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1.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recommended over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Concomitant antiplatelet therapy may potentiate the antithrombotic effects of DOACs. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of concomitant antiplatelet therapy on the efficacy and safety of DOACs. PATIENTS/METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Clinicaltrial.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials of DOACs for the treatment of acute VTE. The efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent VTE and VTE-related death; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials included 26,924 patients of whom 3,550 (13.2%) received concomitant antiplatelet therapy, mainly aspirin (67.7%). Concomitant antiplatelet therapy did not reduce the incidence of recurrent VTE and VTE-related death with any oral anticoagulant (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.48), with DOACs (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 0.86-1.71), or VKAs alone (OR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77-1.73). Compared with no antiplatelet therapy, concomitant antiplatelet therapy was associated with a higher risk of major bleeding in patients with any oral anticoagulant (OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22-2.63), DOACs (OR 1.89; 95% CI, 1.04-3.44) or VKAs (OR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.16-2.59). In patients receiving concomitant antiplatelet therapy, there were no statistically significant differences in efficacy or safety outcomes with DOACs or VKAs (OR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.64-1.51, and OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.32-1.45, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of antiplatelet therapy with oral anticoagulants does not appear to affect the risk of recurrent VTE and increases the risk of major bleeding.

2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012277, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing age is associated with a natural decline in cognitive function and is the greatest risk factor for dementia. Cognitive decline and dementia are significant threats to independence and quality of life in older adults. Therefore, identifying interventions that help to maintain cognitive function in older adults or that reduce the risk of dementia is a research priority. Cognitive training uses repeated practice on standardised exercises targeting one or more cognitive domains and may be intended to improve or maintain optimal cognitive function. This review examines the effects of computerised cognitive training interventions lasting at least 12 weeks on the cognitive function of healthy adults aged 65 or older and has formed part of a wider project about modifying lifestyle to maintain cognitive function. We chose a minimum 12 weeks duration as a trade-off between adequate exposure to a sustainable intervention and feasibility in a trial setting. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of computerised cognitive training interventions lasting at least 12 weeks on cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in late life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched to 31 March 2018 in ALOIS (www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/alois), and we performed additional searches of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO Portal/ICTRP (www.apps.who.int/trialsearch), to ensure that the search was as comprehensive and as up-to-date as possible to identify published, unpublished, and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs, published or unpublished, reported in any language. Participants were cognitively healthy people, and at least 80% of the study population had to be aged 65 or older. Experimental interventions adhered to the following criteria: intervention was any form of interactive computerised cognitive intervention - including computer exercises, computer games, mobile devices, gaming console, and virtual reality - that involved repeated practice on standardised exercises of specified cognitive domain(s) for the purpose of enhancing cognitive function; the duration of the intervention was at least 12 weeks; cognitive outcomes were measured; and cognitive training interventions were compared with active or inactive control interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed preliminary screening of search results using a 'crowdsourcing' method to identify RCTs. At least two review authors working independently screened the remaining citations against inclusion criteria. At least two review authors also independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included RCTs. Where appropriate, we synthesised data in random-effects meta-analyses, comparing computerised cognitive training (CCT) separately with active and inactive controls. We expressed treatment effects as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used GRADE methods to describe the overall quality of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight RCTs with a total of 1183 participants. The duration of the interventions ranged from 12 to 26 weeks; in five trials, the duration of intervention was 12 or 13 weeks. The included studies had moderate risk of bias, and the overall quality of evidence was low or very low for all outcomes. We compared CCT first against active control interventions, such as watching educational videos. Negative SMDs favour CCT over control. Trial results suggest slight improvement in global cognitive function at the end of the intervention period (12 weeks) (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57 to -0.05; 232 participants; 2 studies; low-quality evidence). One of these trials also assessed global cognitive function 12 months after the end of the intervention; this trial provided no clear evidence of a persistent effect (SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.66 to 0.24; 77 participants; 1 study; low-quality evidence). CCT may result in little or no difference at the end of the intervention period in episodic memory (12 to 17 weeks) (SMD 0.06, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.26; 439 participants; 4 studies; low-quality evidence) or working memory (12 to 16 weeks) (SMD -0.17, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.02; 392 participants; 3 studies; low-quality evidence). Because of the very low quality of the evidence, we are very uncertain about the effects of CCT on speed of processing and executive function. We also compared CCT to inactive control (no interventions). We found no data on our primary outcome of global cognitive function. At the end of the intervention, CCT may lead to slight improvement in episodic memory (6 months) (mean difference (MD) in Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) -0.90 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.73 to -0.07; 150 participants; 1 study; low-quality evidence) but can have little or no effect on executive function (12 weeks to 6 months) (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.15; 292 participants; 2 studies; low-quality evidence), working memory (16 weeks) (MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.27; 60 participants; 1 study; low-quality evidence), or verbal fluency (6 months) (MD -0.11, 95% CI -1.58 to 1.36; 150 participants; 1 study; low-quality evidence). We could not determine any effects on speed of processing because the evidence was of very low quality. We found no evidence on quality of life, activities of daily living, or adverse effects in either comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-quality evidence suggesting that immediately after completion of the intervention, small benefits of CCT may be seen for global cognitive function when compared with active controls, and for episodic memory when compared with an inactive control. These benefits are of uncertain clinical importance. We found no evidence that the effect on global cognitive function persisted 12 months later. Our confidence in the results was low, reflecting the overall quality of the evidence. In five of the eight trials, the duration of the intervention was just three months. The possibility that more extensive training could yield larger benefit remains to be more fully explored. We found substantial literature on cognitive training, and collating all available scientific information posed problems. Duration of treatment may not be the best way to categorise interventions for inclusion. As the primary interest of older people and of guideline writers and policymakers involves sustained cognitive benefit, an alternative would be to categorise by length of follow-up after selecting studies that assess longer-term effects.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 55(2)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In cancer patients, current guidance suggests similar treatment for incidental and symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), mainly based on retrospective data. We aimed to evaluate anticoagulant therapy in cancer patients with incidental and symptomatic VTE. METHODS: The Hokusai VTE Cancer Study was a randomised controlled trial comparing edoxaban with dalteparin for cancer-associated VTE. The primary outcome was the composite of first recurrent VTE or major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included major bleeding, recurrent VTE and mortality. Outcomes in patients with incidental and symptomatic VTE were evaluated during the 12-month study period. RESULTS: 331 patients with incidental VTE and 679 patients with symptomatic VTE were enrolled, of whom the index event was confirmed by an independent radiologist. Median durations of anticoagulant treatment were 195 and 189 days, respectively. In patients with incidental VTE, the primary outcome occurred in 12.7% of patients, major bleeding in 6.6% of patients and recurrent VTE in 7.9% of patients. Out of the 26 VTE recurrences in patients with incidental VTE, five (31%) were incidental, seven (44%) were symptomatic and four (25%) were deaths for which pulmonary embolism could not be ruled out. In patients with symptomatic VTE, the primary outcome occurred in 13.8% of patients, major bleeding in 4.9% of patients and recurrent VTE in 10.9% of patients. All-cause mortality was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Clinical adverse outcomes are substantial in both cancer patients with incidental and symptomatic VTE, supporting current guideline recommendations that suggest treating incidental VTE in the same manner as symptomatic VTE.

4.
Eur J Intern Med ; 71: 4-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732452

RESUMO

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recently updated their clinical practice guidelines. The most novel aspect of this update is represented by the introduction of DOACs as pharmacological options both for prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. The heterogeneity of the cancer population in terms of type and stage of the malignancy, presence of comorbidities, and variability in cancer treatments and prognosis represent the major challenge of managing VTE in patients with cancer. The use of VTE prophylaxis is currently recommended in cancer patients admitted to the hospital for an acute illness or reduced mobility, but no sufficient information is available on the risk of bleeding during thromboprophylaxis. Concerning the thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, further refinement of existing risk models or development of new models are needed for improving risk stratification to identify high-risk cancer patients. The updated ASCO guidelines recommend the use of DOACs (edoxaban and rivaroxaban) for treatment of VTE in patients with cancer. However, Major concerns on "real-life" use of DOACs in patients with cancer are highlighted especially for the bleeding risk in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and the potential drug-drug interactions with specific anticancer therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainties to the updated ASCO guidelines remain concerning a number of indications on prophylaxis and treatment due to the limited evidence available. These limitations determine the low strength of the recommendations. The ongoing studies will contribute to refine the best management of patients with cancer-associated VTE.

5.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 449-461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695400

RESUMO

Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) including portal, mesenteric, splenic vein thrombosis and the Budd-Chiari syndrome, is a manifestation of unusual site venous thromboembolism. SVT presents with a lower incidence than deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs and pulmonary embolism, with portal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome being respectively the most and the least common presentations of SVT. SVT is classified as provoked if secondary to a local or systemic risk factor, or unprovoked if the causative trigger cannot be identified. Diagnostic evaluation is often affected by the lack of specificity of clinical manifestations: the presence of one or more risk factors in a patient with a high clinical suspicion may suggest the execution of diagnostic tests. Doppler ultrasonography represents the first line diagnostic tool because of its accuracy and wide availability. Further investigations, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography, should be executed in case of suspected thrombosis of the mesenteric veins, suspicion of SVT-related complications, or to complete information after Doppler ultrasonography. Once SVT diagnosis is established, a careful patient evaluation should be performed in order to assess the risks and benefits of the anticoagulant therapy and to drive the optimal treatment intensity. Due to the low quality and large heterogeneity of published data, guidance documents and expert opinion could direct therapeutic decision, suggesting which patients to treat, which anticoagulant to use and the duration of treatment.


Assuntos
Veias Mesentéricas , Veia Porta , Veia Esplênica , Trombose Venosa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Veias Mesentéricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Porta/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Circulação Esplâncnica , Veia Esplênica/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Esplênica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia
6.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667697

RESUMO

The novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have been shown to be at least as effective as and safer than conventional anticoagulants for the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolic disorders. However, the rate of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in patients with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) treated with the DOACs is unknown. With the adoption of the Villalta scale, we assessed the rate of PTS at the end of the follow-up period in a consecutive series of 309 outpatients with acute proximal DVT who had received at least 3 months of treatment with a DOAC and had been followed-up for up to 3 years. The rate of PTS development was compared with that recorded in a historical cohort of 1036 consecutive patients who had been treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and had received a similar follow-up examination. Logistic regression analysis, including propensity scoring to adjust for differing probabilities of undergoing VKA/DOAC, was used to identify predictors of PTS. PTS developed in 87 patients (28.2%) treated with the DOACs (severe in 12), and in 443 patients (42.8%) treated with VKAs (severe in 61). After adjusting for estimated propensity score, age, gender, concomitant symptoms of pulmonary embolism, duration of anticoagulation and development of residual vein thrombosis, the risk of PTS in the DOAC-treated patients was reduced by 54% in comparison to patients treated with conventional anticoagulation (odds ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.63). We conclude that in comparison to VKAs, the use of the direct oral anticoagulants has the potential to offer a more favorable prognosis in terms of PTS development.

7.
Thromb Res ; 181: 59-63, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ottawa score was previously developed to predict recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients with VTE. The performance of this score in patients with incidental VTE is currently unclear. AIM: To evaluate the performance of the Ottawa risk score in cancer patients with incidental pulmonary embolism included in an international, prospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: The score was used to classify patients as high (≥1), intermediate (0), or low risk (≤-1). The discriminative performance of the score was estimated by calculating the cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE for all groups, the time-dependent c-statistic, and the sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR), using a competing risk approach. RESULTS: Of the 691 patients for which the Ottawa score could be calculated, 25 (3.6%) had recurrent VTE during 6-month follow-up and 38 (5.5%) during 12-month follow-up. The c-statistics of the continuous score at 6 and 12 months were 0.45 (95% CI, 0.36-0.54) and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.46-0.59), respectively. The 6-month cumulative incidences of recurrent VTE for those at low, intermediate, and high risk were 3.9% (95% CI, 1.5-8.4), 3.6% (95% CI, 1.9-6.2), and 3.6% (95% CI, 1.8-6.5), respectively. A sensitivity analysis restricted to the on-treatment period yielded similar results. None of the Ottawa risk score items were significantly associated with recurrent VTE. CONCLUSION: In cancer patients with incidental pulmonary embolism, the Ottawa risk score has a poor predictive value for recurrent VTE, which does not support the use of the score in this patient population.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
8.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(11): 1866-1874, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with active cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at high risk of recurrence. Therefore, continued anticoagulant therapy beyond the initial 6 months is suggested in this patient population, but evidence supporting this approach is limited. METHODS: The Hokusai VTE Cancer trial compared edoxaban with dalteparin for VTE treatment in patients with active cancer. This post hoc analysis focused on the follow-up period from 6 to 12 months. The primary outcome was the composite of adjudicated first recurrent VTE or major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included recurrent VTE, major bleeding, and clinically relevant bleeding. RESULTS: Of the 522 and 524 patients randomized to edoxaban or dalteparin, 294 (56%) received edoxaban and 273 (52%) received dalteparin for more than 6 months (median duration of 318 and 211 days, respectively). Between 6 and 12 months, the primary outcome during study treatment occurred in seven patients (2.4%) in the edoxaban group and six patients (2.2%) in the dalteparin group (unadjusted hazard ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-3.05). Recurrent VTE occurred in two patients (0.7%) in the edoxaban group and in three patients (1.1%) in the dalteparin group, whereas major bleeding occurred in 5 (1.7%) and three patients (1.1%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of recurrent VTE or major bleeding are relatively low among patients with active cancer receiving extended anticoagulant therapy beyond 6 months. Extended treatment with oral edoxaban appears as effective and safe as subcutaneous dalteparin.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(20): 1713-1720, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulmonary embolism is incidentally diagnosed in up to 5% of patients with cancer on routine imaging scans. The clinical relevance and optimal therapy for incidental pulmonary embolism, particularly distal clots, is unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess current treatment strategies and the long-term clinical outcomes of incidentally detected pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study between October 22, 2012, and December 31, 2017. Unselected adults with active cancer and a recent diagnosis of incidental pulmonary embolism were eligible. Outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality during 12 months of follow-up. Outcome events were centrally adjudicated. RESULTS: A total of 695 patients were included. Mean age was 66 years and 58% of patients were male. Most frequent cancer types were colorectal (21%) and lung cancer (15%). Anticoagulant therapy was initiated in 675 patients (97%), of whom 600 (89%) were treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. Recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in 41 patients (12-month cumulative incidence, 6.0%; 95% CI, 4.4% to 8.1%), major bleeding in 39 patients (12-month cumulative incidence, 5.7%; 95% CI, 4.1% to 7.7%), and 283 patients died (12-month cumulative incidence, 43%; 95% CI, 39% to 46%). The 12-month incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism was 6.4% in those with subsegmental pulmonary embolism compared with 6.0% in those with more proximal pulmonary embolism (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.9; P = .93). CONCLUSION: In patients with cancer with incidental pulmonary embolism, risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism is significant despite anticoagulant treatment. Patients with subsegmental pulmonary embolism seemed to have a risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism comparable to that of patients with more proximal clots.

11.
Minerva Med ; 110(3): 251-258, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990000

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. For over a decade, the gold standard of treatment and secondary prevention of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) has been represented by low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), which are currently recommended as the first-line treatment for CAT. Among the LMWHs that were more extensively tested in patients with CAT, tinzaparin is a LMWH produced by the enzymatic degradation of porcine-derived unfractionated heparin. The efficacy of tinzaparin in this setting is supported by well-grounded evidence. However, there is a need to discuss the positioning of tinzaparin in the continuously evolving treatment scenario of VTE therapy in cancer patients. In this paper, which was developed by a group of clinicians with wide experience in the treatment of VTE in cancer patients, we discuss the current therapeutic options and the role of tinzaparin for the treatment of CAT.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Tinzaparina/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012278, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normal aging is associated with changes in cognitive function that are non-pathological and are not necessarily indicative of future neurocognitive disease. Low cognitive and brain reserve and limited cognitive stimulation are associated with increased risk of dementia. Emerging evidence now suggests that subtle cognitive changes, detectable years before criteria for mild cognitive impairment are met, may be predictive of future dementia. Important for intervention and reduction in disease risk, research also suggests that engaging in stimulating mental activity throughout adulthood builds cognitive and brain reserve and reduces dementia risk. Therefore, midlife (defined here as 40 to 65 years) may be a suitable time to introduce cognitive interventions for maintaining cognitive function and, in the longer term, possibly preventing or delaying the onset of clinical dementia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of computerised cognitive training interventions lasting at least 12 weeks for maintaining or improving cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in midlife. SEARCH METHODS: We searched up to 31 March 2018 in ALOIS (www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/alois), the specialised register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG). We ran additional searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO Portal/ICTRP at www.apps.who.int/trialsearch, to ensure that the search was as comprehensive and as up-to-date as possible, to identify published, unpublished, and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs, published or unpublished, reported in any language. Participants were cognitively healthy people between 40 and 65 years of age (80% of study population within this age range). Experimental interventions adhered to the following criteria: intervention was any form of interactive computerised cognitive intervention - including computer exercises, computer games, mobile devices, gaming console, and virtual reality - that involved repeated practice on standardised exercises of specified cognitive domain(s) for the purpose of enhancing cognitive function; duration of the intervention was at least 12 weeks; cognitive outcomes were measured; and cognitive training interventions were compared with active or inactive control interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For preliminary screening of search results, we used a 'crowd' method to identify RCTs. At least two review authors working independently screened remaining citations against inclusion criteria; independently extracted data; and assessed the quality of the included trial, using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. We used GRADE to describe the overall quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one eligible study that examined the effect of computerised cognitive training (CCT) in 6742 participants over 50 years of age, with training and follow-up duration of six months. We considered the study to be at high risk of attrition bias and the overall quality of the evidence to be low.Researchers provided no data on our primary outcome. Results indicate that there may be a small advantage for the CCT group for executive function (mean difference (MD) -1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.85 to -1.29; participants = 3994; low-quality evidence) and a very small advantage for the control group for working memory (MD 0.09, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.15; participants = 5831; low-quality evidence). The intervention may have had little or no effect on episodic memory (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.04; participants = 3090; low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low-quality evidence from only one study. We are unable to determine whether computerised cognitive training is effective in maintaining global cognitive function among healthy adults in midlife. We strongly recommend that high-quality studies be undertaken to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of cognitive training in midlife, using interventions that last long enough that they may have enduring effects on cognitive and brain reserve, and with investigators following up long enough to assess effects on clinically important outcomes in later life.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Instrução por Computador , Envelhecimento Saudável , Idoso , Demência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012279, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people living with dementia is increasing rapidly. Clinical dementia does not develop suddenly, but rather is preceded by a period of cognitive decline beyond normal age-related change. People at this intermediate stage between normal cognitive function and clinical dementia are often described as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Considerable research and clinical efforts have been directed toward finding disease-modifying interventions that may prevent or delay progression from MCI to clinical dementia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of at least 12 weeks of computerised cognitive training (CCT) on maintaining or improving cognitive function and preventing dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched to 31 May 2018 in ALOIS (www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/alois) and ran additional searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO portal/ICTRP (www.apps.who.int/trialsearch) to identify published, unpublished, and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in which cognitive training via interactive computerised technology was compared with an active or inactive control intervention. Experimental computerised cognitive training (CCT) interventions had to adhere to the following criteria: minimum intervention duration of 12 weeks; any form of interactive computerised cognitive training, including computer exercises, computer games, mobile devices, gaming console, and virtual reality. Participants were adults with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), or otherwise at high risk of cognitive decline. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the included RCTs. We expressed treatment effects as mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes and as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to describe the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Eight RCTs with a total of 660 participants met review inclusion criteria. Duration of the included trials varied from 12 weeks to 18 months. Only one trial used an inactive control. Most studies were at unclear or high risk of bias in several domains. Overall, our ability to draw conclusions was hampered by very low-quality evidence. Almost all results were very imprecise; there were also problems related to risk of bias, inconsistency between trials, and indirectness of the evidence.No trial provided data on incident dementia. For comparisons of CCT with both active and inactive controls, the quality of evidence on our other primary outcome of global cognitive function immediately after the intervention period was very low. Therefore, we were unable to draw any conclusions about this outcome.Due to very low quality of evidence, we were also unable to determine whether there was any effect of CCT compared to active control on our secondary outcomes of episodic memory, working memory, executive function, depression, functional performance, and mortality. We found low-quality evidence suggesting that there is probably no effect on speed of processing (SMD 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.16 to 0.56; 2 studies; 119 participants), verbal fluency (SMD -0.16, 95% CI -0.76 to 0.44; 3 studies; 150 participants), or quality of life (mean difference (MD) 0.40, 95% CI -1.85 to 2.65; 1 study; 19 participants).When CCT was compared with inactive control, we obtained data on five secondary outcomes, including episodic memory, executive function, verbal fluency, depression, and functional performance. We found very low-quality evidence; therefore, we were unable to draw any conclusions about these outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently available evidence does not allow us to determine whether or not computerised cognitive training will prevent clinical dementia or improve or maintain cognitive function in those who already have evidence of cognitive impairment. Small numbers of trials, small samples, risk of bias, inconsistency between trials, and highly imprecise results mean that it is not possible to derive any implications for clinical practice, despite some observed large effect sizes from individual studies. Direct adverse events are unlikely to occur, although the time and sometimes the money involved in computerised cognitive training programmes may represent significant burdens. Further research is necessary and should concentrate on improving methodological rigour, selecting suitable outcomes measures, and assessing generalisability and persistence of any effects. Trials with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the potential of this intervention to reduce the risk of dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Demência/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Cognição , Progressão da Doença , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(1): 125-133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919253

RESUMO

The long-term performance of prediction scores for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients has been poorly investigated. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the Khorana, PROTECHT, CONKO, and ONKOTEV scores for the first 3-6 months and for 12 months, and re-assessed scores after 3-6 months to determine the influence of variations in patients' risk classification on performance. Retrospective cohort of ambulatory patients with active cancer who were scheduled to receive first or new line of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was symptomatic or incidental VTE. A total of 776 patients were included of whom 540 (70%) had distant metastases. The time-dependent c-statistics of Khorana, PROTECHT, CONKO, and ONKOTEV scores at 6 months were 0.61 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.66), 0.61 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.66), 0.60 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.66), and 0.59 (0.52 to 0.66), respectively, with a tendency to decrease during follow-up. None of the scores discriminated between high and low risk patients at the conventional 3-point positivity threshold. The use of a 2-point positivity threshold improved performance of all scores and captured a higher proportion of VTE. The accuracy of risk scores re-assessed at 3-6 months was modest. The Khorana, PROTECHT, CONKO, and ONKOTEV scores are not sufficiently accurate when used at a conventional threshold of 3 points. Performance improves at positivity threshold of 2 points, as evaluated in recent randomized studies on VTE prophylaxis. Score accuracy tends to decrease over time suggesting the need of periodic re-evaluation to estimate possible variation of risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Medição de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012277, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing age is associated with a natural decline in cognitive function and is also the greatest risk factor for dementia. Cognitive decline and dementia are significant threats to independence and quality of life in older adults. Therefore, identifying interventions that help to maintain cognitive function in older adults or to reduce the risk of dementia is a research priority. Cognitive training uses repeated practice on standardised exercises targeting one or more cognitive domains and is intended to maintain optimum cognitive function. This review examines the effect of computerised cognitive training interventions lasting at least 12 weeks on the cognitive function of healthy adults aged 65 or older. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of computerised cognitive training interventions lasting at least 12 weeks for the maintenance or improvement of cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in late life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched to 31 March 2018 in ALOIS (www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/alois) and performed additional searches of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO Portal/ICTRP (www.apps.who.int/trialsearch) to ensure that the search was as comprehensive and as up-to-date as possible, to identify published, unpublished, and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs, published or unpublished, reported in any language. Participants were cognitively healthy people, and at least 80% of the study population had to be aged 65 or older. Experimental interventions adhered to the following criteria: intervention was any form of interactive computerised cognitive intervention - including computer exercises, computer games, mobile devices, gaming console, and virtual reality - that involved repeated practice on standardised exercises of specified cognitive domain(s) for the purpose of enhancing cognitive function; duration of the intervention was at least 12 weeks; cognitive outcomes were measured; and cognitive training interventions were compared with active or inactive control interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed preliminary screening of search results using a 'crowdsourcing' method to identify RCTs. At least two review authors working independently screened the remaining citations against inclusion criteria. At least two review authors also independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included RCTs. Where appropriate, we synthesised data in random-effect meta-analyses, comparing computerised cognitive training (CCT) separately with active and inactive controls. We expressed treatment effects as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used GRADE methods to describe the overall quality of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight RCTs with a total of 1183 participants. Researchers provided interventions over 12 to 26 weeks; in five trials, the duration of intervention was 12 or 13 weeks. The included studies had a moderate risk of bias. Review authors noted a lot of inconsistency between trial results. The overall quality of evidence was low or very low for all outcomes.We compared CCT first against active control interventions, such as watching educational videos. Because of the very low quality of the evidence, we were unable to determine any effect of CCT on our primary outcome of global cognitive function or on secondary outcomes of episodic memory, speed of processing, executive function, and working memory.We also compared CCT versus inactive control (no interventions). Negative SMDs favour CCT over control. We found no studies on our primary outcome of global cognitive function. In terms of our secondary outcomes, trial results suggest slight improvement in episodic memory (mean difference (MD) -0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.73 to -0.07; 150 participants; 1 study; low-quality evidence) and no effect on executive function (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.15; 292 participants; 2 studies; low-quality evidence), working memory (MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.27; 60 participants; 1 study; low-quality evidence), or verbal fluency (MD -0.11, 95% CI -1.58 to 1.36; 150 participants; 1 study; low-quality evidence). We could not determine any effects on speed of processing at trial endpoints because the evidence was of very low quality.We found no evidence on quality of life, activities of daily living, or adverse effects in either comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found little evidence from the included studies to suggest that 12 or more weeks of CCT improves cognition in healthy older adults. However, our limited confidence in the results reflects the overall quality of the evidence. Inconsistency between trials was a major limitation. In five of the eight trials, the duration of intervention was just three months. The possibility that longer periods of training could be beneficial remains to be more fully explored.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Instrução por Computador , Envelhecimento Saudável , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Haematologica ; 104(6): 1277-1287, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606788

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the performance of the Khorana score in predicting venous thromboembolic events in ambulatory cancer patients. Embase and MEDLINE were searched from January 2008 to June 2018 for studies which evaluated the Khorana score. Two authors independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Additional data on the 6-month incidence of venous thromboembolism were sought by contacting corresponding authors. The incidence in each Khorana score risk group was estimated with random effects meta-analysis. A total of 45 articles and eight abstracts were included, comprising 55 cohorts enrolling 34,555 ambulatory cancer patients. For 27,849 patients (81%), 6-month follow-up data were obtained. Overall, 19% of patients had a Khorana score of 0 points, 64% a score of 1 or 2 points, and 17% a score of 3 or more points. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in the first six months was 5.0% (95%CI: 3.9-6.5) in patients with a low-risk Khorana score (0 points), 6.6% (95%CI: 5.6-7.7) in those with an intermediate-risk Khorana score (1 or 2 points), and 11.0% (95%CI: 8.8-13.8) in those with a high-risk Khorana score (3 points or higher). Of the patients with venous thromboembolism in the first six months, 23.4% (95%CI: 18.4-29.4) had been classified as high risk according to the Khorana score. In conclusion, the Khorana score can be used to select ambulatory cancer patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism for thromboprophylaxis; however, most events occur outside this high-risk group.

17.
Hamostaseologie ; 39(1): 76-86, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071559

RESUMO

Lemierre syndrome usually affects otherwise healthy adolescents or young adults and occurs at an overall rate of 1 to 10 cases per million person-years with an estimated fatality rate of 4 to 9%. Diagnostic criteria remain debated and include acute neck/head bacterial infection (often tonsillitis caused by anaerobes at high potential for sepsis and vascular invasion, notably Fusobacterium necrophorum) complicated by local vein thrombosis, usually involving the internal jugular vein, and systemic septic embolism. Medical treatment is based on antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage, anticoagulant drugs and supportive care in case of sepsis. Surgical procedures can be required, including drainage of the abscesses, tissue debridement and jugular vein ligation. Evidence for clinical management is extremely poor in the absence of any adequately sized study with clinical outcomes. In this article, we illustrate two cases of Lemierre syndrome not caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum and provide a clinically oriented discussion on the main issues on epidemiology, pathophysiology and management strategies of this disorder. Finally, we summarize the study protocol of a proposed systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of the literature. Our ongoing work aims to investigate the risk of new thromboembolic events, major bleeding or death in patients diagnosed with Lemierre syndrome, and to better elucidate the role of anticoagulant therapy in this setting. This effort represents the starting point for an evidence-based treatment of Lemierre syndrome built on multinational interdisciplinary collaborative studies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Lemierre/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lemierre/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fusobacterium necrophorum/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Síndrome de Lemierre/complicações , Síndrome de Lemierre/microbiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD011906, 2018 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamins and minerals play multiple functions within the central nervous system which may help to maintain brain health and optimal cognitive functioning. Supplementation of the diet with various vitamins and minerals has been suggested as a means of maintaining cognitive function, or even of preventing dementia, in later life. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on cognitive function in cognitively healthy people aged 40 years or more. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's (CDCIG) specialised register, as well as MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO Portal/ICTRP from inception to 26th January 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that evaluated the cognitive effects on people aged 40 years or more of any vitamin or mineral supplements taken by mouth for at least three months. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessments were done in duplicate. Vitamins were considered broadly in the categories of B vitamins, antioxidant vitamins, and combinations of both. Minerals were considered separately, where possible. If interventions and outcomes were considered sufficiently similar, then data were pooled. In order to separate short-term cognitive effects from possible longer-term effects on the trajectory of cognitive decline, data were pooled for various treatment durations from 3 months to 12 months and up to 10 years or more. MAIN RESULTS: In total, we included 28 studies with more than 83,000 participants. There were some general limitations of the evidence. Most participants were enrolled in studies which were not designed primarily to assess cognition. These studies often had no baseline cognitive assessment and used only brief cognitive assessments at follow-up. Very few studies assessed the incidence of dementia. Most study reports did not mention adverse events or made only very general statements about them. Only 10 studies had a mean follow-up > 5 years. Only two studies had participants whose mean age was < 60 years at baseline. The risk of bias in the included studies was generally low, other than a risk of attrition bias for longer-term outcomes. We considered the certainty of the evidence behind almost all results to be moderate or low.We included 14 studies with 27,882 participants which compared folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, or a combination of these to placebo. The majority of participants were aged over 60 years and had a history of cardio- or cerebrovascular disease. We found that giving B vitamin supplements to cognitively healthy adults, mainly in their 60s and 70s, probably has little or no effect on global cognitive function at any time point up to 5 years (SMD values from -0.03 to 0.06) and may also have no effect at 5-10 years (SMD -0.01). There were very sparse data on adverse effects or on incidence of cognitive impairment or dementia.We included 8 studies with 47,840 participants in which the active intervention was one or more of the antioxidant vitamins: ß-carotene, vitamin C or vitamin E. Results were mixed. For overall cognitive function, there was low-certainty evidence of benefit associated with ß-carotene after a mean of 18 years of treatment (MD 0.18 TICS points, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.35) and of vitamin C after 5 years to 10 years (MD 0.46 TICS points, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.78), but not at earlier time points. From two studies which reported on dementia incidence, there was low-certainty evidence of no effect of an antioxidant vitamin combination or of vitamin E, either alone or combined with selenium. One of the included studies had been designed to look for effects on the incidence of prostate cancer; it found a statistically significant increase in prostate cancer diagnoses among men taking vitamin E.One trial with 4143 participants compared vitamin D3 (400 IU/day) and calcium supplements to placebo. We found low- to moderate-certainty evidence of no effect of vitamin D3 and calcium supplements at any time-point up to 10 years on overall cognitive function (MD after a mean of 7.8 years -0.1 MMSE points, 95% CI -0.81 to 0.61) or the incidence of dementia (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.24). A pilot study with 60 participants used a higher dose of vitamin D3 (4000 IU on alternate days) and found preliminary evidence that this dose probably has no effect on cognitive function over six months.We included data from one trial of zinc and copper supplementation with 1072 participants. There was moderate-certainty evidence of little or no effect on overall cognitive function (MD 0.6 MMSE points, 95% CI -0.19 to 1.39) or on the incidence of cognitive impairment after 5 years to 10 years. A second smaller trial provided no usable data, but reported no cognitive effects of six months of supplementation with zinc gluconate.From one study with 3711 participants, there was low-certainty evidence of no effect of approximately five years of selenium supplementation on the incidence of dementia (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.13).Finally, we included three trials of complex supplements (combinations of B vitamins, antioxidant vitamins, and minerals) with 6306 participants. From the one trial which assessed overall cognitive function, there was low-certainty evidence of little or no effect on the TICS (MD after a mean of 8.5 years 0.12, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.38). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that any vitamin or mineral supplementation strategy for cognitively healthy adults in mid or late life has a meaningful effect on cognitive decline or dementia, although the evidence does not permit definitive conclusions. There were very few data on supplementation starting in midlife (< 60 years); studies designed to assess cognitive outcomes tended to be too short to assess maintenance of cognitive function; longer studies often had other primary outcomes and used cognitive measures which may have lacked sensitivity. The only positive signals of effect came from studies of long-term supplementation with antioxidant vitamins. These may be the most promising for further research.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Demência/prevenção & controle , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 6/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem
19.
JAMA ; 320(22): 2367-2368, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383173

RESUMO

Clinical Question: Which treatments for lower extremity superficial thrombophlebitis (ST) are associated with lower rates of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) vs placebo? Bottom Line: A dose of 2.5 mg of fondaparinux administered subcutaneously once daily for 45 days is associated with fewer cases of symptomatic VTE without an increase in major bleeding vs placebo. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with lower rates of ST extension or recurrence vs placebo, but data regarding symptomatic VTE remain inconclusive. Oral rivaroxaban requires further evaluation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboflebite/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Meias de Compressão
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD011905, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamins and minerals have many functions in the nervous system which are important for brain health. It has been suggested that various different vitamin and mineral supplements might be useful in maintaining cognitive function and delaying the onset of dementia. In this review, we sought to examine the evidence for this in people who already had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on cognitive function and the incidence of dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's (CDCIG) specialised register, as well as MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, LILACs, Web of Science Core Collection, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO Portal/ICTRP, from inception to 25 January 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised or quasi-randomised, placebo-controlled trials which evaluated orally administered vitamin or mineral supplements in participants with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and which assessed the incidence of dementia or cognitive outcomes, or both. We were interested in studies applicable to the general population of older people and therefore excluded studies in which participants had severe vitamin or mineral deficiencies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We sought data on our primary outcomes of dementia incidence and overall cognitive function and on secondary outcomes of episodic memory, executive function, speed of processing, quality of life, functional performance, clinical global impression, adverse events, and mortality. We conducted data collection and analysis according to standard Cochrane systematic review methods. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' assessment tool. We grouped vitamins and minerals according to their putative mechanism of action and, where we considered it to be clinically appropriate, we pooled data using random-effects methods. We used GRADE methods to assess the overall quality of evidence for each comparison and outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included five trials with 879 participants which investigated B vitamin supplements. In four trials, the intervention was a combination of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid; in one, it was folic acid only. Doses varied. We considered there to be some risks of performance and attrition bias and of selective outcome reporting among these trials. Our primary efficacy outcomes were the incidence of dementia and scores on measures of overall cognitive function. None of the trials reported the incidence of dementia and the evidence on overall cognitive function was of very low-quality. There was probably little or no effect of B vitamins taken for six to 24 months on episodic memory, executive function, speed of processing, or quality of life. The evidence on our other secondary clinical outcomes, including harms, was very sparse or very low-quality. There was evidence from one study that there may be a slower rate of brain atrophy over two years in participants taking B vitamins. The same study reported subgroup analyses based on the level of serum homocysteine (tHcy) at baseline and found evidence that B vitamins may improve episodic memory in those with tHcy above the median at baseline.We included one trial (n = 516) of vitamin E supplementation. Vitamin E was given as 1000 IU of alpha-tocopherol twice daily. We considered this trial to be at risk of attrition and selective reporting bias. There was probably no effect of vitamin E on the probability of progression from MCI to Alzheimer's dementia over three years (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.41; n = 516; 1 study, moderate-quality evidence). There was also no evidence of an effect at intermediate time points. The available data did not allow us to conduct analyses, but the authors reported no significant effect of three years of supplementation with vitamin E on overall cognitive function, episodic memory, speed of processing, clinical global impression, functional performance, adverse events, or mortality (five deaths in each group). We considered this to be low-quality evidence.We included one trial (n = 256) of combined vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation and one trial (n = 26) of supplementation with chromium picolinate. In both cases, there was a single eligible cognitive outcome, but we considered the evidence to be very low-quality and so could not be sure of any effects. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence on vitamin and mineral supplements as treatments for MCI is very limited. Three years of treatment with high-dose vitamin E probably does not reduce the risk of progression to dementia, but we have no data on this outcome for other supplements. Only B vitamins have been assessed in more than one RCT. There is no evidence for beneficial effects on cognition of supplementation with B vitamins for six to 24 months. Evidence from a single study of a reduced rate of brain atrophy in participants taking vitamin B and a beneficial effect of vitamin B on episodic memory in those with higher tHcy at baseline warrants attempted replication.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Ácidos Picolínicos/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
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