Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 213
Filtrar
1.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981570

RESUMO

Mutations in fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene are common genomic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD) have consistently been shown to be adversely prognostic, particularly those with high allelic ratio (AR). Current AML treatment strategies, including high dose cytarabine, purine analogs, FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i), and with or without allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) have been shown to improve the outcomes in patients with FLT3 mutations. We analyzed a consecutive cohort of newly diagnosed patients with AML treated at a large academic medical center from January 2012 to January 2020. A total of 1576 patients with a new diagnosis of AML were reviewed. Among these, 1438 (91%) had molecular testing for FLT3 mutations and 21% (304/1438) had an FLT3 mutation, including 17% with an FLT3-ITD mutation. We show that FLT3-ITD high AR with NPM1 wild-type have significantly improved survival compared with other European LeukemiaNet (ELN) adverse risk disease. In multivariable cox proportional hazards model of patients receiving intensive or low-intensity induction regimens, FLT3 mutations did not have prognostic significance. The use of allogeneic SCT in CR1 for patients with FLT3 mutations appears to improve survival, particularly in those with ELN adverse risk disease. Overall, this data highlights the changing prognostic impact of FLT3 mutations in a contemporary era with appropriate use of induction therapy combined with targeted agents and allogenic SCT.

3.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(1): 5, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017466

RESUMO

Treatment with Menin inhibitor (MI) disrupts the interaction between Menin and MLL1 or MLL1-fusion protein (FP), inhibits HOXA9/MEIS1, induces differentiation and loss of survival of AML harboring MLL1 re-arrangement (r) and FP, or expressing mutant (mt)-NPM1. Following MI treatment, although clinical responses are common, the majority of patients with AML with MLL1-r or mt-NPM1 succumb to their disease. Pre-clinical studies presented here demonstrate that genetic knockout or degradation of Menin or treatment with the MI SNDX-50469 reduces MLL1/MLL1-FP targets, associated with MI-induced differentiation and loss of viability. MI treatment also attenuates BCL2 and CDK6 levels. Co-treatment with SNDX-50469 and BCL2 inhibitor (venetoclax), or CDK6 inhibitor (abemaciclib) induces synergistic lethality in cell lines and patient-derived AML cells harboring MLL1-r or mtNPM1. Combined therapy with SNDX-5613 and venetoclax exerts superior in vivo efficacy in a cell line or PD AML cell xenografts harboring MLL1-r or mt-NPM1. Synergy with the MI-based combinations is preserved against MLL1-r AML cells expressing FLT3 mutation, also CRISPR-edited to introduce mtTP53. These findings highlight the promise of clinically testing these MI-based combinations against AML harboring MLL1-r or mtNPM1.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992253

RESUMO

The role of WT1 protein in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesisis incompletely elucidated. WT1 overexpression is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, WT1 mutations occur in only about 10% of cases, with increasing incidence in the setting of relapse. In this study, we investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of WT1 mutations in NPM1-mutated AML, to enhance our understanding of the biology and potential therapeutic implications of WT1 mutations. Our study cohort included 67 patients with NPM1 mutated AML and a median follow-up of 13.7 months. WT1 mutations were identified in 7% (n = 5) of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutant clones were presumed to be present as co-dominant clones in 3/5 and in subclonal populations in 2/5 cases based on variant allelic frequency (VAF) when compared with NPM1 mutation VAF. All WT1 mutations became undetectable at time of MRD-negative (NPM1-wild type) remission. None of these patients experienced relapse at the time of last follow-up (median, 15 months; range, 4.5-20.2 months). A total of 15/67 (22%) patients relapsed; among these patient, four (27%) relapsed with WT1 mutant AML. Three of four patients had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). None of these patients had detectable WT1 mutations at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutations were presumed clonal in two cases and subclonal in the other two cases, based on VAF. Our results indicate that WT1 mutations contribute to relapse in NPM1 mutated AML, especially in the setting of HSCT. These findings suggest that emerging WT1 mutations may serve as a conduit for relapse in NPM1-mutated AML, and that sequential molecular profiling to evaluate potential emergent WT1 mutations during surveillance and particularly at relapse likely has prognostic value in patients with NPM1 mutated AML.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101546, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is limited evidence on the clinical utility of monitoring measurable residual disease (MRD) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with lower-intensity therapy. Herein, we explored the outcomes of patients treated with venetoclax and azacitidine who achieved composite complete remission (CRc; complete remission + complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery) and MRD < 10-3 in the VIALE-A trial. METHODS: The patients included in this report were treated with venetoclax and azacitidine. Bone marrow aspirate samples for multiparametric flow cytometry assessments were collected for central analysis at baseline, end of cycle 1, and every three cycles thereafter. MRD-negative response was defined as < 1 residual blast per 1,000 leukocytes (< 10-3 or 0.1%) with an estimated analytic sensitivity of 0.0037%-0.0027%. CRc, duration of remission (DoR), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. A multivariate Cox regression analysis identified prognostic factors associated with OS. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-four of one hundred ninety (86%) patients with CRc were evaluable for MRD. MRD < 10-3 was achieved by 67 of 164 (41%), and 97 of 164 (59%) had MRD ≥ 10-3. The median DoR, EFS, and OS were not reached in patients with CRc and MRD < 10-3, and the 12-month estimates for DoR, EFS, and OS in this group were 81.2%, 83.2%, and 94.0%. Among patients with CRc and MRD ≥ 10-3, the median DoR, EFS, and OS were 9.7, 10.6, and 18.7 months. Multivariate analysis showed that CRc with MRD < 10-3 was a strong predictor of OS (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.285; 95% CI, 0.159 to 0.510; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Patients who achieved CRc and MRD < 10-3 with venetoclax and azacitidine had longer DoR, EFS, and OS, than responding patients with MRD ≥ 10-3.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6850, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824242

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms that drive hematopoietic stem cell functional decline under conditions of telomere shortening are not completely understood. In light of recent advances in single-cell technologies, we sought to redefine the transcriptional and epigenetic landscape of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cells under telomere attrition, as induced by pathogenic germline variants in telomerase complex genes. Here, we show that telomere attrition maintains hematopoietic stem cells under persistent metabolic activation and differentiation towards the megakaryocytic lineage through the cell-intrinsic upregulation of the innate immune signaling response, which directly compromises hematopoietic stem cells' self-renewal capabilities and eventually leads to their exhaustion. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that targeting members of the Ifi20x/IFI16 family of cytosolic DNA sensors using the oligodeoxynucleotide A151, which comprises four repeats of the TTAGGG motif of the telomeric DNA, overcomes interferon signaling activation in telomere-dysfunctional hematopoietic stem cells and these cells' skewed differentiation towards the megakaryocytic lineage. This study challenges the historical hypothesis that telomere attrition limits the proliferative potential of hematopoietic stem cells by inducing apoptosis, autophagy, or senescence, and suggests that targeting IFI16 signaling axis might prevent hematopoietic stem cell functional decline in conditions affecting telomere maintenance.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753779

RESUMO

The Food and Drug Administration Oncology Center of Excellence initiated Project 2025 to develop 5-year goals in specific areas of oncology drug development. This meeting, in October 2020, brought together a panel of regulators and academic experts in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to discuss opportunities to maximize the success that has recently occurred in AML drug development. The panel discussed challenges and opportunities in clinical trial design and novel endpoints, and outlined key considerations for drug development to facilitate continued growth in the field.

8.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phase 3 VIALE-A trial (NCT02993523) reported that venetoclax-azacitidine significantly prolonged overall survival compared with placebo-azacitidine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. Herein, efficacy and safety of venetoclax-azacitidine are analyzed in the Japanese subgroup of VIALE-A patients. METHODS: Eligible Japanese patients were randomized 2:1 to venetoclax-azacitidine (N = 24) or placebo-azacitidine (N = 13). Primary endpoints for Japan were overall survival and complete response (CR) + CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi). Venetoclax (target dose 400 mg) was given orally once daily. Azacitidine (75 mg/m2) was administered subcutaneously or intravenously on Days 1-7 of each 28-day cycle. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 1.0-20.3). Median overall survival was not reached with venetoclax-azacitidine (hazard ratio 0.409 and 95% confidence interval: 0.151, 1.109); overall survival estimate was higher with venetoclax-azacitidine than placebo-azacitidine at 12 (67 and 46%) and 18 months (57 and 31%), respectively. CR and CRi rates were 67% with venetoclax-azacitidine and 15% with placebo-azacitidine. Most common any-grade adverse events were febrile neutropenia (79 and 39%), thrombocytopenia (54 and 77%), constipation (54 and 54%) and decreased appetite (54 and 38%) in the venetoclax-azacitidine and placebo-azacitidine arms, respectively. Only 1 patient in the venetoclax-azacitidine arm, and no patients in the placebo-azacitidine arm, had grade 4 febrile neutropenia that led to treatment discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: This Japanese subgroup analysis of VIALE-A demonstrates comparable safety and efficacy outcomes compared with the global study and supports venetoclax-azacitidine as first-line standard-of-care for Japanese treatment-naive patients with acute myeloid leukemia who are ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.

9.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(10): 163, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599139

RESUMO

VIALE-C compared the safety and efficacy of venetoclax or placebo plus low-dose cytarabine (+LDAC) in patients with untreated AML ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. Overall, 211 patients were enrolled (n = 143, venetoclax; n = 68, placebo). At the primary analysis, the study did not meet its primary endpoint of a statistically significant improvement in overall survival (OS), however, ~60% of patients had been on study for ≤6-months. Here, we present an additional 6-months of follow-up of VIALE-C (median follow-up 17.5 months; range 0.1-23.5). Median OS was (venetoclax +LDAC vs. placebo +LDAC) 8.4 vs. 4.1 months (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50,0.99; P = 0.040); a 30% reduction in the risk of death with venetoclax. Complete response (CR)/CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) rates were 48.3% vs. 13.2%. Transfusion independence rates (RBC) were 43% vs.19% and median event-free survival was 4.9 vs. 2.1 months (HR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.44,0.84; P = 0.002). These results represent improved efficacy over the primary analysis. Incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events were similar between study arms and overall safety profiles were comparable to the primary analysis. These data support venetoclax +LDAC as a frontline treatment option for patients with AML ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03069352.

10.
Blood ; 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601571

RESUMO

Majority of RUNX1 mutations in AML are missense or deletion-truncation and behave as loss-of-function mutations. Following standard therapy, AML patients expressing mtRUNX1 exhibit inferior clinical outcome than those without mutant RUNX1. Studies presented here demonstrate that as compared to AML cells lacking mtRUNX1, their isogenic counterparts harboring mtRUNX1 display impaired ribosomal biogenesis and differentiation, as well as exhibit reduced levels of wild-type RUNX1, PU.1 and c-Myc. Compared to AML cells with only wild-type RUNX1, AML cells expressing mtRUNX1 were also more sensitive to the protein translation inhibitor homoharringtonine (omacetaxine) and BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax. HHT treatment repressed enhancers and their BRD4 occupancy, as well as was associated with reduced levels of c-Myc, c-Myb, MCL1 and Bcl-xL. Consistent with this, co-treatment with omacetaxine and venetoclax or BET inhibitor induced synergistic in vitro lethality in AML expressing mtRUNX1. Compared to each agent alone, co-treatment with omacetaxine and venetoclax or BET inhibitor also displayed improved in vivo anti-AML efficacy, associated with improved survival of immune depleted mice engrafted with AML cells harboring mtRUNX1. These findings highlight superior efficacy of omacetaxine-based combination therapies for AML harboring mtRUNX1.

11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-4, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668451

RESUMO

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(15;17) and the resulting gene PML-RARA, used for measurable residual disease (MRD) monitoring. Despite highly effective therapy for APL, MRD monitoring practices are not fully established. We aimed to assess the value of MRD monitoring by RT-qPCR in patients with APL treated with ATRA and arsenic trioxide +/- GO. We reviewed 223 patients with APL treated with this regimen. RT-qPCR for PML-RARA was measured every 3 months, and at 12, 18, and 24 months after therapy. Seven patients relapsed. Time to relapse was 7.9-12.4 months in 6 patients, and one patient relapsed after 79.5 months. These data show that MRD monitoring may be important for the detection of relapse in patients treated with this regimen within one year after completing therapy, however, since late molecular relapse is rare, our data suggest a low value of MRD monitoring beyond that first year.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(11): 1597-1608, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enasidenib is an oral inhibitor of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) proteins. We evaluated the safety and activity of enasidenib plus azacitidine versus azacitidine alone in patients with newly diagnosed, mutant-IDH2 acute myeloid leukaemia ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. METHODS: This open-label, phase 1b/2 trial was done at 43 clinical sites in 12 countries (the USA, Germany, Canada, the UK, France, Spain, Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, and South Korea). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had newly diagnosed, mutant-IDH2 acute myeloid leukaemia, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. In the phase 1b dose-finding portion, patients received oral enasidenib 100 mg/day or 200 mg/day in continuous 28-day cycles, plus subcutaneous azacitidine 75 mg/m2 per day for 7 days of each cycle. In phase 2, patients were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive web response system to enasidenib plus azacitidine or azacitidine-only, stratified by acute myeloid leukaemia subtype (de novo or secondary). The primary endpoint in the phase 2 portion was the overall response rate in the intention-to-treat population at a prespecified interim analysis (Aug 20, 2019) when all patients had at least 1 year of follow-up. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02677922, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 3, 2016, and Aug 2, 2018, 322 patients were screened and 107 patients with mutant-IDH2 acute myeloid leukaemia were enrolled. At data cutoff for the interim analysis, 24 patients (including two from the phase 1 portion) were still receiving their assigned treatment. Six patients were enrolled in the phase 1b dose-finding portion of the trial and received enasidenib 100 mg (n=3) or 200 mg (n=3) in combination with azacitidine. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred and the enasidenib 100 mg dose was selected for phase 2. In phase 2, 101 patients were randomly assigned to enasidenib plus azacitidine (n=68) or azacitidine only (n=33). Median age was 75 years (IQR 71-78). 50 (74%; 95% CI 61-84) patients in the enasidenib plus azacitidine combination group and 12 (36%; 20-55) patients in the azacitidine monotherapy group achieved an overall response (odds ratio 4·9 [95% CI 2·0-11·9]; p=0·0003). Common treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events with enasidenib plus azacitidine were thrombocytopenia (25 [37%] of 68 vs six [19%] of 32 in the azacitidine-only group), neutropenia (25 [37%] vs eight [25%]), anaemia (13 [19%] vs seven [22%]), and febrile neutropenia (11 [16%] vs five [16%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in 29 (43%) patients in the combination group and 14 (44%) patients in the azacitidine-only group; serious treatment-related adverse events occurring in more than 5% of patients in either group were febrile neutropenia (nine [13%] in the combination group vs five [16%] in the azacitidine-only group), differentiation syndrome (seven [10%] vs none), and pneumonia (three [4%] vs two [6%]). No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: Combination enasidenib plus azacitidine was well tolerated and significantly improved overall response rates compared with azacitidine monotherapy, suggesting that this regimen can improve outcomes for patients with newly diagnosed, mutant-IDH2 acute myeloid leukaemia. FUNDING: Bristol Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Hematol ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716921

RESUMO

The progress with intensive chemotherapy and supportive care measures has improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Given the recent development of effective low intensity therapies, an optimal decision on the therapy intensity may improve survival through the avoidance of early mortality. We reviewed the outcome of 3728 patients with newly diagnosed AML who received intensive chemotherapy between August 1980 and May 2020. Intensive chemotherapy was defined as a cumulative cytarabine dose ≥ 700 mg/m2 during induction therapy. We divided the whole cohort into a training and validation group at a 3:1 ratio. The population was divided into a training (2790 patients) and a validation cohort (938 patients). The median age was 55 years (range, 15-99). Among them, 442 patients (12%) had core-binding factor AML. Binary logistic regression identified older age, worse performance status, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, hyperuricemia, cytogenetic abnormalities other than CBF and -Y, and pneumonia as adverse prognostic factors for an early 4-week mortality. This risk classification for early mortality was verified in the validation cohort of patients. In the validation cohort of more recently treated patients from 2000 to 2017, the 4-week mortality rates with intensive chemotherapy were 2%, 14%, and 50% in the low-, high-, and very high-risk group, respectively. The mortality rates with low intensity therapies were 3%, 9%, and 20%, respectively. The risk classification guides treatment intensity by the assessment of age, frailty, organ dysfunction, cytogenetic abnormality, and infection to avoid early mortality.

15.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(9): 162, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588432

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with rearrangement of the lysine methyltransferase 2a gene (KMT2Ar) has adverse outcomes. However, reports on the prognostic impact of various translocations causing KMT2Ar are conflicting. Less is known about associated mutations and their prognostic impact. In a retrospective analysis, we identified 172 adult patients with KMT2Ar AML and compared them to 522 age-matched patients with diploid AML. KMT2Ar AML had fewer mutations, most commonly affecting RAS and FLT3 without significant impact on prognosis, except for patients with ≥2 mutations with lower overall survival (OS). KMT2Ar AML had worse outcomes compared with diploid AML when newly diagnosed and at relapse, especially following second salvage (median OS of 2.4 vs 4.8 months, P < 0.0001). Therapy-related KMT2Ar AML (t-AML) had worse outcomes compared with de novo KMT2Ar AML (median OS of 0.7 years vs 1.4 years, P < 0.0001). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) in first remission was associated with improved OS (5-year, 52 vs 14% for no allo-HSCT, P < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, translocation subtypes causing KMT2Ar did not predict survival, unlike age and allo-HSCT. In conclusion, KMT2Ar was associated with adverse outcomes regardless of translocation subtype. Therefore, AML risk stratification guidelines should include all KMT2Ar as adverse.

16.
Blood Adv ; 5(23): 5415-5419, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525185

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with t(4;11)(q21;q23)-KMT2A-AFF1 is associated with a poor prognosis. The impact of KMT2A rearrangements other than t(4;11) is uncertain, and the benefit of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is unclear. We reviewed adult patients with ALL treated at our institution from 1984 to 2019 and identified 50 out of 1102 (5%) with KMT2A rearrangement, including 42 (84%) with t(4;11)/KMT2A-AFF1 and 8 (16%) with other gene partners. The median age was 45 years (range, 18-78 years); median white blood cell count was 109.0 3 109/L (range, 0.5-1573.0). The complete remission (CR) rate was 88%, and the rate of measurable residual disease negativity by flow cytometry at CR was 41% (76% overall during follow-up). At the last follow-up, 14 patients were alive. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 35%), with no difference between t(4;11) and other KMT2A rearrangements (P 5 .87). In a 4-month landmark analysis, the 5-year OS rate was 32% (95% CI, 14% to 70%) in patients who underwent HSCT vs 11% (95% CI, 3-39) in others (P 5 .10). Our study confirms the poor prognosis of ALL with any KMT2A rearrangement and the role of HSCT in these patients.

19.
Am J Hematol ; 96(11): 1420-1428, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351647

RESUMO

TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Frequência do Gene , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 378-387, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340254

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is upregulated in cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34)+ bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Hypomethylating agent (HMA) treatment results in further increased expression of these immune checkpoints. We hypothesised that combining an anti-PD-1 antibody with HMAs may have efficacy in patients with MDS. To test this concept, we designed a phase II trial of the combination of azacitidine and pembrolizumab with two cohorts. In the 17 previously untreated patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 76%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 18% and median overall survival (mOS) not reached after a median follow-up of 12·8 months. For the HMA-failure cohort (n = 20), the ORR was 25% and CR rate was 5%; with a median follow-up of 6·0 months, the mOS was 5·8 months. The most observed toxicities were pneumonia (32%), arthralgias (24%) and constipation (24%). Immune-related adverse events requiring corticosteroids were required in 43%. Overall, this phase II trial suggests that azacitidine and pembrolizumab is safe with manageable toxicities in patients with higher-risk MDS. This combined therapy may have anti-tumour activity in a subset of patients and merits further studies in the front-line setting.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...