Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 31
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Cancer ; 165: 169-173, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We previously reported on the immunogenicity and safety of BNT162b2 in a large cohort of patients with cancer after the first and second doses (Di Noia et al., 2021) [1]. Herein, we present result after six months of follow-up. METHODS: This prospective study included patients affected by solid tumors and afferent to our institution who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. A cohort of vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW) was used as control-group. Both cohorts were evaluated for the titer of anti-Spike (S) IgG at prefixed time-points (TPs). Time-point 4 was scheduled at 24-26 weeks after the second dose. RESULTS: In the current analysis, 400 patients and 232 healthcare workers were evaluated. Responders (IgG > 15 AU/mL) in patients group were 86.5% compared with 94.4% among healthcare workers. Also the IgG titer at TP4 was significantly inferior in patients than in healthcare workers (70.81 vs 134.64 AU/ml, p < 0.001). There was a more rapid decline of the antibody level from TP3 to TP4 in patients than in healthcare workers (1.78 vs 1.3 fold). The estimated IgG half-life was significantly shorter for patients (73 days) than in healthcare workers (118 days) as well as the time to reach negative serological status (340 vs 532 days). CONCLUSION: The decline of humoral response to the vaccine observed in patients with solid cancer after six months from the first dose support the urgent need of an early additional dose.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Vacinas , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We present immunogenicity data 6 months after the first dose of BNT162b2 in correlation with age, gender, BMI, comorbidities and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: An immunogenicity evaluation was carried out among health care workers (HCW) vaccinated at the Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri (IFO). All HCW were asked to be vaccine by the national vaccine campaign at the beginning of 2021. Serum samples were collected on day 1 just prior to the first dose of the vaccine and on day 21 just prior to the second vaccination dose. Thereafter sera samples were collected 28, 49, 84 and 168 days after the first dose of BNT162b2. Quantitative measurement of IgG antibodies against S1/S2 antigens of SARS-CoV-2 was performed with a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-four HWCs were analyzed, 175 women (63.9%) and 99 men (36.1%). The maximum antibody geometric mean concentration (AbGMC) was reached at T2 (299.89 AU/mL; 95% CI: 263.53-339.52) with a significant increase compared to baseline (p < 0.0001). Thereafter, a progressive decrease was observed. At T5, a median decrease of 59.6% in COVID-19 negative, and of 67.8% in COVID-19 positive individuals were identified with respect to the highest antibody response. At T1, age and previous COVID-19 were associated with differences in antibody response, while at T2 and T3 differences in immune response were associated with age, gender and previous COVID-19. At T4 and T5, only COVID-19 positive participants demonstrated a greater antibody response, whereas no other variables seemed to influence antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our study clearly shows antibody persistence at 6 months, albeit with a certain decline. Thus, the use of this vaccine in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic is supported by our results that in turn open debate about the need for further boosts.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(24): 6815-6823, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583970

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a large cohort of patients with cancer (CP). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: From March 1, 2021 to March 20, 2021, this prospective cohort study included 816 CP afferent to our institution and eligible for the vaccination. A cohort of 274 health care workers (HCW) was used as age- and sex-matched control group. BNT162b2 was administered as a two-dose regimen given 21 days apart. Blood samples to analyze anti-Spike (S) IgG antibodies (Ab) were collected prevaccination [timepoint (TP) 0], and at 3 weeks (TP1) and 7 weeks (TP2) after the first dose. RESULTS: Patients characteristics: median age 62 (range, 21-97); breast/lung cancer/others (31/21/48%); active treatment/follow-up (90/10%). In the whole CP cohort, the serologic response rate (RR) and the titre of anti-S IgG significantly increased across the TPs; at TP2, the responders (IgG >15 AU/mL) were 94.2%. Active chemotherapy and chronic use of steroids were independent predictors of lower RR. Adverse events (AE) after the booster predicted higher likelihood of response (OR, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-9.99; P = 0.003). Comparing the matched cohorts, the responders were significantly lower in CP than in HCW at TP1 (61.2% vs. 93.2%) and TP2 (93.3% vs. 100%), while the geometric mean concentration of IgG did not significantly differ at TP2 being significantly lower in CP (23.3) than in HCW (52.1) at TP1. BNT162b2 was well tolerated in CP; severe-grade AEs were 3.5% and 1.3% after the first and second doses, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 assures serologic immunization without clinically significant toxicity in CP. The second dose is needed to reach a satisfactory humoral response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 164: 103404, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214609

RESUMO

Giving the potential contribute in cancer initiation and progression, lung microbiota represents a promising topic in cancer research, although still unexplored. We performed a systematic literature search to identify clinical studies evaluating lung microbiota composition, its correlation with lung cancer patients' clinico-pathological features and prognosis. Of the identified 370 studies, 21 were eligible and included. Although studies were heterogeneous, lung cancer resulted to be enriched in peculiar microbial communities, with differences in composition and diversity according to clinico-pathological parameters. Few studies explored how lung microbiota influences cancer outcome. In light of these findings and borrowing the suggestions coming from gut microbiota, we speculate that respiratory microbiome may influence pathogenesis, progression and outcome of lung cancer. Taking advantage of the experience of chronical lung diseases, prospective studies should be designed to evaluate lung microbiota changes throughout any phase of lung cancer course, particularly with the advent of immunotherapy as pivotal treatment.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Microbiota , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 153: 260-264, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer have an increased risk of complications from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, including death, and thus, they were considered as high-priority subjects for COVID-19 vaccination. We report on the compliance with the COVID-19 vaccine of patients affected by solid tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cancer afferent to Medical Oncology 1 Unit of Regina Elena National Cancer Institute in Rome were considered eligible for vaccination if they were receiving systemic immunosuppressive antitumor treatment or received it in the last 6 months or having an uncontrolled advanced disease. The Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine was proposed to all candidates via phone or during a scheduled visit. The reasons for refusal were collected by administrating a 6-item multiple-choice questionnaire. RESULTS: From 1st March to 20th March 2021, of 914 eligible patients, 102 refused vaccination (11.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.1-13.2). The most frequent (>10%) reasons reported were concerns about vaccine-related adverse events (48.1%), negative interaction with concomitant antitumor therapy (26.7%), and the fear of allergic reaction (10.7%). The refusal rate (RR) after 15th March (date of AstraZeneca-AZD1222 suspension) was more than doubled compared with the RR observed before (19.7% versus 8.6%, odds ratio [OR] 2.60, 95% CI 1.69-3.99; P < 0.0001). ECOG-PS 2 was associated with higher RR compared with ECOG-PS 0-1 (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.04-8.34; P = 0.04). No statistically significant differences in RR according to other clinical characteristics were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience represents the first worldwide report on the adherence of patients with cancer to COVID-19 vaccination and underlines how regulatory decisions and media news spreading could influence the success of the campaign.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(4): 351-360, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid disease progression of patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been recently associated with tumor heterogeneity, which may be mirrored by coexisting concomitant alterations. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the correlation between loss of function of PTEN and the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Archival tumor blocks from patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC who were administered upfront tyrosine kinase inhibitors were retrospectively collected. The status of 4 genes (PTEN, TP53, c-MET, IGFR) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and it was correlated with overall response rate, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were included. In multivariate analysis, PTEN loss (hazard ratio [HR], 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-7.66; P = .002), IGFR overexpression (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.03-4.77; P = .04), liver metastases (HR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.46-8.65; P = .005), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥ 1 (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.04-6.34; P = .04) were significantly associated with shorter PFS. Patients with PTEN loss had a median PFS of 6 months (2-year PFS, 11.6%), whereas patients without PTEN loss had a median PFS of 18 months (2-year PFS, 43.6%) (log-rank P < .005). In the multivariate analysis, PTEN loss (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 2.37-14.81; P < .005), liver metastases (HR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.06-6.51; P = .037), and ECOG PS ≥ 1 (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.15-6.81; P = .024) were significantly associated with shorter OS. Patients with PTEN loss had a median OS of 6 months (2-year OS, 12.2%), whereas in patients without PTEN loss, OS was not reached (2-year OS, 63.9%) (log-rank P < .0005). CONCLUSIONS: A low-cost and reproducible immunohistochemistry assay for PTEN loss analysis represents a potential tool for identifying tumor heterogeneity in patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(6): 880-889, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved outcome in tobacco smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following immunotherapy has previously been reported. However, little is known regarding this association during first-line immunotherapy in patients with high PD-L1 expression. In this study we compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status of two large multicenter cohorts. METHODS: We compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status (never smokers vs. current/former smokers) of two retrospective multicenter cohorts of metastatic NSCLC patients, treated with first-line pembrolizumab and platinum-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 962 NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% who received first-line pembrolizumab and 462 NSCLC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the study. Never smokers were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.49 [95% CI: 1.15-1.92], p = 0.0022) and death (HR = 1.38 [95% CI: 1.02-1.87], p = 0.0348) within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the contrary, a nonsignificant trend towards a reduced risk of disease progression (HR = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.52-1.05], p = 0.1003) and death (HR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45-1.01], p = 0.0593) were reported for never smokers within the chemotherapy cohort. After a random case-control matching, 424 patients from both cohorts were paired. Within the matched pembrolizumab cohort, never smokers had a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.68 [95% CI: 1.17-2.40], p = 0.0045) and a nonsignificant trend towards a shortened overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.32 [95% CI: 0.84-2.07], p = 0.2205). On the contrary, never smokers had a significantly longer PFS (HR = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49-0.95], p = 0.0255) and OS (HR = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.45-0.97], p = 0,0356) compared to current/former smoker patients within the matched chemotherapy cohort. On pooled multivariable analysis, the interaction term between smoking status and treatment modality was concordantly statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0074), PFS (p = 0.0001) and OS (p = 0.0020), confirming the significantly different impact of smoking status across the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Among metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab, current/former smokers experienced improved PFS and OS. On the contrary, worse outcomes were reported among current/former smokers receiving first-line chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/tendências , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(6): 1583-1592, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying the patients who may benefit the most from immune checkpoints inhibitors remains a great challenge for clinicians. Here we investigate on blood serum amyloid A (SAA) as biomarker of response to upfront pembrolizumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients with PD-L1 ≥ 50% receiving upfront pembrolizumab (P cohort) and with PD-L1 0-49% treated with chemotherapy (CT cohort) were evaluated for blood SAA and radiological response at baseline and every 9 weeks. Endpoints were response rate (RR) according to RECIST1.1, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The most accurate SAA cut-off to predict response was established with ROC analysis in the P cohort. RESULTS: In the P Cohort (n = 42), the overall RR was 38%. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (mo), baseline SAA ≤ the ROC-derived cut-off (29.9 mg/L; n = 28/42.67%) was significantly associated with higher RR (53.6 versus 7.1%; OR15, 95% CI 1.72-130.7, p = 0.009), longer PFS (17.4 versus 2.1 mo; p < 0.0001) and OS (not reached versus 7.2mo; p < 0.0001) compared with SAA > 29.9 mg/L. In multivariate analysis, low SAA positively affects PFS (p = 0.001) and OS (p = 0.048) irrespective of ECOG PS, number of metastatic sites and pleural effusion. SAA monitoring (n = 40) was also significantly associated with survival endpoints: median PFS 17.4 versus 2.1 mo and median OS not reached versus 7.2 mo when SAA remained low (n = 14) and high (n = 12), respectively. In the CT Cohort (n = 30), RR was not affected by SAA level (p > 0.05) while low SAA at baseline (n = 17) was associated with better PFS (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.90, p = 0.006) and OS (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.67, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Low SAA predicts good survival outcomes irrespective of treatment for advanced NSCLC patients and higher likelihood of response to upfront pembrolizumab only. The strong prognostic value might be exploited to easily identify patients most likely to benefit from immunotherapy. A further study (FoRECATT-2) is ongoing to confirm results in a larger sample size and to investigate the effect of SAA on immune response in vitro assays.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 1-6, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: No standard treatment option is available for patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) progressing after upfront chemotherapy. We aimed to explore the role of focal radiotherapy (FRT) as a treatment modality for oligo-progressive MPM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients pretreated with ≥1 lines of chemotherapy were included. Oligo-progressive MPM was defined as an unresectable disease with radiological progression at ≤3 sites according to a chest-abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Patients were treated with either stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, ≥5 Gy per fraction) or hypo-fractionated radiotherapy (hypoRT, <5 Gy per fraction). Time to further systemic therapy (TFST) and local control (LC) after FRT were the primary endpoints. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated using three different alpha/beta models (1.5 Gy, 3 Gy and 10 Gy). RESULTS: From April 2006 to March 2019, 37 patients were treated on 43 pleural lesions; 16/37 (43 %) had undergone upfront multimodality treatment (MMT) including surgery. FRT was given in 22/37 (59.5 %) after one line of chemotherapy. SBRT was delivered for 26/43 lesions (60.5 %), hypoRT for 17/43 (39.5 %). Median TFST was 6 months (95 % CI 4.9-7.1). LC at 6 months and 1 year was 84 % and 76 %, respectively. Median TFST was longer in patients treated after 1 vs >1 line of chemotherapy (9 vs 4 months, p = 0.001) and in patients pretreated with MMT (6 vs 3 months, p = 0.021). Six-month LC was better in patients treated with a BED > 100 using alpha/beta 1.5 and 3. No ≥ G3 acute or late toxicities were reported. CONCLUSION: FRT was feasible in selected patients with oligo-progressive MPM, allowing delay of further systemic therapies, with no severe toxicity. FRT was more effective when performed at progression after one line of systemic therapy. Our results suggest a radio-resistant behavior of MPM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Mesotelioma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pleurais/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and outcomes in patients receiving programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has already been confirmed in pre-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI variation in a large cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab. We also evaluated a control cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients treated with first line platinum-based chemotherapy. Normal weight was set as control group. RESULTS: 962 patients and 426 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Obese patients had a significantly higher objective response rate (ORR) (OR=1.61 (95% CI: 1.04-2.50)) in the pembrolizumab cohort, while overweight patients had a significantly lower ORR (OR=0.59 (95% CI: 0.37-0.92)) within the chemotherapy cohort. Obese patients had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=0.61 (95% CI: 0.45-0.82)) in the pembrolizumab cohort. Conversely, they had a significantly shorter PFS in the chemotherapy cohort (HR=1.27 (95% CI: 1.01-1.60)). Obese patients had a significantly longer overall survival (OS) within the pembrolizumab cohort (HR=0.70 (95% CI: 0.49-0.99)), while no significant differences according to baseline BMI were found in the chemotherapy cohort. BMI variation significantly affected ORR, PFS and OS in both the pembrolizumab and the chemotherapy cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline obesity is associated to significantly improved ORR, PFS and OS in metastatic NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 expression of ≥50%, receiving first line pembrolizumab, but not among patients treated with chemotherapy. BMI variation is also significantly related to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(6): 498-508.e2, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), as a surrogate predictor of the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, has not yet been described in the setting of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung-cancer (NSCLC) with a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of ≥ 50%. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We previously conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis in patients with treatment-naive metastatic NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab. Here, we report the results of the irAE analysis and the potential correlation between irAEs and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1010 patients were included in this analysis; after a 6-week landmark selection, 877 (86.8%) patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), grade 3/4 irAEs (P = .0025), leading to discontinuation irAEs (P = .0144), multiple-site and single-site irAEs (P < .0001), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0001), endocrine irAEs (P = .0227), pulmonary irAEs (P = .0479), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0018) were significantly related to a higher objective response rate. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0005), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0042), endocrine irAEs (P < .0001), gastrointestinal irAEs (P = .0391), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0086) were significantly related to progression-free survival. Any grade irAEs (P < .0001), single-site irAEs (P < .0001), multiple-site irAEs (P = .0003), cutaneous irAEs (P = .0002), endocrine irAEs (P = .0001), and rheumatologic irAEs (P = .0214) were significantly related to overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the feasibility and the safety of first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab, in a large, real-world cohort of patients with NSCLC with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%. The occurrence of irAEs may be a surrogate of clinical activity and improved outcomes in this setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2209-2221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-agent pembrolizumab represents the standard first-line option for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) expression of ≥ 50%. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study aimed at evaluating the clinicopathologic correlates of pembrolizumab effectiveness in patients with treatment-naïve NSCLC and a PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50%. RESULTS: One thousand and twenty-six consecutive patients were included. The objective response rate (ORR) was 44.5% (95% CI 40.2-49.1), while the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 7.9 months (95% CI 6.9-9.5; 599 events) and 17.2 months (95% CI 15.3-22.3; 598 censored patients), respectively. ECOG-PS ≥ 2 (p < 0.0001) and bone metastases (p = 0.0003) were confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse ORR. Former smokers (p = 0.0002), but not current smokers (p = 0.0532) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged PFS compared to never smokers at multivariate analysis. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a worse PFS. Previous palliative RT was significantly related to a shortened OS (p = 0.0104), while previous non-palliative RT was significantly related to a prolonged OS (p = 0.0033). Former smokers (p = 0.0131), but not current smokers (p = 0.3433) were confirmed to have a significantly prolonged OS compared to never smokers. ECOG-PS (p < 0.0001), bone metastases (p < 0.0001) and liver metastases (p < 0.0001) were also confirmed to be independent predictors of a shortened OS. A PD-L1 expression of ≥ 90%, as assessed by recursive partitioning, was associated with significantly higher ORR (p = 0.0204), and longer and OS (p = 0.0346) at multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab was effective in a large cohort of NSCLC patients treated outside of clinical trials. Questions regarding the effectiveness in clinical subgroups, such as patients with poorer PS and with liver/bone metastases, still remain to be addressed. We confirmed that the absence of tobacco exposure, and the presence of bone and liver metastasis are associated with worse clinical outcomes to pembrolizumab. Increasing levels of PD-L1 expression may help identifying a subset of patients who derive a greater benefit from pembrolizumab monotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397295

RESUMO

Before the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for a particular subgroup of patients, despite platinum-based combination chemotherapy, the majority of patients affected by non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) did not live longer than one year. With deeper understanding of tumor molecular biology, treatment of NSCLC has progressively entered the era of treatment customization according to tumor molecular characteristics, as well as histology. All this information allowed the development of personalized molecular targeted therapies. A series of studies have shown that, in some cases, cancer cells can grow and survive as result of the presence of a single driver genomic abnormality. This phenomenon, called oncogene-addiction, more often occurs in adenocarcinoma histology, in non-smokers (except BRAF mutations, also frequent in smoking patients), young, and female patients. Several different driver mutations have been identified and many studies have clearly shown that upfront TKI monotherapy may improve the overall outcome of these patients. The greater efficacy of these drugs is also associated with a better tolerability and safety than chemotherapy, with fewer side effects and an extremely good compliance to treatment. The most frequent oncogene-addicted disease is represented by those tumors carrying a mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The development of first, second and third generation TKIs against EGFR mutations have dramatically changed the prognosis of these patients. Currently, osimertinib (which demonstrated to improve efficacy with a better tolerability in comparison with first-generation TKIs) is considered the best treatment option for patients affected by NSCLC harboring a common EGFR mutation. EML4-ALK-driven disease (which gene re-arrangement occurs in 3-7% of NSCLC), has demonstrated to be significantly targeted by specific TKIs, which have improved outcome in comparison with chemotherapy. To date, alectinib is considered the best treatment option for these patients, with other newer agents upcoming. Other additional driver abnormalities, such as ROS1, BRAF, MET, RET and NTRK, have been identified as a target mirroring peculiar vulnerability to specific agents. Oncogene-addicted disease typically has a low early resistance rate, but late acquired resistance always develops and therefore therapy needs to be changed when progression occurs. In this narrative review, the state of art of scientific literature about targeted therapy options in oncogene-addicted disease is summarized and critically discussed. We also aim to analyze future perspectives to maximize benefits for this subgroup of patients.

17.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 7652014, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827379

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the deadliest and most common malignancies in the world, representing one of the greatest challenges in cancer treatment. Immunotherapy is rapidly changing standard treatment schedule and outcomes for patients with advanced malignancies. However, several ongoing studies are still attempting to elucidate the biomarkers that could predict treatment response as well as the new strategies to improve antitumor immune system response ameliorating immunotherapy efficacy. The complex of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms, termed microbiota, that live on the epithelial barriers of the host, are involved in the initiation, progression, and dissemination of cancer. The functional role of microbiota has attracted an accumulating attention recently. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that commensal microorganisms are required for the maturation, education, and function of the immune system regulating the efficacy of immunotherapy in the anticancer response. In this review, we discuss some of the major findings depicting bacteria as crucial gatekeeper for the immune response against tumor and their role as driver of immunotherapy efficacy in lung cancer with a special focus on the distinctive role of gut and lung microbiota in the efficacy of immunotherapy treatment.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Imunoterapia
19.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 20(3): 23, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790063

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Unresectable or relapsed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has dismal prognosis. First-line combination therapy with pemetrexed and a platinum analog allows a modest survival benefit, while no clear therapeutic options exist for the second-line therapy. In this setting, pemetrexed seems to be the most active drug; however, the inclusion in front-line treatment limits its use in further lines. Nevertheless, rechallenge with one or both drugs used in first-line remains a feasible strategy for responder patients. Alternatively, only few cytotoxic drugs have demonstrated a mild activity in refractory MPM. Among other options, targeted therapy has unfortunately produced disappointing results as salvage treatment probably due to the lack of a clear understanding of the tumor biology. In contrast, recent data suggest moderate efficacy and mild toxicity of immunotherapy also for the treatment of MPM. The combination of checkpoint inhibitors with chemotherapy or other immunological agents seems promising and could really "raise the bar" in this setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Mesotelioma/patologia , Mesotelioma Maligno , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Future Oncol ; 15(20): 2349-2360, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440086

RESUMO

Aim: This single institution Phase II study evaluated drug-eluting beads loaded with irinotecan (DEBIRI) plus capecitabine in pretreated patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. Patients & methods: Forty patients with liver-limited or liver-dominant disease, who have failed at least two previous lines of chemotherapy, underwent either four DEBIRI at 2-week interval or two DEBIRI every 4 weeks for bilobar or single-lobe metastases, respectively. Capecitabine was given at 1000 mg/m2 twice-daily on days 1-14 every 3 weeks. Results: Seven partial responses and 12 stable diseases were observed, achieving a disease control rate of 47.5%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival resulted 4 and 8 months, respectively. Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 6/40 points (15%) of patients. Conclusion: DEBIRI plus capecitabine is a valid treatment option for heavily pretreated patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Microesferas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...