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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(6): 744-754, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients presenting with syncope to the emergency department (ED) is largely unknown. This information, however, is necessary to balance the potential medical benefit or harm of systematic PE screening in patients presenting with syncope to the ED. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the prevalence of PE in patients with syncope. METHODS: Unselected patients presenting with syncope to the ED were prospectively enrolled in a diagnostic multicenter study. Pre-test clinical probability for PE was assessed using the 2-level Wells score and the results of D-dimer testing using age-adapted cutoffs. Presence of PE was evaluated by imaging modalities, when ordered as part of the clinical assessment by the treating ED physician or by long-term follow-up data. RESULTS: Long-term follow-up was complete in 1,380 patients (99%) at 360 days and 1,156 patients (83%) at 720 days. Among 1,397 patients presenting with syncope to the ED, PE was detected at presentation in 19 patients (1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87% to 2.11%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5% to 1.5%). In the subgroup of patients hospitalized (47%), PE was detected at presentation in 15 patients (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.4% to 3.7%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4% to 2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: PE seems to be a rather uncommon cause of syncope among patients presenting to the ED. Therefore, systematic PE-screening in all patients with syncope does not seem warranted. (BAsel Syncope EvaLuation Study [BASEL IX]; NCT01548352).

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 844-851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218825

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with both acute and chronic heart failure, but the use of different image acquisition methods, inconsistent reporting of the technique employed and variable quantification of 'B-lines,' have all made it difficult to compare published reports. We therefore need to ensure that future studies utilizing lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure adopt a standardized approach to reporting the quantification of pulmonary congestion. Strategies to improve patient care by use of lung ultrasound in the assessment of heart failure have been difficult to develop. In the present document, key aspects of standardization are discussed, including equipment used, number of chest zones assessed, the method of quantifying B-lines, the presence and timing of additional investigations (e.g. natriuretic peptides and echocardiography) and the impact of therapy. This consensus report includes a checklist to provide standardization in the preparation, review and analysis of manuscripts. This will serve as a guide for investigators and clinicians and enhance the quality and transparency of lung ultrasound research.

3.
Ann Lab Med ; 39(5): 454-463, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Biologically active adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) is an emerging biomarker for sepsis. We explored whether bio-ADM concentration could predict severity, organ failure, and 30-day mortality in septic patients. METHODS: In 215 septic patients (109 patients with sepsis; 106 patients with septic shock), bio-ADM concentration was measured at diagnosis of sepsis, using sphingotest bio-ADM (Sphingotec GmbH, Hennigsdorf, Germany) and analyzed in terms of sepsis severity, vasopressor use, and 30-day mortality. The number of organ failures, sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and 30-day mortality were compared according to bio-ADM quartiles. RESULTS: Bio-ADM concentration was significantly higher in patients with septic shock, vasopressor use, and non-survivors than in patients with solitary sepsis, no vasopressor use, and survivors, respectively (all P<0.0001). Bio-ADM quartiles were associated with the number of organ failures (P<0.0001), as well as SOFA cardiovascular, renal, coagulation, and liver subscores (all P<0.05). The 30-day mortality rate showed a stepwise increase in each bio-ADM quartile (all P<0.0001). Bio-ADM concentration and SOFA score equally predicted the 30-day mortality (area under the curve: 0.827 vs 0.830). CONCLUSIONS: Bio-ADM could serve as a useful and objective biomarker to predict severity, organ failure, and 30-day mortality in septic patients.


Assuntos
Adrenomedulina/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/complicações , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Circulation ; 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The utility of B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentrations for diagnosis and risk-stratification of syncope is incompletely understood. METHODS: We evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of BNP, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and hs-cTnI concentrations, alone and against the ones of clinical assessments, in patients >45years presenting with syncope to the emergency department (ED) in a prospective diagnostic multicenter study. BNP, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations were measured in a blinded fashion. Cardiac syncope, as adjudicated by two physicians based on all information available including cardiac work-up and 1-year follow-up, was the diagnostic endpoint. The EGSYS, a syncope-specific diagnostic score, served as the diagnostic comparator. Death and MACE at 30 and 720 days were the prognostic endpoints. MACE were defined as death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, life-threatening arrhythmia, implantation of pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator, acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, stroke/transient ischemic attack, intracranial bleeding or valvular surgery. The ROSE, OESIL, San Fransisco Syncope Rule (SFSR) and Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) served as the prognostic comparators. RESULTS: Among 1538 patients eligible for diagnostic assessment, cardiac syncope was the adjudicated diagnosis in 234 patients (15.2%). BNP, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and hs-cTnI were significantly higher in cardiac syncope vs. other causes (p<0.01). The diagnostic accuracy for cardiac syncope, as quantified by the area under the curve (AUC), was 0.77-0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.81) for all four biomarkers, and superior to the one of EGSYS (AUC 0.68 [95%-CI 0.65-0.71], p<0.001). Combining BNP/NT-proBNP with hs-cTnT/hs-cTnI further improved diagnostic accuracy to an AUC of 0.81 (p<0.01). BNP, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and hs-cTnI cut-offs, achieving pre-defined thresholds for sensitivity and specificity (95%), allowed for rule-in or rule-out of ~30% of all patients. A total of 450 MACE occurred during follow-up. The prognostic accuracy of BNP, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnI, and hs-cTnT for MACE was moderate-to-good (AUC 0.75-0.79), superior to ROSE, OESIL and SFSR, and inferior to the CSRS. CONCLUSIONS: BNP, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and hs-cTnI concentrations provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information in ED patients with syncope. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01548352.

5.
Clin Chem ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of urgent abdominal pain (UAP) is challenging. Most causes of UAP are associated with extensive inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that quantifying inflammation using interleukin-6 and/or procalcitonin would provide incremental value in the emergency diagnosis of UAP. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated prospective, multicenter diagnostic study enrolling patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute abdominal pain. Clinical judgment of the treating physician regarding the presence of UAP was quantified using a visual analog scale after initial clinical and physician-directed laboratory assessment, and again after imaging. Two independent specialists adjudicated the final diagnosis and the classification as UAP (life-threatening, needing urgent surgery and/or hospitalization for acute medical reasons) using all information including histology and follow-up. Interleukin-6 and procalcitonin were measured blinded in a central laboratory. RESULTS: UAP was adjudicated in 376 of 1038 (36%) patients. Diagnostic accuracy for UAP was higher for interleukin-6 [area under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77-0.82] vs procalcitonin (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.62-0.68) and clinical judgment (AUC, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.65-0.72; both P < 0.001). Combined assessment of interleukin-6 and clinical judgment increased the AUC at presentation to 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) and after imaging to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.89) and improved the correct identification of patients with and without UAP (net improvement in mean predicted probability: presentation, +19%; after imaging, +15%; P < 0.001). Decision curve analysis documented incremental value across the full range of pretest probabilities. A clinical judgment/interleukin-6 algorithm ruled out UAP with a sensitivity of 97% and ruled in UAP with a specificity of 93%. CONCLUSIONS: Interleukin-6 significantly improves the early diagnosis of UAP in the ED.

6.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 354, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenomedullin (ADM) regulates vascular tone and endothelial permeability during sepsis. Levels of circulating biologically active ADM (bio-ADM) show an inverse relationship with blood pressure and a direct relationship with vasopressor requirement. In the present prospective observational multinational Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Sepsis and Septic Shock 1 (, AdrenOSS-1) study, we assessed relationships between circulating bio-ADM during the initial intensive care unit (ICU) stay and short-term outcome in order to eventually design a biomarker-guided randomized controlled trial. METHODS: AdrenOSS-1 was a prospective observational multinational study. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included organ failure as defined by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, organ support with focus on vasopressor/inotropic use, and need for renal replacement therapy. AdrenOSS-1 included 583 patients admitted to the ICU with sepsis or septic shock. RESULTS: Circulating bio-ADM levels were measured upon admission and at day 2. Median bio-ADM concentration upon admission was 80.5 pg/ml [IQR 41.5-148.1 pg/ml]. Initial SOFA score was 7 [IQR 5-10], and 28-day mortality was 22%. We found marked associations between bio-ADM upon admission and 28-day mortality (unadjusted standardized HR 2.3 [CI 1.9-2.9]; adjusted HR 1.6 [CI 1.1-2.5]) and between bio-ADM levels and SOFA score (p < 0.0001). Need of vasopressor/inotrope, renal replacement therapy, and positive fluid balance were more prevalent in patients with a bio-ADM > 70 pg/ml upon admission than in those with bio-ADM ≤ 70 pg/ml. In patients with bio-ADM > 70 pg/ml upon admission, decrease in bio-ADM below 70 pg/ml at day 2 was associated with recovery of organ function at day 7 and better 28-day outcome (9.5% mortality). By contrast, persistently elevated bio-ADM at day 2 was associated with prolonged organ dysfunction and high 28-day mortality (38.1% mortality, HR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.8). CONCLUSIONS: AdrenOSS-1 shows that early levels and rapid changes in bio-ADM estimate short-term outcome in sepsis and septic shock. These data are the backbone of the design of the biomarker-guided AdrenOSS-2 trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393781 . Registered on March 19, 2015.


Assuntos
Adrenomedulina/análise , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Sepse/mortalidade , Adrenomedulina/sangue , Idoso , Bélgica , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Itália , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Países Baixos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(6): 1424-1433, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450469

RESUMO

Introduction: Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. The Kidney in Sepsis and Septic Shock (Kid-SSS) study evaluated the value of proenkephalin A 119-159 (penkid)-a sensitive biomarker of glomerular function, drawn within 24 hours upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and analyzed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay-for kidney events in sepsis and septic shock. Methods: The Kid-SSS study was a substudy of Adrenomedullin and Outcome in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock (AdrenOSS) (NCT02393781), a prospective, observational, multinational study including 583 patients admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis or septic shock and a validation cohort of 525 patients from the French and euRopean Outcome reGistry in Intensive Care Units (FROG-ICU) study. The primary endpoint was major adverse kidney events (MAKEs) at day 7, composite of death, renal replacement therapy, and persistent renal dysfunction. The secondary endpoints included AKI, transient AKI, worsening renal function (WRF), and 28-day mortality. Results: Median age was 66 years (interquartile range 55-75), and 28-day mortality was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19%-25%). Of the patients, 293 (50.3%) were in shock upon ICU admission. Penkid was significantly elevated in patients with MAKEs, persistent AKI, and WRF (median = 65 [IQR = 45-106] vs. 179 [114-242]; 53 [39-70] vs. 133 [79-196] pmol/l; and 70 [47-121] vs. 174 [93-242] pmol/l, all P < 0.0001), also after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.8-6.0], 3.9 [95% CI = 2.1-7.2], and 3.4 [95% CI = 1.9-6.2], all P < 0.0001). Penkid increase preceded elevation of serum creatinine with WRF and was low in renal recovery. Conclusion: Admission penkid concentration was associated with MAKEs, AKI, and WRF in a timely manner in septic patients.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.

9.
Europace ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137300

RESUMO

Aims: It is unknown whether cardiac syncope, and possibly also other syncope aetiologies exhibit circadian, weekly, seasonal, and temperature-dependent patterns. Methods and results: We prospectively recorded the exact time, date, and outside temperature of syncope of patients >40 years old presenting with syncope to the emergency department in a diagnostic multicentre study. Two independent cardiologists/emergency physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis based on all information becoming available during clinical work-up including 1-year follow-up. Among 1230 patients, the adjudicated aetiology was cardiac in 14.6%, reflex in 39.2%, orthostatic in 25.7%, other non-cardiac in 9.7%, and unknown in 10.8% of patients. All syncope aetiologies occurred much more frequently during the day when compared with the night (P < 0.01). While reflex and orthostatic syncope showed a broad peak of prevalence with 80.9% of these events occurring between 4 am and 4 pm, cardiac syncope showed a narrow peak of prevalence with 70.1% of all events occurring between 8 am and 2 pm. A weekly pattern was present for most syncope aetiologies, with events occurring mainly from Monday to Friday (P < 0.01). Reflex syncope displayed a seasonal rhythm and was more common in winter (P < 0.01), while cardiac syncope stayed constant over the year. Syncope occurred most often when the outside temperature was coldest. Overall the patterns observed for cardiac syncope were similar to the patterns observed for its differential diagnosis. Conclusion: Syncope aetiologies in patients >40 years old display circadian, weekly, seasonal, and temperature-dependent patterns. Unfortunately, these patterns do not allow to reliably differentiate cardiac syncope from other aetiologies.

11.
Crit Care Med ; 46(9): 1421-1429, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To derive and validate a predictive algorithm integrating a nomogram-based prediction of the pretest probability of infection with a panel of serum biomarkers, which could robustly differentiate sepsis/septic shock from noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome. DESIGN: Multicenter prospective study. SETTING: At emergency department admission in five University hospitals. PATIENTS: Nine-hundred forty-seven adults in inception cohort and 185 adults in validation cohort. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A nomogram, including age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, recent antimicrobial therapy, hyperthermia, leukocytosis, and high C-reactive protein values, was built in order to take data from 716 infected patients and 120 patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome to predict pretest probability of infection. Then, the best combination of procalcitonin, soluble phospholipase A2 group IIA, presepsin, soluble interleukin-2 receptor α, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 was applied in order to categorize patients as "likely" or "unlikely" to be infected. The predictive algorithm required only procalcitonin backed up with soluble phospholipase A2 group IIA determined in 29% of the patients to rule out sepsis/septic shock with a negative predictive value of 93%. In a validation cohort of 158 patients, predictive algorithm reached 100% of negative predictive value requiring biomarker measurements in 18% of the population. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed and validated a high-performing, reproducible, and parsimonious algorithm to assist emergency department physicians in distinguishing sepsis/septic shock from noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2018 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis remains worldwide one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both term and preterm infants. Lower mortality rates are related to timely diagnostic evaluation and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy. Blood culture, as gold standard examination for sepsis, has several limitations for early diagnosis, so that sepsis biomarkers could play an important role in this regard. This study was aimed to compare the value of the two biomarkers presepsin and procalcitonin in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study performed in Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang, Indonesia, in 51 neonates that fulfill the criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with blood culture as diagnostic gold standard for sepsis. RESULTS: At reviewer operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, using a presepsin cutoff of 706.5 pg/mL, the obtained area under the curve (AUCs) were sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 68.8%, positive predictive value = 85.7%, negative predictive value = 68.8%, positive likelihood ratio = 2.75, negative likelihood ratio = 0.21, and accuracy = 80.4%. On the other hand, with a procalcitonin cutoff value of 161.33 pg/mL the obtained AUCs showed: sensitivity = 68.6%, specificity = 62.5%, positive predictive value = 80%, negative predictive value = 47.6%, positive likelihood ratio = 1.83, the odds ratio negative = 0.5, and accuracy = 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: In early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, compared with procalcitonin, presepsin seems to provide better early diagnostic value with consequent possible faster therapeutical decision making and possible positive impact on outcome of neonates.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 107(4): 347-361, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about treatments provided by advanced life support (ALS) ambulance teams to patients with acute heart failure (AHF) during the prehospital phase, and their influence on short-term outcome. We evaluated the effect of prehospital care in consecutive patients diagnosed with AHF in Spanish emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: We selected patients from the EAHFE registry arriving at the ED by ALS ambulances with available follow-up data. We recorded specific prehospital ALS treatments (supplemental oxygen, diuretics, nitroglycerin, non-invasive ventilation) and patients were grouped according to whether they received low- (LIPHT; 0/1 treatments) or high-intensity prehospital therapy (HIPHT; > 1 treatment) for AHF. We also recorded 46 covariates. The primary endpoint was all-cause 7-day mortality, and secondary endpoints were prolonged hospitalisation (> 10 days) and in-hospital and 30-day mortality. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated to compare the groups. RESULTS: We included 1493 patients [mean age 80.7 (10) years; women 54.8%]. Prehospital treatment included supplemental oxygen in 71.2%, diuretics in 27.9%, nitroglycerin in 13.5%, and non-invasive ventilation in 5.3%. The LIPHT group included 1041 patients (70.0%) with an unadjusted OR for 7-day mortality of 1.770 (95% CI 1.115-2.811; p = 0.016), and 1.939 (95% CI 1.114-3.287, p = 0.014) after adjustment for 16 discordant covariables. The adjusted ORs for all secondary endpoints were always > 1 in the LIPHT group, but none reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Patients finally diagnosed with AHF at then ED that have received LIPHT by the ALS ambulance teams have a poorer short-term outcome, especially during the first 7 days.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Doença Aguda , Suporte Vital Cardíaco Avançado/efeitos adversos , Suporte Vital Cardíaco Avançado/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 30(1): 31-38, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This was a study of positive psychological traits in a group of rural Italians aged 90 to 101 years, and their children or other family members. DESIGN: Mixed-methods quantitative (standardized rating scales) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) study. SETTING: Study participants' homes in nine villages in the Cilento region of southern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine nonagenarians and centenarians and 51 family members aged 51-75 years, selected by their general practitioners as a part of a larger study called CIAO (Cilento Initiative on Aging Outcomes). METHODS: We used published rating scales of mental and physical well-being, resilience, optimism, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Qualitative interviews gathered personal narratives of the oldest-old individuals, including migrations, traumatic events, and beliefs. Family members described their impressions about the personality traits of their older relative. RESULTS: Participants age ≥90 years had worse physical health but better mental well-being than their younger family members. Mental well-being correlated negatively with levels of depression and anxiety in both the groups. The main themes that emerged from qualitative interviews included positivity (resilience and optimism), working hard, and bond with family and religion, as described in previously published studies of the oldest old, but also a need for control and love of the land, which appeared to be unique features of this rural population. CONCLUSIONS: Exceptional longevity was characterized by a balance between acceptance of and grit to overcome adversities along with a positive attitude and close ties to family, religion, and land, providing purpose in life.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Otimismo , Resiliência Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Religião , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apoio Social
15.
Eur Heart J ; 39(1): 17-25, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186485

RESUMO

In acute heart failure (AHF) syndromes significant respiratory failure (RF) is essentially seen in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPE) or cardiogenic shock (CS). Non-invasive ventilation (NIV), the application of positive intrathoracic pressure through an interface, has shown to be useful in the treatment of moderate to severe RF in several scenarios. There are two main modalities of NIV: continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and pressure support ventilation (NIPSV) with positive end expiratory pressure. Appropriate equipment and experience is needed for NIPSV, whereas CPAP may be administered without a ventilator, not requiring special training. Both modalities have shown to be effective in ACPE, by a reduction of respiratory distress and the endotracheal intubation rate compared to conventional oxygen therapy, but the impact on mortality is less conclusive. Non-invasive ventilation is also indicated in patients with AHF associated to pulmonary disease and may be considered, after haemodynamic stabilization, in some patients with CS. There are no differences in the outcomes in the studies comparing both techniques, but CPAP is a simpler technique that may be preferred in low-equipped areas like the pre-hospital setting, while NIPSV may be preferable in patients with significant hypercapnia. The new modality 'high-flow nasal cannula' seems promising in cases of AHF with less severe RF. The correct selection of patients and interfaces, early application of the technique, the achievement of a good synchrony between patients and the ventilator avoiding excessive leakage, close monitoring, proactive management, and in some cases mild sedation, may warrant the success of the technique.

16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 4(4): 479-486, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980452

RESUMO

AIMS: Although loop diuretics are the most commonly used drugs in acute heart failure (AHF) treatment, their short-term and long-term effects are relatively unknown. The significance of worsening renal function occurrence during intravenous treatment is not clear enough. This trial aims to clarify all these features and contemplate whether continuous infusion is better than an intermittent strategy in terms of decongestion efficacy, diuretic efficiency, renal function, and long-term prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a prospective, multicentre, randomized study that compares continuous infusion to intermittent infusion and a low vs. high diuretic dose of furosemide in patients with a diagnosis of acute heart failure, BNP ≥ 100 pg/mL, and specific chest X-ray signs. Randomization criteria have been established at a 1:1 ratio using a computer-generated scheme of either twice-daily bolus injection or continuous infusion for a time period ranging from 72 to 120 h. The initial dose will be 80 mg/day of intravenous furosemide and, in the case of poor response, will be doubled using an escalation algorithm. A high diuretic dose is defined as a furosemide daily amount >120 mg/day respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous and high dose groups could reveal a more intensive diuresis and a greater decongestion with respect to intermittent and low dose groups; high dose and poor loop diuretic efficiency should be related to increased diuretic resistance, renal dysfunction occurrence, and greater congestion status. Poor diuretic response will be associated with less decongestion and an adverse prognosis.


Assuntos
Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 35(12): 1915-1918, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic hemodynamic characteristics of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke are poorly described. The objective of this study was to identify baseline hemodynamic characteristics of emergency department (ED) patients with suspected acute stroke. METHODS: This was a planned analysis of the stroke cohort from a multicenter registry of hemodynamic profiling of ED patients. The registry prospectively collected non-invasive hemodynamic measurements of patients with suspicion for acute stroke within 12h of symptom onset. K-means cluster analysis identified hemodynamic phenotypes of all suspected stroke patients, and we performed univariate hemodynamic comparisons based on final diagnoses. RESULTS: There were 72 patients with suspected acute stroke, of whom 38 (53%) had a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke, 10 (14%) had hemorrhagic stroke, and 24 (33%) had transient ischemic attack (TIA). Analysis defined three phenotypic clusters based on low or normal cardiac index (CI) and normal or high systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI). Patients with TIA had lower mean CI (2.3L/min/m2) compared to hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke patients (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates the feasibility of defining hemodynamic phenotypes of ED patients with suspected stroke.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(7): 1090-1097, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28821350

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), as well as early changes of LFTs and their impact on outcome in CS. We measured LFTs in 178 patients in CS from serial blood samples taken at 0 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The associations of LFT abnormalities and their early changes with all-cause 90-day mortality were estimated using Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was abnormal in 58% of the patients, more frequently in nonsurvivors. Abnormalities in other LFTs analyzed (alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin) were not associated with short-term mortality. An increase in ALT of >20% within 24 hours (ΔALT>+20%) was observed in 24% of patients. ΔALT>+20% was associated with a more than 2-fold increase in mortality compared with those with stable or decreasing ALT (70% and 28%, p <0.001). Multivariable regression analysis showed that ΔALT>+20% was associated with increased 90-day mortality independent of other known risk factors. In conclusion, an increase in ALT in the initial phase was seen in 1/4 of patients in CS and was independently associated with 90-day mortality. This finding suggests that serial ALT measurements should be incorporated in the clinical assessment of patients in CS.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/sangue , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Ann Lab Med ; 37(5): 388-397, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proenkephalin (PENK) has been suggested as a novel biomarker for kidney function. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic utility of plasma PENK in comparison with neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in septic patients. METHODS: A total of 167 septic patients were enrolled: 99 with sepsis, 37 with septic shock, and 31 with suspected sepsis. PENK and NGAL concentrations were measured and GFR was estimated by using the isotope dilution mass spectrometry traceable-Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations: CKD-EPI(Cr), CDK-EPI(CysC), and CKD-EPI(Cr-CysC). The PENK, NGAL, and eGFR results were compared according to sepsis severity, presence or absence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The PENK, NGAL, and eGFR results were significantly associated with sepsis severity and differed significantly between patients with and without AKI only in the sepsis group (all P<0.05). PENK was superior to NGAL in predicting AKI (P=0.022) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) (P=0.0085). Regardless of the variable GFR category by the different eGFR equations, PENK showed constant and significant associations with all eGFR equations. Unlike NGAL, PENK was not influenced by inflammation and predicted the 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: PENK is a highly sensitive and objective biomarker of AKI and RRT and is useful for prognosis prediction in septic patients. With its diagnostic robustness and predictive power for survival, PENK constitutes a promising biomarker in critical care settings including sepsis.


Assuntos
Encefalinas/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Sepse/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Sepse/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 14(7): 427-440, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447662

RESUMO

Echocardiography is increasingly recommended for the diagnosis and assessment of patients with severe cardiac disease, including acute heart failure. Although previously considered to be within the realm of cardiologists, the development of ultrasonography technology has led to the adoption of echocardiography by acute care clinicians across a range of specialties. Data from echocardiography and lung ultrasonography can be used to improve diagnostic accuracy, guide and monitor the response to interventions, and communicate important prognostic information in patients with acute heart failure. However, without the appropriate skills and a good understanding of ultrasonography, its wider application to the most acutely unwell patients can have substantial pitfalls. This Consensus Statement, prepared by the Acute Heart Failure Study Group of the ESC Acute Cardiovascular Care Association, reviews the existing and potential roles of echocardiography and lung ultrasonography in the assessment and management of patients with acute heart failure, highlighting the differences from established practice where relevant.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico
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