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1.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(6): 91, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680852

RESUMO

Recent advances in FLT3 and IDH targeted inhibition have improved response rates and overall survival in patients with mutations affecting these respective proteins. Despite this success, resistance mechanisms have arisen including mutations that disrupt inhibitor-target interaction, mutations impacting alternate pathways, and changes in the microenvironment. Here we review the role of these proteins in leukemogenesis, their respective inhibitors, mechanisms of resistance, and briefly ongoing studies aimed at overcoming resistance.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2102823, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704787

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The combination of venetoclax and 5-azacitidine (5-AZA) for older or unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) improves remission rates and survival compared with 5-AZA alone. We hypothesized that the addition of venetoclax to cladribine (CLAD)/low-dose araC (low-dose cytarabine [LDAC]) alternating with 5-AZA backbone may further improve outcomes for older patients with newly diagnosed AML. METHODS: This is a phase II study investigating the combination of venetoclax and CLAD/LDAC alternating with venetoclax and 5-AZA in older (≥ 60 years) or unfit patients with newly diagnosed AML. The primary objective was composite complete response (CR) rate (CR plus CR with incomplete blood count recovery); secondary end points were overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), overall response rate, and toxicity. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were treated; median age was 68 years (range, 57-84 years). By European LeukemiaNet, 23%, 33%, and 43% were favorable, intermediate, and adverse risk, respectively. Fifty-six of 60 evaluable patients responded (composite CR: 93%) and 84% were negative for measurable residual disease. There was one death (2%) within 4 weeks. With a median follow-up of 22.1 months, the median overall survival and DFS have not yet been reached. The most frequent grade 3/4 nonhematologic adverse events were febrile neutropenia (n = 33) and pneumonia (n = 14). One patient developed grade 4 tumor lysis syndrome. CONCLUSION: Venetoclax and CLAD/LDAC alternating with venetoclax and 5-AZA is an effective regimen among older or unfit patients with newly diagnosed AML. The rates of overall survival and DFS are encouraging. Further study of this non-anthracycline-containing backbone in younger patients, unfit for intensive chemotherapy, as well as comparisons to standard frontline therapies is warranted.

3.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702875

RESUMO

The current study was approached with the assumption that response to induction chemotherapy, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), overshadows pre-treatment risk variables in predicting survival and therefore be used as an anchor for a simplified risk model. We considered 759 intensively-treated patients with AML, not promyelocytic: median age 60 years; primary 66%, secondary 25%, and therapy-related 9%; European LeukemiaNet cytogenetic risk category favorable 8%, intermediate 61%, and adverse 31%. Complete remission with (CR) or without (CRi) count recovery was achieved in 608 (80%) patients. After a median follow-up of 22 months, 503 deaths, 272 relapses, and 257 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (AHSCTs) were recorded. Multivariable analysis identified failure to achieve CR/CRi (HR 3.8, 95% CI 3.1-4.8), adverse karyotype (2.2, 1.8-2.8), and age >55 years (2.1, 1.6-2.7) as main risk factors for survival. HR-weighted scoring resulted in four-tiered risk stratification: low (0 points; N=183), intermediate-1 (1 point; N=331), intermediate-2 (2 points; N=117), and high (≥3 points; N=128), with respective median survival (5-year rate) not reached (68%), 34 (37%), 13 (20%), and 5 (5%) months (p <0.001). FLT3-ITD mutation was associated with inferior survival in intermediate-1 (p=0.004) and TP53 in intermediate-2 (p=0.06) and high (p=0.02) risk disease; the latter was fully accounted for by the close association between TP53 mutation and complex/monosomal karyotype while the observations regarding FLT3-ITD were not affected by treatment with midostaurin. AHSCT had a favorable impact on survival, most apparent in intermediate-1 (p<0.001), intermediate-2 (p=0.03), and high (p=0.01) risk disease. The proposed 3-factor survival model offers a novel prototype that is amenable to further enhancement by molecular information and was validated in an external cohort of 1,032 intensively-treated AML patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Blood ; 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714312

RESUMO

This open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial (NCT02577406) compared enasidenib, an oral IDH2 inhibitor, with conventional care regimens (CCR) in patients aged ≥60 years with late-stage, mutant-IDH2 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapsed/refractory (R/R) to 2 or 3 prior AML-directed therapies. Patients were first preselected to a CCR (azacitidine, intermediate-dose cytarabine, low-dose cytarabine, or supportive care), and then randomized (1:1) to enasidenib 100 mg/day or CCR. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included event-free survival (EFS), time to treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), hematologic improvement (HI), and transfusion independence (TI). Overall, 319 patients were randomized to enasidenib (n=158) or CCR (n=161). Median age was 71 years. Median (range) enasidenib exposure was 142 days (3-1270) and CCR was 36 days (1-1166). One enasidenib (0.6%) and 20 CCR (12%) patients received no randomized treatment, and 30% and 43%, respectively, received subsequent AML-directed therapies during follow-up. Median OS with enasidenib vs CCR was 6.5 vs 6.2 months (HR [hazard ratio] 0.86; P=.23); 1-year survival was 37.5% vs 26.1%. Enasidenib meaningfully improved EFS (median 4.9 months, vs 2.6 months with CCR; HR 0.68; P=.008), TTF (median 4.9 vs 1.9 months, HR 0.53; P<.001), ORR (40.5% vs 9.9%; P<.001), HI (42.4% vs 11.2%), and RBC-TI (31.7% vs 9.3%). Enasidenib safety was consistent with prior reports. The primary study endpoint was not met but OS was confounded by early dropout and subsequent AML-directed therapies. Enasidenib provided meaningful benefits in EFS, TTF, ORR, HI, and RBC-TI in this heavily pretreated older mutant-IDH2 R/R AML population.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(6): 1176-1184, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35553621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing population of adolescent and young adult (AYA, age 15-39 years) acute leukemia survivors in whom long-term mortality outcomes are largely unknown. METHODS: The current study utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry to assess long-term outcomes of AYA acute leukemia 5-year survivors. The impact of diagnosis age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and decade of diagnosis on long-term survival were assessed utilizing an accelerated failure time model. RESULTS: A total of 1,938 AYA acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 2,350 AYA acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survivors diagnosed between 1980 and 2009 were included with a median follow-up of 12.3 and 12.7 years, respectively. Ten-year survival for ALL and AML survivors was 87% and 89%, respectively, and 99% for the general population. Survival for AYA leukemia survivors remained below that of the age-adjusted general population at up to 30 years of follow-up. Primary cancer mortality was the most common cause of death in early survivorship with noncancer causes of death becoming more prevalent in later decades of follow-up. Male AML survivors had significantly worse survival than females (survival time ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.45-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: AYA leukemia survivors have higher mortality rates than the general population that persist for decades after diagnosis. IMPACT: While there have been improvements in late mortality, long-term survival for AYA leukemia survivors remains below that of the general population. Studies investigating risk factors for mortality and disparities in late effects among long-term AYA leukemia survivors are needed.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Sobreviventes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
Blood ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512188

RESUMO

There is a growing body of evidence that therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) with driver gene mutations arise in the background of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) under the positive selective pressure of chemo- and radiation therapies (CRT). Uncovering the exposure relationships that provide selective advantage to specific CH mutations is critical to understanding the pathogenesis and etiololgy of t-MNs. In a systematic analysis of 416 patients with t-MN and detailed prior exposure history, we found that TP53 mutations were significantly associated with prior treatment with thalidomide analogs, specifically lenalidomide. We demonstrated experimentally that lenalidomide treatment provides a selective advantage to Trp53-mutant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in vitro and in vivo, the effect of which was specific to Trp53-mutant HSPCs and was not observed in HSPCs with other CH mutations. Due to differences in CK1a degradation, pomalidomide treatment did not provide an equivalent level of selective advantage to Trp53-mutant HSPCs providing a biological rationale for its use in patients at high risk for t-MN. These findings highlight the role of lenalidomide treatment in promoting TP53-mutated t-MNs and offer a potential alternative strategy to mitigate the risk of t-MN development.

9.
Am J Hematol ; 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583199

RESUMO

Multi-agent induction chemotherapy (IC) improves response rates in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, relapse remains the principal cause of treatment failure. Improved induction regimens are needed. A prospective single-center phase Ib/II study evaluating fludarabine, cytarabine, G-CSF, and idarubicin combined with venetoclax (FLAG-IDA + VEN) in patients with newly diagnosed (ND) or relapsed/refractory AML. The primary efficacy endpoint was assessment of overall activity (overall response rate [ORR]: complete remission [CR] + CR with partial hematologic recovery [CRh] + CR with incomplete hematologic recovery [CRi] + morphologic leukemia free state + partial response). Secondary objectives included additional assessments of efficacy, overall survival (OS), and event-free survival (EFS). Results of the expanded ND cohort with additional follow-up are reported. Forty-five patients (median age: 44 years [range 20-65]) enrolled. ORR was 98% (N = 44/45; 95% credible interval 89.9%-99.7%). Eighty-nine percent (N = 40/45) of patients attained a composite CR (CRc + CRh + CRi) including 93% (N = 37/40) who were measurable residual disease (MRD) negative. Twenty-seven (60%) patients transitioned to allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT). Common non-hematologic adverse events included febrile neutropenia (44%; N = 20), pneumonia (22%, N = 10), bacteremia (18%, N = 8), and skin/soft tissue infections (44%, N = 20). After a median follow-up of 20 months, median EFS and OS were not reached. Estimated 24-month EFS and OS were 64% and 76%, respectively. FLAG-IDA + VEN is an active regimen in ND-AML capable of producing high MRD-negative remission rates and enabling transition to alloHSCT when appropriate in most patients. Toxicities were as expected with IC and were manageable. Estimated 24-month survival appears favorable compared to historical IC benchmarks.

10.
Blood Adv ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511730

RESUMO

The clinical benefit of adding venetoclax (VEN) to hypomethylating agents or low dose cytarabine in older and/or unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been confirmed in phase 3 studies. With the increased uptake of VEN-based therapies for patients with AML, a pertinent question is whether treatment can be safely ceased among patients who have achieved sustained remission. We hypothesized that a proportion of patients opting to cease therapy may benefit from a treatment-free remission (TFR) period without indefinite treatment. We report the retrospective outcomes of 29 patients in remission for a minimum of 12 months on VEN-based therapy, with 55% continuing therapy (CONT) until disease progression and the 45% electively ceasing treatment (STOP). With follow up exceeding 5 years, we observed a median TFR lasting 45.8 months among the STOP cohort, with >50% of patients still in sustained remission at the data cut-off. The risk of relapse and duration of relapse-free and overall survival were similar between the two cohorts. Factors favoring sustained TFR within the cohort included NPM1 and/or IDH2 mutation at diagnosis, complete remission without measurable residual disease, and at least 12 months of VEN-based combination therapy prior to treatment cessation.

11.
Ther Adv Hematol ; 13: 20406207221093964, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510212

RESUMO

The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) inhibitor venetoclax (VEN) in combination with lower-intensity therapy is an efficacious treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). VEN in combination with the hypomethylating agent azacitidine improved rates of response and measurable residual disease (MRD)-negative remissions in addition to overall survival in the pivotal phase 3 VIALE-A trial compared with azacitidine monotherapy and has since emerged as the current standard of care in older or unfit patients with AML. In younger, fit patients with AML, intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy (IC) is commonly employed as frontline therapy; however, relapse remains the principal cause of treatment failure in approximately 30-40% of patients. Improved IC regimens that increase MRD-negative response rates, result in durable remissions, and enable transition to curative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in appropriate patients remain an area of active inquiry. Preliminary results from trials investigating the combination of VEN with IC have reported promising findings to date, with composite complete remission and MRD-negative remission rates of approximately 89-94% and 82-93%, respectively, correlating with improved 12-month event-free and overall survival compared to historical outcomes with IC. Herein, we discuss ongoing trials investigating VEN in combination with IC in addition to outcomes within specific molecularly defined subgroups; review the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance to VEN, and highlight future combinations of VEN with novel targeted therapies for the treatment of AML.

12.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(5): 77, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501304

RESUMO

In older/unfit newly diagnosed patients with FLT3 mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), lower intensity chemotherapy (LIC) in combination with either a FLT3 inhibitor or with venetoclax results in poor overall survival (median 8 to 12.5 months). We performed a retrospective analysis of 87 newly diagnosed FLT3 mutated AML patients treated on triplet (LIC + FLT3 inhibitor + Venetoclax, [N = 27]) and doublet (LIC + FLT3 inhibitor, [N = 60]) regimens at our institution. Data were collected from prospective clinical trials in 75% (N = 65) and 25% (N = 22) who received the same treatment regimens outside of a clinical trial. Triplet therapy was associated with significantly higher rates of complete remission (CR) (67% versus 32%, P = 0.002), CR/CRi (93% versus 70%, P = 0.02), FLT3-PCR negativity (96% versus 54%, P < 0.01), and flow-cytometry negativity (83% versus 38%, P < 0.01) than doublets. At the end of the first cycle, the median time to ANC > 0.5 (40 versus 21 days, P = 0.15) and platelet > 50 K (29 versus 25 days, P = 0.6) among responders was numerically longer with triplets, but 60-day mortality was similar (7% v 10%). With a median follow-up of 24 months (median 12 months for triplet arm, and 63 months for doublet arm), patients receiving a triplet regimen had a longer median overall survival (not reached versus 9.5 months, P < 0.01). LIC combined with FLT3 inhibitor and venetoclax (triplet) may be an effective frontline regimen for older/unfit FLT3 mutated AML that should be further validated prospectively.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
13.
Am J Hematol ; 97(7): 865-876, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384048

RESUMO

Progress with intensive chemotherapy and supportive care measures has improved survival in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Predicting outcome helps in treatment decision making. We analyzed survival as the treatment endpoint in 3728 patients with newly diagnosed AML treated with intensive chemotherapy from 1980 to 2021. We divided the total study group (3:1 basis) into a training (n = 2790) and a validation group (n = 938). The associations between survival and 27 characteristics were investigated. In the training cohort, the multivariate analysis identified 12 consistent adverse prognostic variables independently associated with worse survival: older age, therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, worse performance status, cardiac comorbidity, leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase, cytogenetic abnormalities, and the presence of infection at diagnosis except fever of unknown origin. We categorized patients into four prognostic groups, favorable (7%), intermediate (43%), poor (39%), and very poor (11%) with estimated 5-year survival rates of 69%, 36%, 13%, and 3% respectively (p < .001). The predictive model was validated in an independent cohort. In a subset of patients with molecular mutation profiles, adding the mutation profiles after accounting for the effects of previous factors identified NPM1 (favorable), PTPN11, and TP53 (both unfavorable) mutations as molecular prognostic factors. The new proposed predictive model for survival with intensive chemotherapy in patients with AML is robust and can be used to advise patients regarding their prognosis, to modify therapy in remission (e.g., proposing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first remission), and to compare outcome and benefits on future investigational therapies.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Cancer ; 128(14): 2736-2745, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), combined with hypomethylating agents, can be used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but this strategy results in a high rate of pneumonitis. The authors sought to determine risk factors for pneumonitis development and whether pneumonitis increased mortality. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of 258 AML patients who received ICI-containing regimens from 2016 to 2018. A multidisciplinary adjudication committee diagnosed pneumonia and pneumonitis by reviewing symptoms, imaging, microbiology, and response to therapies. To measure risk factors for pneumonitis and mortality, multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were constructed. Pneumonia, pneumonitis, and disease progression were modeled as a time-dependent variable and incorporated a standard risk set modifying variables into the models. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed pneumonitis (12%). Of these, 17 had partial or complete resolution, whereas 13 patients died from pneumonitis. Increasing age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.08), and baseline shortness of breath increased pneumonitis risk (HR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.13-5.55). Female sex (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.70) and increasing platelet count (HR, 0.52 per log-unit increase; 95% CI, 0.30-0.92) decreased pneumonitis risk. In adjusted models, ICI-related pneumonitis significantly increased mortality (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.84-4.37). CONCLUSIONS: ICI-related pneumonitis occurs at a high rate in AML patients and increases mortality. LAY SUMMARY: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) remove inhibitory signals that reduce T-cell function and allow T-cells to better attack cancer cells. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the effectiveness of ICIs is limited in part by inflammation of the lung, called pneumonitis. This study reviewed 258 patients with AML who received ICIs and identified 30 patients who developed pneumonitis, nearly half of whom died. Older age and baseline shortness of breath increased pneumonitis risk, whereas female sex and higher baseline platelet counts decreased pneumonitis risk. Pneumonitis increased mortality by nearly 3-fold. This work highlights the significant harm imposed by pneumonitis after ICI therapies.

15.
Am J Hematol ; 97(7): 885-894, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413152

RESUMO

Newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia is often deemed a medical emergency, requiring urgent treatment. This is in contradiction with the need for accurate cytogenetic and molecular data, which is not immediately available, to select optimal therapy. We hypothesized that cytoreduction with hydroxyurea or cytarabine would enable urgent disease control and provide a bridge to clinical trial enrollment. We analyzed three prospective frontline clinical trials that allowed the use of cytoreduction before treatment initiation. Among 274 patients with a median age of 62 (range, 18-89), there was no significant difference in short- and long-term outcome and safety among patients who did (CytoRed) or did not receive (NoCytoRed) cytoreduction. The overall response rate in CytoRed group was 91%, compared with 86% in NoCytoRed group (p = .264). The 30- and 60-day mortality rates were 2% and 7% in CytoRed group, compared with 2% (p = .978) and 6% (p = .652) in NoCytoRed group, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between in CytoRed group compared with NoCytoRed group (Hazard ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.37, p = .879). Results were unchanged after stratification by age (< or ≥65 years) or after multivariate analyses for OS. Our data suggests that urgent cytoreduction using hydroxyurea or cytarabine is a feasible and safe approach to facilitate acquisition of complete diagnostic information prior to treatment initiation on a clinical trial.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Citarabina , Genômica , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(4): 71, 2022 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443742

RESUMO

Phase 3 trials Viale-A and Viale-C evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with AML unfit for intensive chemotherapy who received venetoclax (VEN) + (AZA) (Viale-A) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) (Viale-C) or placebo (PBO) + AZA or LDAC. Patient-reported outcomes included: EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status (GHS/QoL) and physical functioning (PF), PROMIS Cancer Fatigue Short Form 7a (Fatigue), and EQ-5D-5L health status visual analog scale (HS-VAS). Time to deterioration (TTD), defined as worsening from baseline in meaningful change thresholds (MCT) of ≥10, 5, or 7 points for GHS/QoL or PF, fatigue, and HS-VAS, respectively, was assessed; differences between groups were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and unadjusted log-rank analyses. VEN + AZA vs PBO + AZA patients had longer TTD in GHS/QoL (P = 0.066) and fatigue (P = 0.189), and significantly longer TTD in PF (P = 0.028) and HS-VAS (P < 0.001). VEN + LDAC vs PBO + LDAC patients had significantly longer TTD in GHS/QoL (P = 0.011), PF (P = 0.020), and fatigue (P = 0.004), and a trend in HS-VAS (P = 0.057). Approximately 43%, 35%, 32%, and 18% of patients treated with VEN + AZA, AZA + PBO, VEN + LDAC, or LDAC + PBO, respectively, saw improvements >MCT in GHS/QoL. Overall, VEN may positively impact HRQoL in patients with AML ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, leading to longer preservation of functioning and overall health status.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Qualidade de Vida , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Sulfonamidas
18.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442137

RESUMO

We conducted a phase Ib/II multi-arm, parallel cohort study to simultaneously evaluate various immunotherapeutic agents and combinations in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Overall, 50 patients were enrolled into one of 6 arms: (A) single agent PF-04518600 (OX40 agonist monoclonal antibody), (B) azacitidine + venetoclax + gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), (C) azacitidine + avelumab (anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody) + GO, (D) azacitidine + venetoclax + avelumab, (E) azacitidine + avelumab + PF-04518600, and (F) glasdegib + GO. Among all regimens evaluated, azacitidine + venetoclax + GO appeared most promising. In this arm, the CR/CRi rates among venetoclax-naïve and prior venetoclax-exposed patients were 50% and 22%, respectively, and the 1-year OS rate was 31%. This study shows the feasibility of a conducting a multi-arm trial to efficiently and simultaneously evaluate novel therapies in AML, a needed strategy in light of the plethora of emerging therapies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03390296.

20.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(5): e350-e360, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy has been shown to be safe with promising activity in fit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy with intensive chemotherapy alone. METHODS: This was a post-hoc propensity score matched analysis of prospective clinical trials (NCT03214562, NCT02115295, and NCT01289457) in patients at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas, USA between March 29, 2010, and June 15, 2021. Eligible patients were aged 18 years and older, and had newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and were treated within trials incorporating purine analogues with an anthracycline and cytarabine either with venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy or with intensive chemotherapy alone. Patients in the venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy cohort were matched with patients in the intensive chemotherapy cohort. Morphological response and measurable residual disease (MRD) was assessed using bone marrow aspiration and biopsy and eight-colour multiparameter flow cytometry. The primary objectives were rate of MRD negative composite complete response and cumulative incidence of transition to allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). All patients who had response within two treatment cycles (induction and re-induction) were included in the analyses. Secondary objectives included assessment of event-free and overall survival. FINDINGS: The propensity matched cohort included 279 patients (median age 49 years [IQR 39-57]; 131 [47%] were men and 148 [53%] were women); 85 in the venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy cohort and 194 in the intensive chemotherapy cohort. After a median follow up of 30 months (95% CI 26-36), 64 (86%) of 74 patients in the venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy cohort had an MRD-negative composite complete response rate compared with 86 [61%] of 140 patients in the intensive chemotherapy cohort (odd ratio 3·2 [95% CI 1·5-6·7]; p=0·0028). The overall cumulative incidence of allogeneic HSCT in responding patients was higher with venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy than intensive chemotherapy (79% [95% CI 67-88] vs 57% [49-65]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·52 [95% CI 1·11-2·08]; p=0·012). Venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy improved event-free survival (median not reached [NR; 95% CI NR-NR] vs 14·3 months [10·7-33·5]; HR 0·57 [95% CI 0·34-0·95]; p=0·030), but overall survival did not significantly differ between the two cohorts (median NR [95% CI 24-NR] vs 32 months [19-NR]; HR 0·63 [95% CI 0·35-1·1], p=0·13). INTERPRETATIONS: Venetoclax combined with intensive induction chemotherapy induced deep MRD-negative remissions, allowing transition to allogeneic HSCT in first remission, and improvement in event-free survival. These results highlight the incremental benefit of venetoclax added to intensive induction chemotherapy across European LeukemiaNet risk groups, and serve as a benchmark to inform enrolment on future confirmatory prospective clinical trials. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Sulfonamidas
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