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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High glomerular filtration rate (HGFR) is associated with cardiovascular damage in the setting of various conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Prediabetes was also associated with increased GFR, however, the association between prediabetes, HGFR and cardiovascular damage has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the association between HGFR and early markers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with prediabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Augmentation pressure (Aug), augmentation index (AIx), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), pulse wave velocity (PWV), intima-media thickness (IMT) and estimated GFR (eGFR) were evaluated in 230 subjects with prediabetes. The eGFR was assessed using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. HGFR was defined as an eGFR above the 75th percentile. Prediabetic subjects were divided into two groups according to presence/absence of HGFR: 61 subjects with HGFR and 169 subjects without HGFR. Subjects with HGFR showed higher Aug, AIx and lower SEVR compared with prediabetic subjects with lower eGFR (14.1 ± 7.2 vs 10.8 ± 6.2, 32.9 ± 12.7 vs 27.6 ± 11.7, 153.5 ± 27.8 vs 162 ± 30.2, p < 0.05). No differences were found in PWV and IMT values between the two groups. Then, we performed multiple regression analysis to test the relationship between Aug, SEVR and several cardiovascular risk factors. In multiple regression analysis Aug was associated with age, systolic blood pressure (BP), HOMA-IR and eGFR; the major determinants of SEVR were systolic BP, HOMA-IR and eGFR. CONCLUSION: Subjects with prediabetes and HGFR exhibited an increased Aug, AIx and a reduced SEVR. These alterations are associated with eGFR, insulin resistance and systolic BP.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a novel inflammatory biomarker strongly associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Our aim was to evaluate the role of NLR on pulse wave velocity (PWV) after adding-on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9-i) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects with ASCVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 45 FH subjects with ASCVD on high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe and with an off-target LDL-C. Study population was divided into two groups according to the mean value of NLR. All patients received PCSK9-i therapy and obtained biochemical analysis as well as PWV evaluation at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i. After six months of add-on PCSK9-i therapy, a significant reduction of TC, LDL-C, Non-HDL-C, Lp(a) and ApoB plasma levels was observed in the two groups; while low-NLR group exhibited a significant PWV reduction after six-month therapy with PCSK9-i (Δ -16.2%, p < 0.05), no significant changes in PWV were observed in the high-NLR group. CONCLUSIONS: Only FH subjects with low-NLR experienced a significant reduction of PWV after PCSK9-i. Our findings suggest a role of NLR in predicting PCSK9-i effect in FH subjects with ASCVD.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281247

RESUMO

Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) lower LDL-cholesterol and slow atherosclerosis preventing cardiovascular events. While it is known that circulating PCSK9 enhances platelet activation (PA) and that PCSK9i reduce it, the underlying mechanism is not still clarified. Methods: In a multicenter before-after study in 80 heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) patients on treatment with maximum tolerated statin dose ± ezetimibe, PA, soluble-NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), and oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) were measured before and after six months of PCSK9i treatment. In vitro study investigates the effects of plasma from HeFH patients before and after PCK9i on PA in washed platelets (wPLTs) from healthy subjects. Results: Compared to baseline, PCSK9i reduced the serum levels of LDL-c, ox-LDL, Thromboxane (Tx) B2, sNOX2-dp, and PCSK9 (p < 0.001). The decrease of TxB2 correlates with that of ox-LDL, while ox-LDL reduction correlated with PCSK9 and sNOX2-dp delta. In vitro study demonstrated that wPLTs resuspended in plasma from HeFH after PCSK9i treatment induced lower PA and sNOX2-dp release than those obtained using plasma before PCSK9i treatment. This reduction was vanished by adding ox-LDL. ox-LDL-induced PA was blunted by CD36, LOX1, and NOX2 inhibition. Conclusions: PCSK9i treatment reduces PA modulating NOX2 activity and in turn ox-LDL formation in HeFH patients.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Itália , Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidase 2/análise , NADPH Oxidase 2/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206340

RESUMO

Intestinal organoids are used to analyze the differentiation of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) and to manipulate their density for treating type 2 diabetes. EEC differentiation is a continuous process tightly regulated in the gut by a complex regulatory network. However, the effect of chronic hyperglycemia, in the modulation of regulatory networks controlling identity and differentiation of EECs, has not been analyzed. This study aimed to investigate the effect of glucotoxicity on EEC differentiation in small intestinal organoid platforms. Mouse intestinal organoids were cultured in the presence/absence of high glucose concentrations (35 mM) for 48 h to mimic glucotoxicity. Chronic hyperglycemia impaired the expression of markers related to the differentiation of EEC progenitors (Ngn3) and L-cells (NeuroD1), and it also reduced the expression of Gcg and GLP-1 positive cell number. In addition, the expression of intestinal stem cell markers was reduced in organoids exposed to high glucose concentrations. Our data indicate that glucotoxicity impairs L-cell differentiation, which could be associated with decreased intestinal stem cell proliferative capacity. This study provides the identification of new targets involved in new molecular signaling mechanisms impaired by glucotoxicity that could be a useful tool for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Organoides , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Células Enteroendócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Enteroendócrinas/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Células L , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(7): 949-957, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745063

RESUMO

AIMS: Subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are characterized by an increased amount of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that promotes a continuous inflammatory stimulus. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of PCSK9-i on inflammatory biomarkers, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), and on early atherosclerosis damage analyzed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a cohort of FH subjects. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 56 FH subjects on high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe and with an off-target LDL-C. All subjects were placed on PCSK9-i therapy and obtained biochemical analysis as well as PWV evaluation at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i therapy. RESULTS: After six months of add-on PCSK9-i therapy, only 42.9% of FH subjects attained LDL-C targets. As expected, a significant reduction of LDL-C (- 49.61%, p < 0.001) was observed after PCSK9-i therapy. Neutrophil count (NC) and MHR were reduced by PCSK9-i (-13.82% and -10.47%, respectively, p value for both < 0.05) and PWV significantly decreased after PCSK9-i therapy (- 20.4%, p < 0.05). Finally, simple regression analyses showed that ∆ PWV was significantly associated with ∆ LDL-C (p < 0.01), ∆ NC and ∆ MHR (p value for both < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, PCSK9-i therapy significantly improved lipid and inflammatory profiles and PWV values in FH subjects; our results support the positive effect of PCSK9-i in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/fisiopatologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Ezetimiba/efeitos adversos , Ezetimiba/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Contagem de Leucócitos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 869-879, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be crucial in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We aimed to evaluate the effect of the inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9-i) on steatosis biomarkers such as triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and analyse the role of TG/HDL in this population before and after adding-on PCSK9-i. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this observational study, we evaluated 26 genetically confirmed FH patients with NAFLD and an LDL-C off-target despite high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe. All patients added PCSK9-i treatment and obtained biochemical analysis and TyG and HSI evaluation at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i. No difference of steatosis biomarkers was found after adding-on PCSK9-i therapy. In a secondary analysis, we divided the study population in two groups according to TG/HDL median value: high TG/HDL group (H-TG/HDL) and low TG/HDL group (L-TG/HDL). TyG and HSI were significantly lower in the L-TG/HDL than H-TG/HDL group (for TyG 9.05 ± 0.34 vs 9.51 ± 0.32; for HSI 38.43 ± 1.35 vs 41.35 ± 1.83, p value for both < 0.05). After six months of PCSK9-i therapy, TyG and HSI were significantly reduced in the L-TG/HDL group after PCSK9-i therapy (-7.5% and -8.4% respectively, p value for both < 0.05) and these biomarkers were lower compared to H-TG/HDL group (for TyG 8.37 ± 0.14 vs 9.19 ± 0.12; for HSI 35.19 ± 1.32 vs 39.48 ± 1.33, p value for both < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, PCSK9-i therapy significantly ameliorate steatosis biomarkers in FH patients with low TG/HDL; our results appear to be consistent with a beneficial role of PCSK9-i on steatosis biomarkers in FH subjects with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicações , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(2): e3367, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558162

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the role of TG to HDL ratio (TG/HDL) on atherosclerosis extension, defined as presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid and femoral plaque, in prediabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional, single centre study involving 440 prediabetes or newly diagnosed controlled T2D subjects. Participants underwent CAC analysis by computed tomography and carotid and femoral plaque evaluation by ultrasonography and were stratified in high TG/HDL (H-TG/HDL) or low TG/HDL (L-TG/HDL) group according to TG/HDL median value. We estimated atherosclerosis extension according to the number of involved vascular districts. RESULTS: CAC was higher in the H-TG/HDL group than L-TG/HDL group (29.15 [0.0-95.68] vs 0.0 [0.0-53.97] AU, P < .01) and CAC > 0 was more prevalent in the H-TG/HDL group than L-TG/HDL group (64.5% vs 45%, P < .001). Femoral atherosclerosis was higher in the H-TG/HDL group than L-TG/HDL group (57.3% vs 43.6%, P < .01). H-TG/HDL group exhibited a lower prevalence of subjects with 0-TWP compared to L-TG/HDL group (21.8% vs 38.6%, P < .01) and higher percentages of subjects with 2-TWP or 3-TWP than L-TG/HDL group (for 2-TWP 29.5% vs 21.5%, P < .05; for 3-TWP 32.7% vs 20.9%, P < .01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a H-TG/HDL was inversely associated to 0-TWP (P < .05) and positively associated with 2-TWP (P < .05) and 3-TWP (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TG/HDL is a marker of increased atherosclerotic extension in prediabetes and newly diagnosed T2D and may be useful to identify subjects with a higher cardiovascular risk profile.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic degenerative disease with a median survival of 2-5 years after diagnosis. Therefore, IPF patient identification represents an important and challenging clinical issue. Current research is still searching for novel reliable non-invasive biomarkers. Therefore, we explored the potential use of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs as biomarkers for IPF. METHODS: We first performed a whole transcriptome analysis using microarray (n = 14: 7 Control, 7 IPF), followed by the validation of selected transcripts through qPCRs in an independent cohort of 95 subjects (n = 95: 45 Control, 50 IPF). Diagnostic performance and transcript correlation with functional/clinical data were also analyzed. RESULTS: 1059 differentially expressed transcripts were identified. We confirmed the downregulation of FOXF1 adjacent non-coding developmental regulatory RNA (FENDRR) lncRNA, hsa_circ_0001924 circularRNA, utrophin (UTRN) and Y-box binding protein 3 (YBX3) mRNAs. The two analyzed non-coding RNAs correlated with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)% and Diffusing Capacity of the Lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO)% functional data, while coding RNAs correlated with smock exposure. All analyzed transcripts showed excellent performance in IPF identification with Area Under the Curve values above 0.87; the most outstanding one was YBX3: AUROC 0.944, CI 95% = 0.895-0.992, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 88.9%, p-value = 1.02 × 10-13. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified specific transcript signatures in IPF suggesting that validated transcripts and microarray data could be useful for the potential future identification of RNA molecules as non-invasive biomarkers for IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino
10.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171638

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects have high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and may be at high risk of erectile dysfunction and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of PCSK9-i on sexual function evaluated by the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire and on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in FH male subjects. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated 30 FH male patients on high-intensity statins plus ezetimibe and with an LDL-C off-target. All patients added PCSK9-i treatment and obtained clinical assessment at baseline and after six months of PCSK9-i. As expected, LDL-C significantly decreased after adding-on PCSK9-i (-48.73%, p < 0.001). MSHQ and PWV significantly improved after adding-on PCSK9-i (for MSHQ 93.63 ± 6.28 vs. 105.41 ± 5.86, p < 0.05; for PWV 9.86 ± 1.51 vs. 7.7 ± 1.42, p < 0.05); no significant change of IIEF-5 was found. Finally, a simple regression showed that ∆ MSHQ was significantly associated with ∆ LDL-C and ∆ PWV (p value for both <0.05). In conclusion, PCSK9-i therapy significantly improves lipid profile, PWV, and sexual function in FH male patients; our results support the favorable function of PCSK9-i on these parameters.

11.
Biomolecules ; 10(10)2020 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020399

RESUMO

The insulin resistance state of pancreatic α-cells seems to be related to glucagon hypersecretion in type 2 diabetes. Treatment that can improve the insulin sensitivity of α-cells could control glucagon levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive role of D-chiro-inositol (DCI), which has insulin receptor-sensitizer effects on insulin signaling pathways and glucagon secretion in pancreatic α-TC1 clone 6 cells. Cells were chronically treated with palmitate to induce insulin resistance in the presence/absence of DCI. DCI treatment improved the insulin signaling pathway and restored insulin-mediated glucagon suppression in α-TC1-6 cells exposed to palmitate. These results indicate that DCI treatment prevents the insulin resistance of α-TC1-6 cells chronically exposed to palmitate. Our data provide evidence that DCI could be useful to improve the insulin sensitivity of pancreatic α-cells in diabetes treatment.

13.
J Clin Lipidol ; 14(2): 231-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by increased cardiovascular risk; despite-high intensity statins, only few patients with FH achieve the recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of six-month add-on therapy with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9-i) or ezetimibe on lipid profile and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients with FH. METHODS: In this observational study, we evaluated 98 genetically confirmed patients with FH with an LDL-C off-target despite high-intensity statins with or without ezetimibe; of these, 53 patients (statin plus ezetimibe) added PCSK9-i (PCSK9-i group) and 45 (statin only) added ezetimibe (EZE group) per applicable guidelines and reimbursement rules. All patients obtained biochemical analysis and PWV evaluation at baseline and after six months of optimized treatment. RESULTS: After 6 months of add-on therapy, most patients achieving LDL-C targets were in the PCSK9-i group (77.3% PCSK9-i group vs 37.8% EZE group, P < .001). The PCSK9-i group achieved both a greater LDL-C and PWV reduction than the EZE group [-51% vs -22.8%, P < .001 and -15% vs -8.5%, P < .01, respectively]. In a linear regression analysis, we showed a coefficient (r) of 0.334 for the relationship between ΔPWV and ΔLDL (P < .05); moreover, in an exploratory analysis, the relationship appeared to be stronger in patients with FH without cardiovascular events (r = 0.422, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Lipid and PWV profiles in patients with FH significantly improved after addition of PCSK9-i or ezetimibe to high-intensity statin therapy; moreover, ΔPWV was associated with ΔLDL. Our results are consistent with a beneficial role of these novel therapies in FH subjects.

14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(6): 579-590, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546230

RESUMO

Objective: Statin therapy has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations; however, the pathophysiology of this association remains to be clarified. We investigated glucagon suppression and its relationship with insulin resistance in prediabetic subjects undergoing atorvastatin therapy; in addition, we studied molecular insulin signaling in pancreatic α-cells exposed to atorvastatin in vitro. Design and methods: Fifty subjects with prediabetes were divided into two groups based on atorvastatin therapy. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Early (0-30 min), late (30-120 min) and overall (0-120 min) glucagon suppression were evaluated. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI0-120). Insulin signaling pathway and insulin-mediated glucagon suppression were investigated in pancreatic αTC1-6 cells chronically exposed (24 or 48 h) to atorvastatin (100 ng/mL). Results: Individuals on statin therapy (n = 26) showed a significantly reduced early (0-30 min) (P = 0.003) and overall (0-120 min) (P = 0.01) glucagon suppression compared with controls (n = 24). In multivariate regression analysis, early glucagon suppression (0-30 min) exhibited a significant correlation with statin therapy. Regression analysis showed a significant association between ISI 0-120 and early0-30 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and overall0-120 (r = 0.38, P < 0.05) glucagon suppression. Moreover, in αTC1-6 cells atorvastatin treatment affected insulin-mediated glucagon suppression, insulin receptor phosphorylation and IRS-1-AKT pathway signaling. Conclusions: Prediabetic patients undergoing statin therapy exhibit impaired glucagon suppression associated with lower insulin sensitivity. Our data revealed a new molecular aspect behind the deregulation of insulin sensitivity secondary to statin exposure.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Glucagon/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue
15.
Cells ; 8(8)2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426413

RESUMO

We investigated the correlation of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) with markers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 1 h postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL after an oral glucose tolerance test. We stratified 282 subjects without a previous diagnosis of diabetes into three groups: 123 controls (NGT and 1 h postload glycemia <155 mg/dL), 84 NGT and 1 h postload glycemia ≥155 mg/dL (NGT 1 h high), and 75 subjects with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT). NGT 1 h high subjects exhibited lower esRAGE (0.36 ± 0.18 vs. 0.4 5 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) and higher S100A12 levels than controls (5684 (3193.2-8295.6) vs. 3960.1 (2101.8-7419), p < 0.05). Furthermore, they showed an increased pulse wave velocity (PWV) and intima-media thickness (IMT). No differences were found between the NGT 1 h high group and the IFG/IGT group regarding cardiometabolic profiles. After multiple regression analyses, esRAGE was associated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Age, HbA1c, and esRAGE were the determinants of IMT, whereas S100A12 and systolic pressure were the determinants of PWV. The NGT 1 h high group exhibited low esRAGE levels and an altered cardiometabolic profile. HbA1c, S100A12, and hs-CRP were associated with these alterations. In conclusion, subjects with NGT are not a homogeneous population, and they present different cardiovascular and glycometabolic risks.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diagnóstico Precoce , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético , Fatores de Risco
16.
Liver Int ; 39(9): 1742-1754, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver biopsy is the gold standard to detect non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and stage liver fibrosis. We aimed to identify differentially expressed mRNAs and non-coding RNAs in serum samples of biopsy-diagnosed mild and severe NAFLD patients with respect to controls and to each other. METHODS: We first performed a whole transcriptome analysis through microarray (n = 12: four Control: CTRL; four mild NAFLD: NAS ≤ 4 F0; four severe NAFLD NAS ≥ 5 F3), followed by validation of selected transcripts through real-time PCRs in an independent internal cohort of 88 subjects (63 NAFLD, 25 CTRL) and in an external cohort of 50 NAFLD patients. A similar analysis was also performed on liver biopsies and HepG2 cells exposed to oleate:palmitate or only palmitate (cellular model of NAFL/NASH) at intracellular/extracellular levels. Transcript correlation with histological/clinical data was also analysed. RESULTS: We identified several differentially expressed coding/non-coding RNAs in each group of the study cohort. We validated the up-regulation of UBE2V1, BNIP3L mRNAs, RP11-128N14.5 lncRNA, TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 coding/lncRNA in patients with NAS ≥ 5 (vs NAS ≤ 4) and the up-regulation of HBA2 mRNA, TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 coding/lncRNA in patients with Fibrosis stages = 3-4 (vs F = 0-2). In in vitro models: UBE2V1, RP11-128N14.5 and TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 had an increasing expression trend ranging from CTRL to oleate:palmitate or only palmitate-treated cells both at intracellular and extracellular level, while BNIP3L was up-regulated only at extracellular level. UBE2V1, RP11-128N14.5, TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 and HBA2 up-regulation was also observed at histological level. UBE2V1, RP11-128N14.5, BNIP3L and TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 correlated with histological/biochemical data. Combinations of TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 + Fibrosis Index based on the four factors (FIB-4) showed an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.891 (P = 3.00E-06) or TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 + Fibroscan (AUC = 0.892, P = 2.00E-06) improved the detection of F = 3-4 with respect to F = 0-2 fibrosis stages. CONCLUSIONS: We identified specific serum coding/non-coding RNA profiles in severe and mild NAFLD patients that possibly mirror the molecular mechanisms underlying NAFLD progression towards NASH/fibrosis. TGFB2/TGFB2-OT1 detection improves FIB-4/Fibroscan diagnostic performance for advanced fibrosis discrimination.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , RNA não Traduzido/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Endocr Rev ; 40(6): 1447-1467, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050706

RESUMO

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk for macrovascular complications, which represent the major cause of mortality. Despite effective treatment of established cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulant state), there remains a significant amount of unexplained CV risk. Insulin resistance is associated with a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors known collectively as the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome (IRS). Considerable evidence, reviewed herein, suggests that insulin resistance and the IRS contribute to this unexplained CV risk in patients with T2DM. Accordingly, CV outcome trials with pioglitazone have demonstrated that this insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione reduces CV events in high-risk patients with T2DM. In this review the roles of insulin resistance and the IRS in the development of atherosclerotic CV disease and the impact of the insulin-sensitizing agents and of other antihyperglycemic medications on CV outcomes are discussed.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia
18.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(8): 899-906, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963307

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is a key regulatory process that links hypercholesterolemia and immune mechanisms promoting atherosclerosis. Inflammatory biomarkers may be helpful to better define the atherosclerotic burden in patients with high cholesterol levels such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Our aim was to evaluate the concentration of S100A12 protein in FH patients and its association with pulse wave velocity (PWV). METHODS: We measured glucose and lipid profile, S100A12, sRAGE, esRAGE and PWV in 39 patients with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of FH and 39 hypercholesterolemic subjects without a clinical diagnosis of FH (Dutch score ≤ 3). All subjects were on statin treatment at the time of the enrollment. RESULTS: No difference of glucose and lipid profile was found in the two groups. FH patients had higher S100A12 plasma levels than non-FH subjects (12.87 ± 4.82 vs. 8.57 ± 4.87 ng/mL, p < 0.01). No difference of hs-CRP, sRAGE and esRAGE was found between the two groups. Also, PWV was higher in FH patients than non-FH subjects (8.63 ± 0.92 vs. 6.68 ± 0.73 m/s, p < 0.05). Finally, S100A12 was independently correlated with age (p < 0.01), genetic mutation (p < 0.01) and PWV (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: FH patients exhibited higher S100A12 levels than non-FH subjects. A novel vascular inflammation pathway, other than hs-CRP, might be useful to better characterize cardiovascular risk profile.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Proteína S100A12/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010049

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents the leading cause of liver disease in developed countries but its diffusion is currently also emerging in Asian countries, in South America and in other developing countries. It is progressively becoming one of the main diseases responsible for hepatic insufficiency, hepatocarcinoma and the need for orthotopic liver transplantation. NAFLD is linked with metabolic syndrome in a close and bidirectional relationship. To date, NAFLD is a diagnosis of exclusion, and liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. NAFLD pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial, mainly involving genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. New concepts are constantly arising in the literature promising new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. One of the challenges will be to better characterize not only NAFLD development but overall NAFLD progression, in order to better identify NAFLD patients at higher risk of metabolic, cardiovascular and neoplastic complications. This review analyses NAFLD epidemiology and the different prevalence of the disease in distinct groups, particularly according to sex, age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the work expands on the pathophysiology of NAFLD, examining multiple-hit pathogenesis and the role of different factors in hepatic steatosis development and progression: genetics, metabolic factors and insulin resistance, diet, adipose tissue, gut microbiota, iron deposits, bile acids and circadian clock. In conclusion, the current available therapies for NAFLD will be discussed.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(6): 2695-2703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The presence of periodontal disease (PD) in subjects affected by the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may affect their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the systemic impact of PD in MetS, by assessing measures of sub-clinical atherosclerosis and left ventricular mass and geometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 103 patients undergoing treatment for MetS were examined for confirmation of diagnosis, blood sampling, and measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVM), and relative wall thickness (RWT). All subjects underwent a detailed dental assessment, including measurements of DMFT (decayed-missing-filled teeth) and periodontal parameters. RESULTS: Ten patients (10%) were diagnosed with healthy-mild periodontitis, 38 patients (37%) were diagnosed in the moderate periodontitis group, and 55 (53%) had severe periodontitis. A total of 37% of subjects were affected by dental caries. Linear regression analysis revealed that patients with severe PD had increased average ventricular RWT (adjusted p = 0.032). Average full mouth probing pocket depth (PPD) was also associated with RWT (adjusted p = 0.006). No associations between PD and c-IMT, PWV, and LVM were detected after adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that periodontitis may be associated with concentric left ventricular remodeling, a predictive index of cardiovascular events. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The presence of periodontitis in patients with MetS might have an effect on left ventricular geometry. These findings stress the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and management of periodontitis in patients with MetS. TRAIL REGISTRATION: NCT03297749.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Periodontite/complicações , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , Rigidez Vascular
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