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1.
Org Lett ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167308

RESUMO

(±)-Dispirocochlearoids A-C (1-3), meroterpenoids with a 6/6/5/6/6/6 ring system, were isolated from Ganoderma cochlear. 1-3 are selective COX-2 inhibitors with an IC50 value of (-)-2 at 386 nM. Site-directed mutagenesis identified His351 as a COX-2 active site. In vivo anti-inflammatory activities of (-)-2 were performed against acute lung injury in mice.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(6): e012517, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172639

RESUMO

Background Environmental health risks for individuals with heart failure (HF) have been inadequately studied, as these individuals are not well represented in traditional cohort studies. To address this we studied associations between long-term air pollution exposure and mortality in HF patients. Methods and Results The study population was a hospital-based cohort of individuals diagnosed with HF between July 1, 2004 and December 31, 2016 compiled using electronic health records. Individuals were followed from 1 year after initial diagnosis until death or the end of the observation period (December 31, 2016). We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure at the time of initial HF diagnosis with all-cause mortality, adjusted for age, race, sex, distance to the nearest air pollution monitor, and socioeconomic status indicators. Among 23 302 HF patients, a 1 µg/m3 increase in annual average PM2.5 was associated with an elevated risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.13; 95% CI, 1.10-1.15). As compared with people with exposures below the current national PM2.5 exposure standard (12 µg/m3), those with elevated exposures experienced 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.95) years of life lost over a 5-year period, an observation that persisted even for those residing in areas with PM2.5 concentrations below current standards. Conclusions Residential exposure to elevated concentrations of PM2.5 is a significant mortality risk factor for HF patients. Elevated PM2.5 exposures result in substantial years of life lost even at concentrations below current national standards.

3.
Environ Res ; 182: 109095, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have established significant associations between short-term air pollution and the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases, there is a lack of evidence based on causal distributed lag modeling. METHODS: Inverse probability weighting (ipw) propensity score models along with conditional logistic outcome regression models based on a case-crossover study design were applied to get the causal unconstrained distributed (lag0-lag5) as well as cumulative lag effect of short-term exposure to PM2.5/Ozone on hospital admissions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and ischemic stroke (IS) among New England Medicare participants during 2000-2012. Effect modification by gender, race, secondary diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) and Diabetes (DM) was explored. RESULTS: Each 10 µg/m3 increase in lag0-lag5 cumulative PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase of 4.3% (95% confidence interval: 2.2%, 6.4%, percentage change) in AMI hospital admission rate, an increase of 3.9% (2.4%, 5.5%) in CHF rate and an increase of 2.6% (0.4%, 4.7%) in IS rate. A weakened lagging effect of PM2.5 from lag0 to lag5 could be observed. No cumulative short-term effect of ozone on CVD was found. People with secondary diagnosis of COPD, diabetes, female gender and black race are sensitive population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our causal distributed lag modeling, we found that short-term exposure to an increased ambient PM2.5 level had the potential to induce higher risk of CVD hospitalization in a causal way. More attention should be paid to population of COPD, diabetes, female gender and black race.

4.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125828, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927381

RESUMO

People are inevitably exposed to phthalates (PEs) ubiquitously existing in environment. Our previous studies, simulating the actual situations of people exposure to PEs, have shown that the sub-chronic exposure to low-doses PEs mixture (MIXPs) impaired reproductive function in male rats. Zinc is an important element in maintaining male reproductive functions. However, it is still unknown whether zinc supplement could mitigate PEs-induced male reproductive toxicity or not with sub-chronic low-dose mixture exposure. This study aimed to explore the effect of zinc supplement on the reproductive toxicity caused by sub-chronic MIXPs exposure (160 mg/(kg•body weight)/d, for 90 days) in male rats, and further to reveal the underlying mechanisms. Testosterone (T), FSH and LH in serum, early toxicity indicators in urine, PIWI proteins (PIWIL1 and PIWIL2) expression in testes and pathological examination were performed for toxicity evaluation. Steroidogenic proteins (17ß-HSD, StAR, CYP17A1, P450scc and SRD5A) were measured for mechanisms of exploration. The results indicated that zinc supplement could inhibit the T, LH, FSH level decreases in serum, abolish the effect of 5 early toxicity indicators' levels in urine, restrain the alteration of PIWI proteins expression and improve the constructional injury of testes. These effects might be relevant with the suppressed alteration of the expression of steroidogenic proteins induced by MIXPs in rat testicular cells. This work may offer further insights into reducing health risks of MIXPs exposure.

5.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(2): 340-347, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with various health outcomes. Its effect on hand-grip strength, a measurement of the construct of muscle strength and health status, remains largely unknown. METHODS: We used the survey data from 31,209 adults ≥ 50 years of age within Wave 1 of the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health in six low- and middle-income countries. The outdoor concentration of fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) was estimated using satellite data. Domestic fuel type and ventilation were used as indicators of indoor air pollution. We used multilevel linear regression models to examine the association between indoor and outdoor air pollution and hand-grip strength, as well as the potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: We found inverse associations between both indoor and outdoor air pollution and hand-grip strength. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in 3 years' averaged concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 corresponded to 0.70 kg (95% CI: -1.26, -0.14) lower hand-grip strength; and compared with electricity/liquid/gas fuel users, those using solid fuels had lower hand-grip strength (ß = -1.25, 95% CI: -1.74, -0.75). However, we did not observe a statistically significant association between ventilation and hand-grip strength. We further observed that urban residents and those having a higher education level had a higher association between ambient PM2.5 and hand-grip strength, and men, young participants, smokers, rural participants, and those with lower household income had higher associations between indoor air pollution and hand-grip strength. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both indoor and outdoor air pollution might be important risk factors of poorer health and functional status as indicated by hand-grip strength.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1372-1384, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851499

RESUMO

NO2 is a combustion byproduct that has been associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. To assess NO2 levels with high accuracy, we propose the use of an ensemble model to integrate multiple machine learning algorithms, including neural network, random forest, and gradient boosting, with a variety of predictor variables, including chemical transport models. This NO2 model covers the entire contiguous U.S. with daily predictions on 1-km-level grid cells from 2000 to 2016. The ensemble produced a cross-validated R2 of 0.788 overall, a spatial R2 of 0.844, and a temporal R2 of 0.729. The relationship between daily monitored and predicted NO2 is almost linear. We also estimated the associated monthly uncertainty level for the predictions and address-specific NO2 levels. This NO2 estimation has a very high spatiotemporal resolution and allows the examination of the health effects of NO2 in unmonitored areas. We found the highest NO2 levels along highways and in cities. We also observed that nationwide NO2 levels declined in early years and stagnated after 2007, in contrast to the trend at monitoring sites in urban areas, where the decline continued. Our research indicates that the integration of different predictor variables and fitting algorithms can achieve an improved air pollution modeling framework.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Algoritmos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Incerteza , Estados Unidos
7.
Epidemiology ; 31(1): 103-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between prenatal and early postnatal air pollution exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, findings differ by pollutant and developmental window. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between early life exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and ozone in association with ASD across multiple US regions. METHODS: Our study participants included 674 children with confirmed ASD and 855 population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born from 2003 to 2006 in the United States. We used a satellite-based model to assign air pollutant exposure averages during several critical periods of neurodevelopment: 3 months before pregnancy; each trimester of pregnancy; the entire pregnancy; and the first year of life. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for study site, maternal age, maternal education, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal smoking, and month and year of birth. RESULTS: The air pollution-ASD associations appeared to vary by exposure time period. Ozone exposure during the third trimester was associated with ASD, with an OR of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) per 6.6 ppb increase in ozone. We additionally observed a positive association with PM2.5 exposure during the first year of life (OR = 1.3 [95% CI: 1.0, 1.6] per 1.6 µg/m increase in PM2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates previous findings of a positive association between early life air pollution exposure and ASD, and identifies a potential critical window of exposure during the late prenatal and early postnatal periods.

8.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(12): 857, 2019 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784834

RESUMO

A bifunctional sulfonated polyaniline nanofiber mat (NFM) was synthesized by oxidative polymerization and by using polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mat (NFM) as the template. The adsorption capacity of the NFM for fluoroquinolones (FQs) is distinctly improved and the adsorption was a spontaneous process. According to theoretical calculations, hydrogen bonding and ion-exchange interaction are the two major kinds of interaction mechanisms between adsorbent and FQs. The adsorption and desorption properties for FQs were systematically evaluated by adsorption isotherms and by thermodynamic and kinetic studies. The results indicate that the NFM is a viable sorbent for FQs because of rapid mass transfer and good adsorption/desorption efficiency. The NFM is re-usable for at least 20 cycles without decline in performance. Following desorption of the FQs with 10% (V/V) formic acid/acetonitrile, they were quantified by UPLC with MS/MS detection. The sorbent was applied to the solid phase extraction of the FQs norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, pefloxacin, marbofloxacin, lomefloxacin and difloxacin from water and biological fluids. Figures of merit include (a) low limits of detection (0.5-1.5 ng L-1 for water, 0.016-0.052 µg L-1 for urine and serum), (b) high recoveries from spiked samples (82.3%-109.4%) with low relative standard deviations (1.1%-12.3%); (c) short extraction times (2 min), and (d) low adsorbent dosage (4 mg). Graphical abstractSchematic representation of a bi-functional sulfonated polyaniline nanofiber mat (NFM) for solid phase extraction (SPE) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in water, urine and serum.

9.
BMJ ; 367: l6258, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess risks and costs of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) for 214 mutually exclusive disease groups. DESIGN: Time stratified, case crossover analyses with conditional logistic regressions adjusted for non-linear confounding effects of meteorological variables. SETTING: Medicare inpatient hospital claims in the United States, 2000-12 (n=95 277 169). PARTICIPANTS: All Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 or older admitted to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of hospital admission, number of admissions, days in hospital, inpatient and post-acute care costs, and value of statistical life (that is, the economic value used to measure the cost of avoiding a death) due to the lives lost at discharge for 214 disease groups. RESULTS: Positive associations between short term exposure to PM2.5 and risk of hospital admission were found for several prevalent but rarely studied diseases, such as septicemia, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and acute and unspecified renal failure. Positive associations were also found between risk of hospital admission and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and thromboembolism, confirming previously published results. These associations remained consistent when restricted to days with a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO air quality guideline for the 24 hour average exposure to PM2.5. For the rarely studied diseases, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 2050 hospital admissions (95% confidence interval 1914 to 2187 admissions), 12 216 days in hospital (11 358 to 13 075), US$31m (£24m, €28m; $29m to $34m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $2.5bn ($2.0bn to $2.9bn) in value of statistical life. For diseases with a previously known association, each 1 µg/m3 increase in short term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an annual increase of 3642 hospital admissions (3434 to 3851), 20 098 days in hospital (18 950 to 21 247), $69m ($65m to $73m) in inpatient and post-acute care costs, and $4.1bn ($3.5bn to $4.7bn) in value of statistical life. CONCLUSIONS: New causes and previously identified causes of hospital admission associated with short term exposure to PM2.5 were found. These associations remained even at a daily PM2.5 concentration below the WHO 24 hour guideline. Substantial economic costs were linked to a small increase in short term PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/economia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
10.
J Biol Chem ; 294(48): 18504-18515, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653699

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the central regulator of adipogenesis, and its dysregulation is linked to obesity and metabolic diseases. Identification of the factors that regulate PPARγ expression and activity is therefore crucial for combating obesity. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with a known role in xenobiotic detoxification. Recent studies have suggested that AhR also plays essential roles in energy metabolism. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We previously reported that experiments with adipocyte-specific Cullin 4b (Cul4b)-knockout mice showed that CUL4B suppresses adipogenesis by targeting PPARγ. Here, using immunoprecipitation, ubiquitination, real-time PCR, and GST-pulldown assays, we report that AhR functions as the substrate receptor in CUL4B-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4B) complex and is required for recruiting PPARγ. AhR overexpression reduced PPARγ stability and suppressed adipocyte differentiation, and AhR knockdown stimulated adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, we found that two lysine sites on residues 268 and 293 in PPARγ are targeted for CRL4B-mediated ubiquitination, indicating cross-talk between acetylation and ubiquitination. Our findings establish a critical role of AhR in regulating PPARγ stability and suggest that the AhR-PPARγ interaction may represent a potential therapeutic target for managing metabolic diseases arising from PPARγ dysfunction.

11.
Ann Appl Stat ; 13(1): 520-547, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649797

RESUMO

We propose a new approach for estimating causal effects when the exposure is measured with error and confounding adjustment is performed via a generalized propensity score (GPS). Using validation data, we propose a regression calibration (RC)-based adjustment for a continuous error-prone exposure combined with GPS to adjust for confounding (RC-GPS). The outcome analysis is conducted after transforming the corrected continuous exposure into a categorical exposure. We consider confounding adjustment in the context of GPS subclassification, inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) and matching. In simulations with varying degrees of exposure error and confounding bias, RC-GPS eliminates bias from exposure error and confounding compared to standard approaches that rely on the error-prone exposure. We applied RC-GPS to a rich data platform to estimate the causal effect of long-term exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) on mortality in New England for the period from 2000 to 2012. The main study consists of 2202 zip codes covered by 217,660 1 km × 1 km grid cells with yearly mortality rates, yearly PM2.5 averages estimated from a spatio-temporal model (error-prone exposure) and several potential confounders. The internal validation study includes a subset of 83 1 km × 1 km grid cells within 75 zip codes from the main study with error-free yearly PM2.5 exposures obtained from monitor stations. Under assumptions of noninterference and weak unconfoundedness, using matching we found that exposure to moderate levels of PM2.5 (8 < PM2.5 ≤ 10 µg/m3) causes a 2.8% (95% CI: 0.6%, 3.6%) increase in all-cause mortality compared to low exposure (PM2.5 ≤ 8 µg/m3).

12.
Environ Epidemiol ; 3(4): e054, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538135

RESUMO

The association between PM2.5 and mortality is well established; however, confounding by unmeasured factors is always an issue. In addition, prior studies do not tell us what the effect of a sudden change in exposure on mortality is. We consider the sub-population of Medicare enrollees who moved residence from one ZIP Code to another from 2000 to 2012. Because the choice of new ZIP Code is unlikely to be related with any confounders, restricting to the population of movers allows us to have a study design that incorporates randomization of exposure. Over 10 million Medicare participants moved. We calculated change in exposure by subtracting the annual exposure at original ZIP Code from exposure at the new ZIP Code using a validated model. We used Cox proportional hazards models stratified on original ZIP Code with inverse probability weights (IPW) to control for individual and ecological confounders at the new ZIP Code. The distribution of covariates appeared to be randomized by change in exposure at the new locations as standardized differences were mostly near zero. Randomization of measured covariates suggests unmeasured covariates may be randomized also. Using IPW, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.22] among whites and 1.12 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.15) among blacks. Hazard ratios increased for whites and decreased for blacks when restricting to exposure levels below the current standard of 12 µg/m3. This study provides evidence of likely causal effects at concentrations below current limits of PM2.5.

13.
Biostatistics ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545341

RESUMO

We propose a computationally and statistically efficient divide-and-conquer (DAC) algorithm to fit sparse Cox regression to massive datasets where the sample size $n_0$ is exceedingly large and the covariate dimension $p$ is not small but $n_0\gg p$. The proposed algorithm achieves computational efficiency through a one-step linear approximation followed by a least square approximation to the partial likelihood (PL). These sequences of linearization enable us to maximize the PL with only a small subset and perform penalized estimation via a fast approximation to the PL. The algorithm is applicable for the analysis of both time-independent and time-dependent survival data. Simulations suggest that the proposed DAC algorithm substantially outperforms the full sample-based estimators and the existing DAC algorithm with respect to the computational speed, while it achieves similar statistical efficiency as the full sample-based estimators. The proposed algorithm was applied to extraordinarily large survival datasets for the prediction of heart failure-specific readmission within 30 days among Medicare heart failure patients.

14.
Thorax ; 74(11): 1063-1069, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution accelerates lung function decline among adults, however, there are limited data about its role in the development and progression of early stages of interstitial lung disease. AIMS: To evaluate associations of long-term exposure to traffic and ambient pollutants with odds of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) and progression of ILA on repeated imaging. METHODS: We ascertained ILA on chest CT obtained from 2618 Framingham participants from 2008 to 2011. Among 1846 participants who also completed a cardiac CT from 2002 to 2005, we determined interval ILA progression. We assigned distance from home address to major roadway, and the 5-year average of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC, a traffic-related PM2.5 constituent) and ozone using spatio-temporal prediction models. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, packyears of smoking, household tobacco exposure, neighbourhood household value, primary occupation, cohort and date. RESULTS: Among 2618 participants with a chest CT, 176 (6.7%) had ILA, 1361 (52.0%) had no ILA, and the remainder were indeterminate. Among 1846 with a preceding cardiac CT, 118 (6.4%) had ILA with interval progression. In adjusted logistic regression models, an IQR difference in 5-year EC exposure of 0.14 µg/m3 was associated with a 1.27 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.55) times greater odds of ILA, and a 1.33 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.76) times greater odds of ILA progression. PM2.5 and O3 were not associated with ILA or ILA progression. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to EC may increase risk of progressive ILA, however, associations with other measures of ambient pollution were inconclusive.

15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(7): 77002, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few studies suggest that air pollution may decrease fertility, but prospective studies and examinations of windows of susceptibility remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between time-varying exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), ozone ([Formula: see text]), fine particulate matter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and black carbon (BC) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. METHODS: We included 345 women (522 IVF cycles) for the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] analyses and 339 women (512 IVF cycles) for the BC analysis enrolled in a prospective cohort at a Boston fertility center (2004­2015). We used validated spatiotemporal models to estimate daily residential exposure to [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and BC. Multivariable discrete time Cox proportional hazards models with four periods [ovarian stimulation (OS), oocyte retrieval to embryo transfer (ET), ET to implantation, implantation to live birth] estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of failing at IVF. Time-dependent interactions were used to identify vulnerable periods. RESULTS: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and BC throughout the IVF cycle was associated with an elevated odds of failing at IVF prior to live birth ([Formula: see text], 95% CI: 0.95, 1.23 for [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text], 95% CI: 0.88, 1.28 for [Formula: see text]; and [Formula: see text], 95% CI: 0.96, 1.41 for BC). This relationship significantly varied across the IVF cycle such that the association with higher exposure to air pollution during OS was strongest for early IVF failures. An IQR increase in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and BC exposure during OS was associated with 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.69), 1.26 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.67), and 1.23 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.59) times the odds of failing prior to oocyte retrieval, and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.54), 1.27 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.65), and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.59) times the odds of failing prior to ET. CONCLUSION: Increased exposure to traffic-related pollutants was associated with higher odds of early IVF failure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4601.

16.
Environ Epidemiol ; 3(3): e047, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342007

RESUMO

Background: Maternal exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) during pregnancy has been linked to lower newborn birthweight, making it a toxic exposure because lower birthweight is a risk factor for chronic disease and mortality. However, the toxicity of major constituents of PM2.5 and how they compare to each other remain uncertain. Methods: We assigned address-specific exposure to PM2.5, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), nitrate, and sulfate averaged over the entire period of pregnancy for each birth in Massachusetts from 2001 to 2012 using a high-resolution exposure model. Using multivariate regression adjusted for total PM2.5, we estimated the relative toxicity of each constituent on continuous birthweight. Results: EC was more toxic per interquartile range increase compared with remaining PM2.5 in single constituent models that estimated the effect of a constituent with adjustment for PM2.5. OC, nitrate, and sulfate were each less toxic than their respective remaining PM2.5 per interquartile range increase. When all constituents and total PM2.5 were included in the same model, EC was most toxic, followed by nitrate, then OC and sulfate with similar toxicities. Sensitivity analyses using term low birth weight and small for gestational age also showed that EC was most detrimental as did averaging exposures over the third trimester of pregnancy. Scaling to unit mass increases also showed EC to be most toxic. Conclusion: Four major constituents of PM2.5 had different relative toxicities on continuous birthweight. Our findings suggest that EC was most toxic, followed by nitrate, OC, and sulfate.

17.
Environ Int ; 130: 104909, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272018

RESUMO

Various approaches have been proposed to model PM2.5 in the recent decade, with satellite-derived aerosol optical depth, land-use variables, chemical transport model predictions, and several meteorological variables as major predictor variables. Our study used an ensemble model that integrated multiple machine learning algorithms and predictor variables to estimate daily PM2.5 at a resolution of 1 km × 1 km across the contiguous United States. We used a generalized additive model that accounted for geographic difference to combine PM2.5 estimates from neural network, random forest, and gradient boosting. The three machine learning algorithms were based on multiple predictor variables, including satellite data, meteorological variables, land-use variables, elevation, chemical transport model predictions, several reanalysis datasets, and others. The model training results from 2000 to 2015 indicated good model performance with a 10-fold cross-validated R2 of 0.86 for daily PM2.5 predictions. For annual PM2.5 estimates, the cross-validated R2 was 0.89. Our model demonstrated good performance up to 60 µg/m3. Using trained PM2.5 model and predictor variables, we predicted daily PM2.5 from 2000 to 2015 at every 1 km × 1 km grid cell in the contiguous United States. We also used localized land-use variables within 1 km × 1 km grids to downscale PM2.5 predictions to 100 m × 100 m grid cells. To characterize uncertainty, we used meteorological variables, land-use variables, and elevation to model the monthly standard deviation of the difference between daily monitored and predicted PM2.5 for every 1 km × 1 km grid cell. This PM2.5 prediction dataset, including the downscaled and uncertainty predictions, allows epidemiologists to accurately estimate the adverse health effect of PM2.5. Compared with model performance of individual base learners, an ensemble model would achieve a better overall estimation. It is worth exploring other ensemble model formats to synthesize estimations from different models or from different groups to improve overall performance.

18.
Environ Int ; 130: 104879, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238267

RESUMO

We examined the association between average annual fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone and first hospital admissions of Medicare participants for stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, myocardial infarction (MI), lung cancer, and heart failure (HF). Annual average PM2.5 and ozone levels were estimated using high-resolution spatio-temporal models. We fit a marginal structural Cox proportional hazards model, using stabilized inverse probability weights (IPWs) to account for the competing risk of death and confounding. Analyses were then repeated after restricting to exposure levels below the current U.S. standards. The results showed that PM2.5 was significantly associated with an increased hazard of admissions for all studied outcomes; the highest observed being a 6.1% (95% CI: 5.9%-6.2%) increase in the hazard of admissions with pneumonia for each µg/m3 increase in particulate levels. Ozone was also significantly associated with an increase in the risk of first hospital admissions of all outcomes. The hazard of pneumonia increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 2.9%-3.1%) for each ppb increase in the ozone level. Our results reveal a need to regulate long-term ozone exposure, and that associations persist below current PM2.5 standards.

19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(9): 1595-1604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241127

RESUMO

Traffic-related air pollution has been linked to higher risks of infertility and miscarriage. We evaluated whether folate intake modified the relationship between air pollution and livebirth among women using assisted reproductive technology (ART). Our study included 304 women (513 cycles) presenting to a fertility center in Boston, Massachusetts (2005-2015). Diet and supplements were assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Spatiotemporal models estimated residence-based daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, fine particulate, and black carbon concentrations in the 3 months before ART. We used generalized linear mixed models with interaction terms to evaluate whether the associations between air pollutants and livebirth were modified by folate intake, adjusting for age, body mass index, race, smoking, education, infertility diagnosis, and ART cycle year. Supplemental folate intake significantly modified the association of NO2 exposure and livebirth (P = 0.01). Among women with supplemental folate intakes of <800 µg/day, the odds of livebirth were 24% (95% confidence interval: 2, 42) lower for every 20-parts-per-billion increase in NO2 exposure. There was no association among women with intakes of ≥800 µg/day. There was no effect modification of folate on the associations between other air pollutants and livebirth. High supplemental folate intake might protect against the adverse reproductive consequences of traffic-related air pollution.

20.
Environ Epidemiol ; 3(1)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882060

RESUMO

Introduction: Exposure to PM2.5 air pollution and neighborhood-level sociodemographic characteristics are associated with cardiovascular disease and possibly diabetes. However, the joint effect of sociodemographics and PM2.5 on these outcomes is uncertain. Methods: We examined whether clusters of sociodemographic characteristics modified effects of long-term PM2.5 exposure on coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), hypertension, and diabetes. We used medical records data from 2192 cardiac catheterization patients residing in North Carolina and assigned to one of six previously-determined clusters. For each participant, we estimated annual PM2.5 exposure at their primary residence using a hybrid model with a 1 km2 resolution. We used logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status, to assess cluster-specific associations with PM2.5 and to determine if there were interactions between cluster and PM2.5 on outcomes. Results: Compared to cluster 3 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.82-1.07; urban, low proportion of black individuals and high socioeconomic status), we observed greater associations between PM2.5 and hypertension in clusters 1 (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.99-1.50, pint 0.03) and 2 (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.32, pint 0.003), which were urban, high proportion of black individuals, and low socioeconomic status. PM2.5 was associated with MI (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.42) but not diabetes, regardless of cluster and was associated with CAD in cluster 3 (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.00, 1.31) and overall (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98, 1.17). Discussion: Areas of relative disadvantage have a stronger association between PM2.5 and hypertension compared to areas of relative advantage.

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