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Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 24(2): 59-62, jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-180721


This study demonstrated that a brief interview can reveal the mechanical reasoning that could not be assessed via the Bicycle Drawing Test. This study, conducted on 190 children (6 to 11 years old), shows that mechanical reasoning improves with age. It shows correlations with spatial reasoning and motor control, and with visual reasoning

El estudio demostró que una breve entrevista puede revelar el razonamiento mecánico que no se pudo evaluar a través de la prueba de dibujo de bicicletas. Un estudio realizado en 190 niños (de 6 a 11 años) muestra que el razonamiento mecánico mejora con la edad. Este studio muestra correlaciones con razonamiento espacial y control motor y también con razonamiento visual

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Testes Psicológicos , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Pensamento , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/psicologia , Formação de Conceito
Parent Sci Pract ; 15(3): 207-228, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26877716


OBJECTIVE: The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children's misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children's well-being? DESIGN: Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). RESULTS: Mothers' answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children's adjustment.

Assessment ; 22(5): 629-39, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336037


To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning.

Técnicas Projetivas , Psicometria , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fatores Sexuais , Percepção Espacial
Cogn Emot ; 28(7): 1338-46, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24471999


This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

Compreensão , Emoções , Amigos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino