Medicação , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Topotecan/administração & dosagem , Trabectedina , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 59: 109-116, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800469

RESUMO

The tumors of the female genital tract represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Substantial progresses have been made in ovarian cancer, with the increasing knowledge about BRCA mutated tumors and the recent development of PARP inhibitors, and in cervical cancer, thanks to extensive screening and widespread of vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus. Nevertheless many needs remain unmet, advanced stage diseases are still incurable and cervical and endometrial carcinoma, as well as platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma, can certainly be classifiable among the cancers with poor sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy. Immunotherapy, including a number of approaches, checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cellular transfer, vaccines, has experienced a remarkable growth in the last few years and it is already an available option in melanoma, lung and renal malignancies. We reviewed the main findings about the immune microenvironment in ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer with a special focus on the clinical data, the therapeutic implications and the most promising novel agents.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/imunologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 25(6): 1743-1748, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101677

RESUMO

The MITO 15 was a prospective, single-arm trial, evaluating trabectedin monotherapy in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer (OC) who were BRCA mutation-carriers or had a BRCAness phenotype. It is largely reported that trabectedin may induce nausea and vomiting but the real emetogenic potential of the drug, in the different schedules, has never been fully described; furthermore, OC patients are known to have an enhanced risk of developing nausea and vomiting due to female gender, abdominal spreading of the disease, and major surgery experienced by most of them. We thought to carry on a sub-study in the MITO 15 context focused on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with trabectedin single agent. For all patients enrolled in the trial, we evaluated the antiemetic regimen at the first cycle, acute and delayed CINV, any rescue therapy, any change in the prophylactic antiemetic regimen, and the potential relationship between dexamethasone dosage and incidence of CINV. Overall, our findings were consistent with literature and confirmed that trabectedin can be classified as moderately emetogenic. We observed slightly higher rates of both nausea and vomiting compared to previous experiences with trabectedin monotherapy, probably due to intrinsic features of our population: all females and suffering from ovarian cancer. It seems that in preventing acute CINV, the combination of three drugs was more effective than the doublet; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance; further studies are required to verify such hypothesis. Given the extreme heterogeneity of the antiemetic regimens used, it appears that a standard antiemetic protocol does not exist and more specific guidelines for clinicians are needed.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Dioxóis/efeitos adversos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Trabectedina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...