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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(11): 1731-1735, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586532

RESUMO

Aortic regurgitation (AR) continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Although echocardiographic parameters are well established for the adults, there are no clear cut-off values for AR severity in children. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is considered a "gold standard" for a quantitative evaluation of the AR, but it is not widely available. This study assesses which echo parameter can accurately define AR severity as assessed by CMR in pediatric patients. A total of 27 pediatric patients (12 ± 3 years, range 6 to 18 years) with different degree of AR underwent echo assessment within an average of 35 days from CMR. CMR included phase-contrast velocity-encoded imaging for the measurement of regurgitant fraction (RF). Severe AR was defined as RF >33%. Echo evaluation included vena contracta, pressure half time, the ratio between the AR jet and the left ventricular outflow tract diameter (jet/left ventricular outflow tract), presence of holodiastolic reversal flow in abdominal aorta, the ratio between the velocity-time integral of the reversal flow over the forward flow in descending aorta (echoRF). Among the studied parameters, the strongest predictor of severe AR, as assessed by CMR, was echoRF. Receiver-operating characteristic curve showed, for a cutoff >0.38, an area under the curve of 0.886 (p <0.0001), a sensitivity of 71%, and a specificity of 100%. Correlation coefficient between echoRF and RF was R = 0.929 (p <0.0001). In conclusion, echoRF is a strong echo-Doppler marker of severe AR in the pediatric population. This parameter should be routinely added in the standard echo evaluation of pediatric patients with AR.

3.
J Clin Med ; 8(8)2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD) carries worse prognosis in childhood. 2-dimensional (2-D) left atrial (LA) strain accurately categorizes DD in adults but its role in children is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LA strain and strain rate could diagnose and classify DD in children with dilated (CMD), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies (CM). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study includes 136 children (aged 8.8 ± 6 years): 44 with DCM, 40 with HCM, 7 with RCM and 45 healthy controls (CTRL). They underwent standard echocardiographic examination and 2-D speckle-tracking analyses (LV longitudinal peak systolic strain (LS), LA peak systolic strain and strain rate). No significant differences in mitral E/A and pulmonary S/D ratios were observed among the four groups. Although E/E' and indexed left atrial volumes were found to be significantly higher in HCM, DCM and RCM compared to CTRL (p < 0.001), they showed no significant difference among the three CM groups. LV LS values were significantly reduced in CM vs CTRL (p < 0.001) and in DCM vs HCM (p < 0.01), with no other differences between the remaining groups. LA peak systolic strain and strain rate values showed a steady and significant decrease with worsening of DD. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves showed area under the curve of 0.976 (p < 0.001) for LA strain and 0.946 (p < 0.001) for LA strain rate, to distinguish CTRL from CMs. CONCLUSIONS: LA strain and strain rate could be a promising tool to better understand and classify DD in children with cardiomyopathies, opening the way to its clinical use.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(4): e007805, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is associated with poor clinical outcome in childhood. Standard diagnostic criteria are still controversial, especially in young patients. Recent studies in adults demonstrated that left ventricular (LV) twist is abnormal in LVNC, but it has not been investigated in pediatric patients to date. Our aim was to assess LV cardiac mechanics, LV twist, and the prevalence of rigid body rotation, using 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, in young patients with LVNC and LV hypertrabeculation. METHODS: Forty-seven children (age range: 0-18 years) were assessed for suspected LVNC. All patients underwent 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla (T). Twenty-three patients fulfilled the cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic criteria for LVNC (LVNC group), while the remaining 24 did not and were included in the LV hypertrabeculation group. Forty-seven age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. RESULTS: The average LV twist was significantly reduced in LVNC compared with control and LV hypertrabeculation. Rigid body rotation was recognized in 13 (56%) children with LVNC and in 1 (4%) child with LV hypertrabeculation and a strong family history for LVNC. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that LV twist is an independent predictor of LVNC ( P=0.006; coefficient=0.462). The receiver operating characteristics curve showed that LV twist had optimal predictive value to discriminate patients with LVNC (cutoff value <5.8°; sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 92%; area under the curve=0.914). CONCLUSIONS: LV twist has good predictive value in diagnosing LVNC in young patients. Our findings strongly support the routine use of 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in the evaluation of young patients with suspected LVNC.

6.
Ann Pharmacother ; 53(8): 786-793, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788973

RESUMO

Background: The current CHEST guidelines recommend the use of antithrombotic therapy, either aspirin or warfarin, as a primary thromboembolic complications (TECs) prophylaxis in patients who undergo Fontan procedure, without specification on drug selection or duration of therapy. Objective: To investigate the incidence rate of late TECs, occurring after 1-year post-Fontan procedure and to assess the difference in rate of late TECs between warfarin and aspirin. Methods: A retrospective cohort study included patients who had Fontan procedures between 1985-2010 at our institution. Patients were stratified according to the antithrombotic regimen-warfarin, aspirin, or no therapy-at the time of TECs. Results: We screened 499 patients who underwent Fontan procedures; 431 procedures met the inclusion criteria. Over a median follow-up of 13.6 years (IQR= 8.7), freedom from late TECs at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years was 97.54%, 96.90%, 90.78%, and 88.07%, respectively. There was no difference in late TEC incidence rates per 1000 patient-years between warfarin and aspirin: 7.82 and 5.83 events, respectively; rate ratio= 1.34 (95% CI= 0.68-2.60). Warfarin was associated with a higher major bleeding incidence rate per 1000 patient-years: 3.70 versus 2.91 events with aspirin; rate ratio= 1.27 (95% CI= 0.49 to 3.29). Conclusion and Relevance: The incidence rate of late clinical TECs post-Fontan procedure in our population is low. Warfarin was not superior to aspirin for prevention of late TECs. Yet warfarin was associated with a higher rate of bleeding. This finding suggests a simpler antithrombotic regimen for prevention of TEC after 1-year post-Fontan procedure.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 278: 76-83, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate risk stratification of patients with Ebstein's anomaly (EA) is crucial. Aim of the study was to assess the prognostic value of echocardiography, including 2D speckle tracking (STE) derived myocardial deformation indices, for predicting outcome in pediatric and young adult unrepaired EA patients. METHODS: Fifty consecutive EA patients (1 day-18 years, 52% males) underwent echocardiography and were followed for a mean follow-up of 60 ±â€¯41 months for clinical outcome (ventricular tachyarrhythmia, heart failure, need for surgery and/or death). Clinical and instrumental features of EA patients with stable disease were compared with those of EA patients with progressive disease. RESULTS: Twenty-four (48%) EA patients had progressive disease. A more severe grade of tricuspid valve (TV) displacement [59.7 mm/m2 (IQR 27.5-83) vs 28.4 mm/m2 (IQR 17.5-47); p = 0.002], a lower functional right ventricle (RV) fractional area change (FAC) (29.2 ±â€¯7.7% vs 36.7 ±â€¯9.6%; p = 0.004), a higher Celermajer index [0.8 (IQR 0.7-0.98) vs 0.55 (IQR 0.4-0.7); p = 0.000], a lower functional RV-longitudinal strain (-10.2 ±â€¯6.2% vs -16.2 ±â€¯7.3%; p = 0.003) and a lower right atrium peak systolic strain (RA-PALS) (25.2 ±â€¯13.5% vs 36.3 ±â€¯12.5%; p = 0.004) were detected in progressive disease group compared to stable one, respectively. Functional RV-FAC and RA-PALS were independent predictors of progressive disease at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated for the first time the prognostic role of RV-FAC and RA-PALS in a long-term follow-up of EA young patients. A complete echocardiographic evaluation should be regular part in the evaluation and risk-stratification of EA children.


Assuntos
Anomalia de Ebstein/diagnóstico por imagem , Anomalia de Ebstein/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anomalia de Ebstein/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(1): 12-21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterization is the gold-standard modality for investigation of cardiovascular morphology before bidirectional cavopulmonary connection, but requires general anaesthesia and is associated with procedural risk. AIMS: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and safety of computed tomography in diagnosing great vessel stenosis/hypoplasia compared with cardiac catheterization and surgical findings. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients (10 after Norwood stage I) underwent computed tomography before surgery between January 2010 and June 2016; 16 of these patients also underwent cardiac catheterization. Proximal and distal pulmonary artery, aortic isthmus and descending aorta measurements, radiation dose and complications were compared via Bland-Altman analyses and correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The accuracy of computed tomography in detecting stenosis/hypoplasia of either pulmonary artery was 96.1% compared with surgical findings. For absolute vessel measurements and Z-scores, there was high correlation between computed tomography and angiography at catheterization (r=0.98 for both) and a low mean bias (0.71mm and 0.48; respectively). The magnitude of intertechnique differences observed for individual patients was low (95% of the values ranged between -0.9 and 2.3mm and between -0.7 and 1.7, respectively). Four patients (25%) experienced minor complications from cardiac catheterization, whereas there were no complications from computed tomography. Patients tended to receive a higher radiation dose with cardiac catheterization than with computed tomography, even after exclusion of interventional catheterization procedures (median 2.5 mSv [interquartile range 1.3 to 3.4 mSv] versus median 1.3 mSv [interquartile range 0.9 to 2.6 mSv], respectively; P=0.13). All computed tomography scans were performed without sedation. CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography may replace cardiac catheterization in identification of great vessel stenosis/hypoplasia before bidirectional cavopulmonary connection when no intervention before surgery is required. Computed tomography carries lower morbidity, can be performed without sedation and may be associated with less radiation.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Técnica de Fontan , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Aorta/anormalidades , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/efeitos adversos , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Artéria Pulmonar/anormalidades , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 24): S2874-S2881, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305947

RESUMO

Transcatheter closure has become an accepted alternative to surgical repair for ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD). However, large ASDs (>38 mm) and defects with deficient rims are usually not offered transcatheter closure but are referred for surgical closure. Transcatheter closure also remains controversial for other complicated ASDs with comorbidities, additional cardiac features and in small children. This article not only provides a comprehensive, up-to-date description of the current indications and contra-indications for ASD device closure, but also further explores the current limits for transcatheter closure in controversial cases. With the devices and technology currently available, several cohort studies have reported successful percutaneous closure in the above-mentioned complex cases. However the feasibility and safety of transcatheter technique needs to be confirmed through larger studies and longer follow-up.

12.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 20, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness trial "Stress echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE in and beyond coronary artery disease. The core protocol also includes 4-site simplified scan of B-lines by lung ultrasound, useful to assess pulmonary congestion. PURPOSE: To provide web-based upstream quality control and harmonization of B-lines reading criteria. METHODS: 60 readers (all previously accredited for regional wall motion, 53 B-lines naive) from 52 centers of 16 countries of SE 2020 network read a set of 20 lung ultrasound video-clips selected by the Pisa lab serving as reference standard, after taking an obligatory web-based learning 2-h module ( http://se2020.altervista.org ). Each test clip was scored for B-lines from 0 (black lung, A-lines, no B-lines) to 10 (white lung, coalescing B-lines). The diagnostic gold standard was the concordant assessment of two experienced readers of the Pisa lab. The answer of the reader was considered correct if concordant with reference standard reading ±1 (for instance, reference standard reading of 5 B-lines; correct answer 4, 5, or 6). The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥ 90%) with R value (intra-class correlation coefficient) between reference standard and recruiting center) > 0.90. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient statistics. RESULTS: All 60 readers were successfully accredited: 26 (43%) on first, 24 (40%) on second, and 10 (17%) on third attempt. The average diagnostic accuracy of the 60 accredited readers was 95%, with R value of 0.95 compared to reference standard reading. The 53 B-lines naive scored similarly to the 7 B-lines expert on first attempt (90 versus 95%, p = NS). Compared to the step-1 of quality control for regional wall motion abnormalities, the mean reading time per attempt was shorter (17 ± 3 vs 29 ± 12 min, p < .01), the first attempt success rate was higher (43 vs 28%, p < 0.01), and the drop-out of readers smaller (0 vs 28%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based learning is highly effective for teaching and harmonizing B-lines reading. Echocardiographers without previous experience with B-lines learn quickly.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Controle de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 272: 64-69, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measures of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function are known predictors of mortality after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. We aimed to characterise LV reverse remodelling achievable with ramipril therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A blinded post-hoc analysis of baseline and 6-month follow-up echocardiograms from the APPROPRIATE (ISRCTN: 97515585) randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of ramipril therapy was performed in 64 patients: 32 in ramipril and 32 in placebo group. Tissue Doppler systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities, mitral inflow velocities and time intervals were measured. Left atrial area and left atrial emptying fraction were calculated. There was significant increase in long axis shortening mean (standard deviation); MAPSE [1.9 (4.2) mm vs -0.2 (3.7) mm; p = 0.030], peak lateral systolic velocity; S' lateral [1.0 (2.0) cm/s vs -0.3 (2.2) cm/s; p = 0.025], peak lateral early diastolic velocity; E' lateral [0.57 (2.4) cm/s vs -3.3 (3.9) cm/s; p < 0.001], transmitral to lateral mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio; E/E' lateral [-0.7 (1.9) vs 1.5 (1.9); p < 0.001] over the study period in the ramipril compared to the placebo group. Significantly higher measurements were observed in the ramipril arm of the subgroup of patients with right ventricular restrictive physiology in terms of peak late diastolic velocity; A [5.9 (13.5) cm/s vs -5.8 (12.5) cm/s; p = 0.041] and early to late diastolic transmitral velocity ratio; E/A [-0.18 (0.42) vs 0.23 (0.48); p = 0.037]. CONCLUSION: Six months' ramipril treatment appears to limit progression of both diastolic and systolic LV function in adults late after tetralogy of Fallot repair. With increased appreciation that even subtle LV disease predicts tetralogy of Fallot outcomes, further clinical trials of drug therapies are justified.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Ramipril/uso terapêutico , Tetralogia de Fallot/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Ramipril/farmacologia , Método Simples-Cego , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 19(10): 1077-1098, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084968

RESUMO

Advances in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease have led to a marked improvement in the survival of adult with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. However, ACHD patients are a heterogeneous population, with a large spectrum of anatomic substrates even within specific lesions. In addition, the nature of previous surgery and other intervention is highly variable rendering each patient unique and residual anatomic and haemodynamic abnormalities are very common. As the ACHD population continues to age, acquired heart disease will also require cardiac imaging assessment. It is increasingly recognized in ACHD community that the diagnostic utility of a multimodality cardiovascular approach is greater than the sum of individual tests. In ACHD patients, diagnostic information can be obtained using a variety of diagnostic tools. The aims of this document are to describe the role of each diagnostic modality in the care of ACHD patients and to provide guidelines for a multimodality approach. The goal should be to provide the most appropriate and cost-effective diagnostic pathway for each individual ACHD patient.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Adulto , Humanos
15.
Heart Fail Clin ; 14(3): 283-295, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966627

RESUMO

The right ventricle plays a major role in congenital heart disease. This article describes the right ventricular mechanics in some selected congenital heart diseases affecting the right ventricle in different ways: tetralogy of Fallot, Ebstein anomaly, and the systemic right ventricle.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Heart Fail Clin ; 14(3): 443-465, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966641

RESUMO

The Right Heart International Network is a multicenter international study aiming to prospectively collect exercise Doppler echocardiography tests of the right heart pulmonary circulation unit (RHPCU) in large cohorts of healthy subjects, elite athletes, and individuals at risk of or with overt pulmonary hypertension. It is going to provide standardization of exercise stress echocardiography of RHPCU and explore the full physiopathologic response.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 18(12): 1301-1310, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045589

RESUMO

Aims: This European Association Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Expert Consensus document aims at defining the main quantitative information on cardiac structure and function that needs to be included in standard echocardiographic report following recent ASE/EACVI chamber quantification, diastolic function, and heart valve disease recommendations. The document focuses on general reporting and specific pathological conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery and valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and systemic diseases. Methods and results: Demographic data (age, body surface area, blood pressure, and heart rhythm and rate), type (vendor and model) of ultrasound system used and image quality need to be reported. In addition, measurements should be normalized for body size. Reference normal values, derived by ASE/EACVI recommendations, shall always be reported to differentiate normal from pathological conditions. This Expert Consensus document suggests avoiding the surveillance of specific variable using different ultrasound techniques (e.g. in echo labs with high expertise in left ventricular ejection fraction by 3D and not by 2D echocardiography). The report should be also tailored in relation with different cardiac pathologies, quality of images, and needs of the caregivers. Conclusion: The conclusion should be concise reflecting the status of left ventricular structure and function, the presence of left atrial and/or aortic dilation, right ventricular dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension, leading to an objective communication with the patient health caregiver. Variation over time should be considered carefully, taking always into account the consistency of the parameters used for comparison.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/normas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/normas , Consenso , Diástole/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Referência , Sociedades Médicas
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 479-485, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial "Stress Echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE beyond coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was control quality and harmonize reading criteria. METHODS: One reader from 78 centers of the SE 2020 network asked for credentials to read a set of 20 SE video-clips selected by the core lab. All aspiring centers met the pre-requisite of high-volume and the years of experience in SE ranged from 5 to 31years (mean value 18years). The diagnostic gold standard was a reading by the core lab. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥90%). RESULTS: Of the initial 78 who started, 57 completed the first attempt: individual readers' score on first attempt ranged from 07/20 to 20/20 (accuracy from 35% to 100%, mean 78.7±13%) and 44 readers passed it. There was a very poor correlation between years of experience and the reader's score on first attempt (r=-0.161, p=0.231). Of the 13 readers who failed the first attempt, 12 took it again after the web-based session and their accuracy improved (74% vs. 96%, p<0.001). The kappa inter-observer agreement before and after web-based training was 0.59 on first attempt and rose to 0.91 on the last attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In SE reading, the volume of activity or years of experience is not synonymous with diagnostic quality. Qualitative analysis and operator-dependence can become a limiting weakness in clinical practice, in the absence of strict pathways of learning, credentialing and audit.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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