Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 124
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077755

RESUMO

There are multiple information sources available to assist families in learning about rapidly advancing diabetes technologies as care options for their children. This study explored where and from whom families of young children with type 1 diabetes get information about diabetes technologies and the valence (positive vs. negative) of that information. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents (86% mothers) of 79 youth <8 years old with type 1 diabetes for ≥6 months, ([mean ± standard deviation] age 5.2 ± 1.5 years, diabetes duration 2.4 ± 1.3 years, 77% white, A1c 63 ± 10 mmol/mol [7.9 ± 0.9%], 66% pump-treated, 58% using continuous glucose monitors [CGMs]). Interviews were transcribed and underwent content analysis to derive central themes. Most parents reported learning about new technologies from three direct sources: diabetes care providers, people with diabetes, and caregivers of children with diabetes. Parents also cited three indirect sources of information: online forums, publications, and diabetes-specific conferences. Parents reported hearing primarily positive things about technologies. Families not using pump and/or CGM noted reluctance to use technology due to family-specific concerns (e.g., cost, child's unwillingness to wear device) rather than information from outside sources. In this subset of parents, many still expressed willingness to initiate use once family-specific concerns were resolved. Parents of young children received largely positive information about diabetes technologies, primarily from health care providers and others familiar with using devices personally or for their children. To maximize diabetes technology use in young children, it is incumbent upon providers to ensure families receive balanced realistic information about benefits and barriers.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955209

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in adults with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated CVD risk factors in a large, contemporary cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes living in the United States. DESIGN: Observational study of CVD and CVD risk factors over a median of 5.3 years. SETTING: The T1D Exchange clinic network. PATIENTS: Adults (age ≥ 18 years) with type 1 diabetes and without known CVD diagnosed before or at enrollment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between CVD risk factors and incident CVD were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The study included 8,727 participants (53% female, 88% non-Hispanic white, median age 33 years [interquartile ratio {IQR} = 21, 48], type 1 diabetes duration 16 years [IQR = 9, 26]). At enrollment, median HbA1c was 7.6% (66 mmol/mol) (IQR = 6.9 [52], 8.6 [70]), 33% used a statin, and 37% used blood pressure medication. Over a mean follow-up of 4.6 years, 325 (3.7%) participants developed incident CVD. Ischemic heart disease was the most common CVD event. Increasing age, body mass index, HbA1c, presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, increasing duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy were associated with increased risk for CVD. There were no significant gender differences in CVD risk. CONCLUSION: HbA1c, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetic nephropathy are important risk factors for CVD in adults with type 1 diabetes. A longer follow-up is likely required to assess the impact of other traditional CVD risk factors on incident CVD in the current era.

4.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(2): 377-383, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Across all age groups, management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) places substantial responsibility and emotional burden upon families. This study explored parent perceptions of the burdens of caring for very young children with T1D. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with parents (85% mothers) of 79 children with T1D, aged 1 to <8 years old, from four diverse pediatric diabetes clinical centers. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using hybrid thematic analysis to derive central themes. RESULTS: Youth (77% White) had T1D for ≥6 months: age (M ± SD) 5.2 ± 1.5 years, diabetes duration 2.4 ± 1.3 years, and A1c 63 ± 10 mmol/mol (7.9 ± 0.9%); 66% used an insulin pump and 61% used CGM. Three major themes emerged related to diabetes burdens: (a) the emotional burden of diabetes on themselves and their children, (b) the burden of finding, training, and trusting effective secondary caregivers to manage the child's diabetes, and (c) suggestions for how more comprehensive, personalized diabetes education from healthcare providers for parents and secondary caregivers could help reduce parent burden and worry. CONCLUSIONS: In families with very young children with T1D, parental perceptions of the burden of managing diabetes are common and could be mitigated by tailored education programs that increase parent knowledge, bolster parents' confidence in themselves, and increase trust in their secondary caregivers to manage diabetes. Reduced parental burden and increased caregiver knowledge may positively impact child's glycemic control, as well as improve parent and child quality of life.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 5-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753960

RESUMO

The clinical diagnosis of new-onset type 1 diabetes has, for many years, been considered relatively straightforward. Recently, however, there is increasing awareness that within this single clinical phenotype exists considerable heterogeneity: disease onset spans the complete age range; genetic susceptibility is complex; rates of progression differ markedly, as does insulin secretory capacity; and complication rates, glycemic control, and therapeutic intervention efficacy vary widely. Mechanistic and immunopathological studies typically show considerable patchiness across subjects, undermining conclusions regarding disease pathways. Without better understanding, type 1 diabetes heterogeneity represents a major barrier both to deciphering pathogenesis and to the translational effort of designing, conducting, and interpreting clinical trials of disease-modifying agents. This realization comes during a period of unprecedented change in clinical medicine, with increasing emphasis on greater individualization and precision. For complex disorders such as type 1 diabetes, the option of maintaining the "single disease" approach appears untenable, as does the notion of individualizing each single patient's care, obliging us to conceptualize type 1 diabetes less in terms of phenotypes (observable characteristics) and more in terms of disease endotypes (underlying biological mechanisms). Here, we provide our view on an approach to dissect heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes. Using lessons from other diseases and the data gathered to date, we aim to delineate a roadmap through which the field can incorporate the endotype concept into laboratory and clinical practice. We predict that such an effort will accelerate the implementation of precision medicine and has the potential for impact on our approach to translational research, trial design, and clinical management.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 42(12): 2228-2236, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand potential facilitators of individual engagement in type 1 diabetes natural history and prevention studies through analysis of enrollment data in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine continued engagement of eligible participants at two time points: 1) the return visit after screening to confirm an initial autoantibody-positive (Ab+) test result and 2) the initial oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for enrollment into the monitoring protocol. RESULTS: Of 5,387 subjects who screened positive for a single autoantibody (Ab), 4,204 (78%) returned for confirmatory Ab testing. Younger age was associated with increased odds of returning for Ab confirmation (age <12 years vs. >18 years: odds ratio [OR] 2.12, P < 0.0001). Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to return for confirmation, particularly nonwhite non-Hispanic (OR 0.50, P < 0.0001) and Hispanic (OR 0.69, P = 0.0001) relative to non-Hispanic white subjects. Of 8,234 subjects, 5,442 (66%) were identified as eligible to be enrolled in PTP OGTT monitoring. Here, younger age and identification as multiple Ab+ were associated with increased odds of returning for OGTT monitoring (age <12 years vs. >18 years: OR 1.43, P < 0.0001; multiple Ab+: OR 1.36, P < 0.0001). Parents were less likely to enroll into monitoring than other relatives (OR 0.78, P = 0.004). Site-specific factors, including site volume and U.S. site versus international site, were also associated with differences in rates of return for Ab+ confirmation and enrollment into monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm clear differences between successfully enrolled populations and those lost to follow-up, which can serve to identify strategies to increase ongoing participation.

8.
Mol Metab ; 27S: S129-S138, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited successes of conventional approaches to type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention and treatment have highlighted the need for improved understanding of risk factors contributing to or hastening progression to clinical diagnosis. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes beta cell function metabolic phenotyping data from clinical studies conducted in at-risk individuals before T1D onset and healthy controls. Data are drawn from studies comparing at-risk individuals who progress to T1D to at-risk individuals who do not progress to T1D, as well as from studies comparing at-risk individuals to controls without a T1D family history. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Rapid loss of beta cell insulin secretion occurs in the months immediately preceding clinical onset. However, evidence of beta cell dysfunction is present even years earlier. Comparisons to controls without a family history suggest that many individuals in families impacted by T1D have evidence of beta cell dysfunction, even individuals who are unlikely to develop clinical disease. These findings may mean that underlying metabolic beta cell dysfunction contributes to T1D development and may explain some of the heterogeneity observed in the disease.

9.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 21(9): 493-498, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287721

RESUMO

Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has potential to address challenges of type 1 diabetes (T1D) management for young children. CGM use is increasing, yet remains underutilized. Characterizing parents' experiences with CGM can inform clinical strategies to help parents make decisions about diabetes management, overcome obstacles to initiating and sustaining CGM use, and maximize benefits of CGM use in their children's diabetes care. Methods: Transcripts from semistructured qualitative interviews with 55 parents of children aged 1 to <8 years, with T1D duration ≥6 months, and whose child currently or previously used CGM were coded and analyzed to derive themes about their experiences with CGM. Results: Participants were 88% mothers and the mean child age was 5.0 ± 1.5 years. Parents described benefits of CGM use: decreased worry about glucose excursions, improved sleep, increased sense of safety with children who cannot recognize or express symptoms of hypo- or hyperglycemia, and greater comfort with other caregivers, especially using remote monitoring functionality when away from children. Challenges included painful insertions, wearing multiple devices on small bodies, disruptive alerts, data gaps due to lost signals, skin/adhesive problems, and difficulty interpreting the amount of information generated by CGM. For some, the challenges outweighed potential benefits and they stopped CGM use. Conclusions: CGM may address unique challenges of T1D in young children and increase parental comfort with diabetes management, yet there are multiple barriers to initiating or maintaining CGM use. Education and behavioral support to address these benefits and barriers may equip caregivers with skills to address challenges of CGM use.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 381(7): 603-613, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of insulin-producing beta cells and dependence on exogenous insulin for survival. Some interventions have delayed the loss of insulin production in patients with type 1 diabetes, but interventions that might affect clinical progression before diagnosis are needed. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of teplizumab (an Fc receptor-nonbinding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody) involving relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes who did not have diabetes but were at high risk for development of clinical disease. Patients were randomly assigned to a single 14-day course of teplizumab or placebo, and follow-up for progression to clinical type 1 diabetes was performed with the use of oral glucose-tolerance tests at 6-month intervals. RESULTS: A total of 76 participants (55 [72%] of whom were ≤18 years of age) underwent randomization - 44 to the teplizumab group and 32 to the placebo group. The median time to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was 48.4 months in the teplizumab group and 24.4 months in the placebo group; the disease was diagnosed in 19 (43%) of the participants who received teplizumab and in 23 (72%) of those who received placebo. The hazard ratio for the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (teplizumab vs. placebo) was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.78; P = 0.006 by adjusted Cox proportional-hazards model). The annualized rates of diagnosis of diabetes were 14.9% per year in the teplizumab group and 35.9% per year in the placebo group. There were expected adverse events of rash and transient lymphopenia. KLRG1+TIGIT+CD8+ T cells were more common in the teplizumab group than in the placebo group. Among the participants who were HLA-DR3-negative, HLA-DR4-positive, or anti-zinc transporter 8 antibody-negative, fewer participants in the teplizumab group than in the placebo group had diabetes diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Teplizumab delayed progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in high-risk participants. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01030861.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Complexo CD3/antagonistas & inibidores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Antígeno HLA-DR3 , Antígeno HLA-DR4 , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 82: 60-65, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129370

RESUMO

Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience unique, developmental challenges in managing their child's T1D, resulting in psychosocial distress. Only a small portion of young children reach glucose goals and adherence to diabetes devices that help improve T1D management have historically been low in this population. The purpose of this study is to test four interventions that couple developmentally tailored behavioral supports with education to optimize use of diabetes devices, improve glucose control, and reduce psychosocial distress for parents of young children with T1D. The study team designed four behavioral interventions, two aimed at improving glucose control and two aimed at optimizing use of diabetes devices. The goal of this paper is to describe the behavioral interventions developed for this study, including the results of a pilot test, and describe the methods and analysis plan to test this intervention strategy with ninety participants in a large-scale, randomized trial using a sequential multiple assignment randomization trial (SMART) design. A SMART design will permit a clinically relevant evaluation of the intervention strategy, as it allows multiple randomizations based on individualized assessments throughout the study instead of a fixed intervention dose seen in most traditional randomized controlled trials.

12.
Diabetes ; 68(6): 1267-1276, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967424

RESUMO

A three-arm, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial performed by the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group previously demonstrated that low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (2.5 mg/kg) preserved ß-cell function and reduced HbA1c for 1 year in new-onset type 1 diabetes. Subjects (N = 89) were randomized to 1) ATG and pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), 2) ATG alone, or 3) placebo. Herein, we report 2-year area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide and HbA1c, prespecified secondary end points, and potential immunologic correlates. The 2-year mean mixed-meal tolerance test-stimulated AUC C-peptide, analyzed by ANCOVA adjusting for baseline C-peptide, age, and sex (n = 82) with significance defined as one-sided P < 0.025, was significantly higher in subjects treated with ATG versus placebo (P = 0.00005) but not ATG/GCSF versus placebo (P = 0.032). HbA1c was significantly reduced at 2 years in subjects treated with ATG (P = 0.011) and ATG/GCSF (P = 0.022) versus placebo. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated reduced circulating CD4:CD8 ratio, increased regulatory T-cell:conventional CD4 T-cell ratios, and increased PD-1+CD4+ T cells following low-dose ATG and ATG/GCSF. Low-dose ATG partially preserved ß-cell function and reduced HbA1c 2 years after therapy in new-onset type 1 diabetes. Future studies should determine whether low-dose ATG might prevent or delay the onset of type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Peptídeo C/metabolismo , Relação CD4-CD8 , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(4): 408-413, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In new onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), overall C-peptide measures such as area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide and peak C-peptide are useful for estimating the extent of ß-cell dysfunction, and for assessing responses to intervention therapy. However, measures of the timing of C-peptide responsiveness could have additional value. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the contribution of the timing of C-peptide responsiveness during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) variation at T1D diagnosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 85 individuals <18 years with OGTTs and HbA1c measurements at diagnosis. Overall [AUC and peak C-peptide] and timing measures [30-0 minute C-peptide (early); 60 to 120 minute C-peptide sum-30 minutes (late); 120/30 C-peptide; time to peak C-peptide] were utilized. RESULTS: At diagnosis, the mean (±SD) age was 11.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass index (BMI)-z was 0.4 ± 1.1, 51.0% were male. The average HbA1c was 43.54 ± 8.46 mmol/mol (6.1 ± 0.8%). HbA1c correlated inversely with the AUC C-peptide (P < 0.001), peak C-peptide (P < 0.001), early and late C-peptide responses (P < 0.001 each), and 120/30 C-peptide (P < 0.001). Those with a peak C-peptide occurring at ≤60 minutes had higher HbA1c values than those with peaks later (P = 0.003). HbA1c variance was better explained with timing measures added to regression models (R2 = 11.6% with AUC C-peptide alone; R2 = 20.0% with 120/30 C-peptide added; R2 = 13.7% with peak C-peptide alone, R2 = 20.4% with timing of the peak added). Similar associations were seen between the 2-hour glucose and the C-peptide measures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the addition of timing measures of C-peptide responsiveness better explains HbA1c variation at diagnosis than standard measures alone.

15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(2): 238-246, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disordered bone mineral metabolism and low vitamin D concentrations are associated with cardiovascular abnormalities; few studies have evaluated this relationship in HIV-infected youth. SETTING: The Adolescent Master Protocol is a Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study network study conducted across 14 US sites. METHODS: Among perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth enrolled in the Adolescent Master Protocol, we evaluated associations of vitamin D [measured as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD)], parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations with echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) structure, function, and concentrations of NT-proBNP, a biomarker of cardiac damage. RESULTS: Among 485 participants (305 PHIV and 180 PHEU) with echocardiograms and bone mineralization measures, low 25-OHD (<20 ng/mL) was common among all participants (48% PHIV and 44% PHEU), but elevated PTH (>65 pg/mL) was identified more often among PHIV participants than PHEU participants (9% vs 3%, P = 0.02). After adjusting for HIV status and demographic covariates, both low 25-OHD and elevated PTH were associated with lower mean LV mass z-scores, whereas elevated PTH was associated with higher mean fractional shortening z-scores. Participants with low 25-OHD also had slightly higher mean LV end-systolic wall stress z-scores, but differences were more pronounced in PHEU participants than in PHIV participants. FGF-23 was inversely related to end-diastolic septal thickness, both overall and among PHIV participants. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of PHIV and PHEU youth, we observed associations of 25-OHD, PTH, and FGF-23 with both structural and functional cardiac parameters, supporting links between bone mineral metabolism and cardiac status.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Minerais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Cálcio , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Humanos , Masculino , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Fosfatos , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
16.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629603

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a protein chaperone that is upregulated and released from pancreatic ß cells under pro-inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that serum Hsp90 may have utility as a biomarker of type 1 diabetes risk and exhibit elevations before the onset of clinically significant hyperglycemia. To this end, total levels of the alpha cytoplasmic isoform of Hsp90 were assayed in autoantibody-positive progressors to type 1 diabetes using banked serum samples from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Cohort that had been collected 12 months prior to diabetes onset, with comparison to age, sex, and BMI-category matched autoantibody-positive nonprogressors and healthy controls. Hsp90 levels were higher in autoantibody-positive progressors and nonprogressors ≤ 18 years of age compared to matched healthy controls. However, Hsp90 levels were not different between progressors and nonprogressors in any age group. Hsp90 was positively correlated with age in control subjects, but this correlation was absent in autoantibody positive individuals. In aggregate these data indicate that elevated Hsp90 levels are present in youth with ß cell autoimmunity, but are not able to distinguish youth or adult type 1 diabetes progressors from nonprogressors in samples collected 12 months prior to diabetes development.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/sangue , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Distribuição por Idade , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC
17.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 21(2): 66-72, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide a snapshot of the profile of adults and youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the United States and assessment of longitudinal changes in T1D management and clinical outcomes in the T1D Exchange registry. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on diabetes management and outcomes from 22,697 registry participants (age 1-93 years) were collected between 2016 and 2018 and compared with data collected in 2010-2012 for 25,529 registry participants. RESULTS: Mean HbA1c in 2016-2018 increased from 65 mmol/mol at the age of 5 years to 78 mmol/mol between ages 15 and 18, with a decrease to 64 mmol/mol by age 28 and 58-63 mmol/mol beyond age 30. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) HbA1c goal of <58 mmol/mol for youth was achieved by only 17% and the goal of <53 mmol/mol for adults by only 21%. Mean HbA1c levels changed little between 2010-2012 and 2016-2018, except in adolescents who had a higher mean HbA1c in 2016-2018. Insulin pump use increased from 57% in 2010-2012 to 63% in 2016-2018. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) increased from 7% in 2010-2012 to 30% in 2016-2018, rising >10-fold in children <12 years old. HbA1c levels were lower in CGM users than nonusers. Severe hypoglycemia was most frequent in participants ≥50 years old and diabetic ketoacidosis was most common in adolescents and young adults. Racial differences were evident in use of pumps and CGM and HbA1c levels. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the T1D Exchange registry demonstrate that only a minority of adults and youth with T1D in the United States achieve ADA goals for HbA1c.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Diabetes Care ; 42(2): 258-264, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Abnormally elevated proinsulin secretion has been reported in type 2 and early type 1 diabetes when significant C-peptide is present. We questioned whether individuals with long-standing type 1 diabetes and low or absent C-peptide secretory capacity retained the ability to make proinsulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: C-peptide and proinsulin were measured in fasting and stimulated sera from 319 subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes (≥3 years) and 12 control subjects without diabetes. We considered three categories of stimulated C-peptide: 1) C-peptide positive, with high stimulated values ≥0.2 nmol/L; 2) C-peptide positive, with low stimulated values ≥0.017 but <0.2 nmol/L; and 3) C-peptide <0.017 nmol/L. Longitudinal samples were analyzed from C-peptide-positive subjects with diabetes after 1, 2, and 4 years. RESULTS: Of individuals with long-standing type 1 diabetes, 95.9% had detectable serum proinsulin (>3.1 pmol/L), while 89.9% of participants with stimulated C-peptide values below the limit of detection (<0.017 nmol/L; n = 99) had measurable proinsulin. Proinsulin levels remained stable over 4 years of follow-up, while C-peptide decreased slowly during longitudinal analysis. Correlations between proinsulin with C-peptide and mixed-meal stimulation of proinsulin were found only in subjects with high stimulated C-peptide values (≥0.2 nmol/L). Specifically, increases in proinsulin with mixed-meal stimulation were present only in the group with high stimulated C-peptide values, with no increases observed among subjects with low or undetectable (<0.017 nmol/L) residual C-peptide. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with long-duration type 1 diabetes, the ability to secrete proinsulin persists, even in those with undetectable serum C-peptide.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Proinsulina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Peptídeo C/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proinsulina/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Diabetes Complications ; 32(11): 1006-1011, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220582

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the prevalence/determinants of fracture in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. RESEARCH DESIGN/METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) with T1D duration ≥5 years, diagnosed before age 45 years completed a fracture questionnaire. Additional characteristics were collected from registry data. Only fractures reported as occurring after T1D diagnosis were included. Characteristics were compared between those with and without fractures. RESULTS: Respondents included 756 adults (mean age 39 ±â€¯16 years, 28% ≥50 years, 63% female, 90% non-Hispanic White, diabetes duration 24 ±â€¯14 years); 48% reported ≥1 fracture since diagnosis. Of the 659 reported fractures, 24% involved metatarsal/toe, 21% metacarpal/fingers, 14% fibula/tibia, 5% hip/pelvis/femur and 3% vertebrae. Those with fracture were more likely to be older (43 ±â€¯16 vs. 36 ±â€¯14 years), have longer T1D duration (28 ±â€¯14 vs. 20 ±â€¯12 years), been diagnosed with T1D before age 20 years (79% vs. 71%) compared to those without fracture (all p-values < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Data from this national sample suggest fractures in adults with T1D are common at young age and frequently involve peripheral sites. Age, longer diabetes duration, and T1D diagnosis prior to peak bone mass accrual are notable risk factors. Further research is needed to examine the impact of these determinants on fracture risk in T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Diabetes Complications ; 32(10): 961-965, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121205

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate gender differences in diabetes self-care components including glycemic, blood pressure and lipid control, utilization of diabetes technologies and acute diabetes complications in adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 9,481 participants >18 years were included in the analysis, 53% were female. Variables of interest included glycemic control measured by HbA1c, systolic/diastolic blood pressures, presence of dyslipidemia, insulin delivery modality, and rates of acute complications. RESULTS: Glycemic control was similar in women and men (mean HbA1c in both groups: 8.1% ±â€¯1.6% (64 ±â€¯16 mmol/mol), (p = 0.54). More women used insulin pump therapy (66% vs. 59%, p < 0.001) but use of sensor technology was similar (p < = 0.42). Women had higher rates of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (5% vs. 3%, p < 0.001) and eating disorders (1.7% vs. 0.1%, p < 0.001). Severe hypoglycemia rates were not different between men and women (p = 0.42). Smoking (6% vs 4%, p < 0.001), systolic (125 ±â€¯14.2 vs. 121 ±â€¯14.4, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (73.3 ±â€¯9.5 vs. 72.2 ±â€¯9.3, p < 0.001) and rate of dyslipidemia (28% vs. 23%, p < 0.001) were higher in men. CONCLUSION: While glycemic control in type 1 diabetes was similar regardless of gender, rates of DKA and eating disorders were higher in women while rates of smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia were higher in men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autocuidado/normas , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA