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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 413, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a relatively common disease worldwide with a point prevalence of around 5/1000 in the population. The aim of this present work was to assess the demographic, clinical, familial, and environmental factors associated with schizophrenia in Mali. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study on a series of 164 patients aged at least 12 years who came for a follow-up consultation at the psychiatry department of the University Hospital Center (CHU) Point G in Mali between February 2019 and January 2020 for schizophrenia spectrum disorder as defined by DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the male sex was predominant (80.5%). The 25-34 age group was more represented with 44.5%. The place of birth for the majority of our patients was the urban area (52.4%), which also represented the place of the first year of life for the majority of our patients (56.1%). We noted that the unemployed and single people accounted for 56.1 and 61% respectively. More than half of our patients 58.5% reported having reached secondary school level. With the exception of education level, there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of demographic parameters. Familial schizophrenia cases accounted for 51.7% versus 49.3% for non-familial cases. The different clinical forms were represented by the paranoid form, followed by the undifferentiated form, and the hebephrenic form with respectively 34, 28 and 17.1%. We noted that almost half (48.8%) of patients were born during the cold season. Cannabis use history was not observed in 68.7% of the patients. The proportions of patients with an out-of-school father or an out-of-school mother were 51.2 and 64.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The onset of schizophrenia in the Malian population has been associated with socio-demographic, clinical, genetic and environmental characteristics.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26614, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398016

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the phase I biotransformation process of a wide range of compounds, including xenobiotics, drugs, hormones and vitamins. It is noteworthy that these enzymes are highly polymorphic and, depending on the genetic makeup, an individual may have impaired enzymatic activity. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants in these genes could facilitate the implementation of pharmacogenetic studies and genetic predisposition to multifactorial diseases. We have established the frequencies of CYP2B6 (rs3745274; rs2279343) and CYP3A4 (rs2740574) alleles and genotypes in 209 healthy Malian subjects using TaqMan drug metabolism genotyping assays for allelic discrimination. Allele frequencies were 37% for CYP2B6 rs3745274; 38% for CYP2B6 rs2279343; and 75% for CYP3A4 rs2740574 respectively. Overall, the frequencies observed in Mali are statistically comparable to those reported across Africa except North Africa. The major haplotypes in CYP2B6 rs3745274 and CYP2B6 rs2279343 were represented by GA (60.24%) followed by TG (35.36%). We noted a strong linkage disequilibrium between CYP2B6 rs3745274 and CYP2B6 rs2279343 with D' = 0.91 and r2 = 0.9. The frequencies of the genotypic combinations were 43.5% (GT/AG), 37.3% (GG/AA) and 11.5% (TT/GG) in the combination of CYP2B6-rs3745274 and CYP2B6-rs2279343; 26.8% (GT/CC), 25.4%, (GT/CT), 17.2% and GG/CT in the combination CYP2B6-rs3745274-CYP3A4-rs2740574; 26.8% (AG/CC), 23.9% (AA/CC), 19.1% (AG/CT), and 11% (AA/CT) in the combination CYP2B6-rs2279343-CYP3A4-rs2740574, respectively. The most common triple genotype was GT/AG/CC with 24.9%, followed by GG/AA/CC with 23.9%, GT/AG/CT with 16.7%, and GG/AA/CT with 10%. Our results provide new insights into the distribution of these pharmacogenetically relevant genes in the Malian population. Moreover, these data will be useful for studies of individual genetic variability to drugs and genetic predisposition to diseases.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética/métodos
3.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 72: 101930, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, with an estimate of 570,000 new cases and about 311,000 deaths annually. Low-resource countries, including those in sub-Saharan Africa, have the highest-burden with an estimate of 84 % of all cervical cancers. This study examines the prevalence and socio-demographic-economic factors associated with cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A weighted population-based cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Surveys data. We used available data on cervical cancer screening between 2011 and 2018 from the Demographic and Health Surveys for five sub-Saharan African countries (Benin, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe). The study population included women of childbearing age, 21-49 years (n = 28,976). We fit a multivariable Poisson regression model to identify independent factors associated with cervical cancer screening. RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of cervical cancer screening was 19.0 % (95 % CI: 18.5 %-19.5 %) ranging from 0.7 % in Benin to 45.9 % in Namibia. Independent determinants of cervical cancer screening were: older age (40-49 years) adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.77 (95 % CI: 1.64, 1.90) compared with younger age (21-29 years), secondary/higher education (aPR = 1.51, 95 CI: 1.28-1.79) compared with no education, health insurance (aPR = 1.53, 95 % CI: 1.44-1.61) compared with no insurance, and highest socioeconomic status (aPR = 1.39, 95 % CI: 1.26-1.52) compared with lowest. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is substantially low in sub-Saharan Africa countries and shows a high degree of between-country variation. Interventions aimed at increasing the uptake of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa are critically needed.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 206, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the p.Arg72Pro variant of the P53 gene on the risk of development ofbreast cancer remains variable in populations. However, the use ofstrategies such aspoolingage-matched controls with disease may provide a consistent meta-analysis. Our goal was to perform a meta-analysis in order to assess the association of p.Arg72Pro variant of P53 gene with the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Databases such as PubMed, Genetics Medical Literature, Harvard University Library, Web of Science and Genesis Library were used to search articles. Case-control studies with age-matched on breast cancer havingevaluated the genotype frequencies of the TP53 p.Arg72Pro polymorphism were selected. The fixed and random effects (Mantel-Haenszel) were calculated using pooled odds ratio of 95% CI to determine the risk of disease. Inconsistency was calculated to determine heterogeneity among the studies. The publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot. RESULTS: Twenty-one publications with 7841 cases and 8876 controls were evaluated in this meta-analysis. Overall, our results suggested that TP53 p.Arg72Pro was associated with the risk of breast cancer for the dominant model (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P = 0.01) and the additive model (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.17, P = 0.03), but not for the recessive model (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97-1.18, P = 0.19). According to the ethnic group analysis, Pro allele was associated with the risk of breast cancer in Caucasians for the dominant model and additive model (P = 0.02), and Africans for the recessive model and additive model (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found a significant association between TP53 p.Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. Individuals carrying at least one Pro allele were more likely to have breast cancer than individuals harboring the Arg allele.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039464, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women after cervical cancer in much of sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to examine the prevalence and sociodemographic-socioeconomic factors associated with breast cancer screening among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: A weighted population-based cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data. We used all available data on breast cancer screening from the DHS for four sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Kenya and Namibia). Breast cancer screening was the outcome of interest for this study. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to identify independent factors associated with breast cancer screening. SETTING: Four countries participating in the DHS from 2010 to 2014 with data on breast cancer screening. PARTICIPANTS: Women of reproductive age 15-49 years (N=39 646). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of breast cancer screening was only 12.9% during the study period, ranging from 5.2% in Ivory Coast to 23.1% in Namibia. Factors associated with breast cancer screening were secondary/higher education with adjusted prevalence ratio (adjusted PR)=2.33 (95% CI: 2.05 to 2.66) compared with no education; older participants, 35-49 years (adjusted PR=1.73, 95% CI : 1.56 to 1.91) compared with younger participants 15-24 years; health insurance coverage (adjusted PR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.47 to 1.68) compared with those with no health insurance and highest socioeconomic status (adjusted PR=1.33, 95% CI : 1.19 to 1.49) compared with lowest socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Despite high breast cancer mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of breast cancer screening is substantially low and varies gradually across countries and in relation to factors such as education, age, health insurance coverage and household wealth index level. These results highlight the need for increased efforts to improve the uptake of breast cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 142, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, the most common tumor in women in Mali and worldwide has been linked to several risk factors, including genetic factors, such as the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism of TP53. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism in the susceptibility to breast cancer in the Malian population and to perform a meta-analysis to better understand the correlation with data from other populations. METHODS: We analyzed the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism in blood samples of 60 Malian women with breast cancer and 60 healthy Malian women using PCR. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis of case-control study data from international databases, including Pubmed, Harvard University Library, Genetics Medical Literature Database, Genesis Library and Web of Science. Overall, odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI from fixed and random effects models were determined. Inconsistency was used to assess heterogeneity between studies and publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot. RESULTS: In the studied Malian patients, a significant association of PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism with breast cancer risk was observed in dominant (A1A2 + A2A2 vs. A1A1: OR = 2.26, CI 95% = 1.08-4.73; P = 0.02) and additive (A2 vs. A1: OR = 1.87, CI 95% = 1.05-3.33; P = 0.03) models, but not in the recessive model (P = 0.38). In the meta-analysis, nineteen (19) articles were included with a total of 6018 disease cases and 4456 controls. Except for the dominant model (P = 0.15), an increased risk of breast cancer was detected with the recessive (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.15-1.85; P = 0.002) and additive (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02-1.19; P = 0.01) models. CONCLUSION: The case-control study showed that PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism of TP53 is a significant risk factor for breast cancer in Malian women. These findings are supported by data from the meta-analysis carried out on different ethnic groups around the world.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Mali , Modelos Genéticos , Razão de Chances , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(1): 393-400, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650384

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferase genes, known to be highly polymorphic, are implicated in the process of phase II metabolism of many substrates, including xenobiotics, anticancer and anti-infective drugs. The detoxification activity is linked to individual genetic makeup. Therefore, the identification of alleles and genotypes in these genes within a population may help to better design genetic susceptibility and pharmacogenetic studies. We performed the present study to establish the frequencies of the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 c. 313A > G (rs1695) polymorphisms in 206 individuals of the Malian healthy population. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were genotyped by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, whereas genotypes of GSTP1 were identified by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequencies of GSTM1-null and GSTT1-null genotypes were respectively 24.3 and 41.3%. The observed genotype frequencies for GSTP1 were 25.73% homozygous wild-type AA, 49.03% heterozygous AG and 25.24% homozygous mutant GG. The frequency of GSTP1-A allele was 50.24% versus 49.76% for the GSTP1-G allele. The distribution of these three genes was homogeneous between men and women (p > 0.05). We found no statistical association between the presence of a particular profile of GSTM1 or GSTT1 with the genotypes of GSTP1 (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, we noticed that the majority of the individuals harboring the GSTM1-present or the GSTT1-present harbor also the GSTP1-AG genotype. In addition, the triple genotype GSTM1-present/GSTT1-present/AG was the most frequent with 25.2%. Our findings will facilitate future studies regarding genetic associations of multifactorial diseases and pharmacogenetic, thus opening the way to personalized medicine in our population.


Assuntos
Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Glob Health Innov ; 2(2)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853521

RESUMO

Sputum smear microscopy (SSM), the most widely available tool for tuberculosis (TB) detection, has limited performance in paucibacillary patients and requires highly experienced technicians. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a detergent that thins sputum, at 4% and 10%, improves the detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB), the clarity of slides, and the biosafety of the technique. Thirty participants with presumptive TB were enrolled. Three independent, blinded technicians examined the slides. Regular sputum concentrated AFB smear and sputum culture were used as standard control methods. Sputum culture was also performed before and after 10% SDS addition for safety analysis. We found that neither SSM with SDS 4% nor SSM with SDS 10% improved the test's performance. However, slides with 4% and 10% SDS, compared with slides prepared without SDS, had significantly better clarity scores. The 10% SDS-prepared sputum samples were all culture negative. While adding SDS detergent does not improve the performance of SSM slides, it does improve the clarity and biosafety. Where experienced technicians are scarce, especially in low resource settings, use of SDS may enhance the ease of slide reading in sputum smear microscopy.

9.
Front Genet ; 10: 331, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031807

RESUMO

Bioinformatics and data science research have boundless potential across Africa due to its high levels of genetic diversity and disproportionate burden of infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS, Ebola virus disease, and Lassa fever. This work lays out an incremental approach for reaching underserved countries in bioinformatics and data science research through a progression of capacity building, training, and research efforts. Two global health informatics training programs sponsored by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) were carried out at the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Mali (USTTB) between 1999 and 2011. Together with capacity building efforts through the West Africa International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMR), this progress laid the groundwork for a bioinformatics and data science training program launched at USTTB as part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative. Prior to the global health informatics training, its trainees published first or second authorship and third or higher authorship manuscripts at rates of 0.40 and 0.10 per year, respectively. Following the training, these rates increased to 0.70 and 1.23 per year, respectively, which was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.001). The bioinformatics and data science training program at USTTB commenced in 2017 focusing on student, faculty, and curriculum tiers of enhancement. The program's sustainable measures included institutional support for core elements, university tuition and fees, resource sharing and coordination with local research projects and companion training programs, increased student and faculty publication rates, and increased research proposal submissions. Challenges reliance of high-speed bandwidth availability on short-term funding, lack of a discounted software portal for basic software applications, protracted application processes for United States visas, lack of industry job positions, and low publication rates in the areas of bioinformatics and data science. Long-term, incremental processes are necessary for engaging historically underserved countries in bioinformatics and data science research. The multi-tiered enhancement approach laid out here provides a platform for generating bioinformatics and data science technicians, teachers, researchers, and program managers. Increased literature on bioinformatics and data science training approaches and progress is needed to provide a framework for establishing benchmarks on the topics.

10.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 763, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our case-control study aimed to access the potential association of insertion/deletion (I/D) ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) gene polymorphism with myocardial infarction (MI) risk of occurrence among a sample of Moroccan patients, especially young ones. RESULTS: Distribution of I/D ACE gene variant among cases vs controls, showed that healthy controls carried out higher frequency of wild type allele I compared to cases (23.5% vs 21.79% respectively), when cases were carrying higher frequency of mutant allele D (78.21% vs 76.5% for controls). Patients were-after this- divided into two groups of < 45 and > 55 years of age, to investigate whether or not younger patients carried out higher frequency of the mutant allele D, than older ones. As expected, < 45 years old patients carried out more DD genotype than older ones (68.9% vs 54.6% respectively), and higher frequency of mutant allele D (81.08% vs 75% respectively). Besides, a tendency to a positive association was found under the recessive genetic transmission model (OR [95% CI] = 1.85 [0.93-3.69], P = 0.08), suggesting that the I/D ACE polymorphism may be associated with MI occurrence among younger patients (< 45 years of age).


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação INDEL , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Biomed Rep ; 5(5): 618-622, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882227

RESUMO

Coagulation factor Leiden mutation has been described as a common genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis; however, this mutation was reported to be practically absent in an African population. Recently, a novel non-sense mutation in the gene encoding factor V has been associated with the risk of occurrence of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke and venous thrombosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the factor V Leiden (FVL) and C2491T non-sense mutations are associated with the risk of developing myocardial infarction. Genotyping of FVL and C2491T FV was performed using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method on a sample of 100 patients with myocardial infarction as well as 211 controls. In the study population, the frequency of the FVL mutation was practically zero. However, with regard to the C2491T mutation, the TT genotype was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction [odds ratio (OR)=3.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-7.71, P=0.03]. A significant association between the C2491T FV mutation and the risk of myocardial infarction was identified using recessive (OR=2.74, 95% CI: 1.14-6.58, P=0.04), dominant (OR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.13-3.04, P=0.02) and additive (OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.25-2.80, P=0.004) models. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the presence of the C2491T FV mutation and hypertension (P=0.02), which is associated with myocardial infarction. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that the C2491T non-sense mutation of the FV gene may be a risk factor for myocardial infarction in a Moroccan population.

12.
Biomed Rep ; 5(3): 361-366, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588178

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common complex pathology, localized in the main leading causes of mortality worldwide. It is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential association of C677T 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (rs1801133) and G20210A factor II prothrombin (FII) (rs1799963) polymorphisms with the susceptibility of MI. Following extraction by the standard salting-out procedure, DNA samples of 100 MI patients and 182 apparently healthy controls were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using HinfI and HindIII restriction enzymes, respectively. The results show a significant association of the G20210T FII polymorphism with the MI risk. The frequencies of the heterozygote genotype GA, homozygous mutated AA and the G20210A allele was higher among patients compared to controls (GA: 59 vs. 5.5%, P<0.001; AA: 10 vs. 0%, P=0.003; and 20210A: 39.5 vs. 2.7%, P<0.003), suggesting that this polymorphism may be a potential genetic marker for MI. No significant association was observed between the C677T MTHFR and MI occurrence, and there was more heterozygote CT in the patient group compared to the controls. As a multifactorial disease, the development of MI may be the result of numerous factors that influence synergistically its occurrence. Thus, further studies are merited to try to better assess these associations (gene-gene and gene-environment interactions).

13.
BMC Genet ; 17(1): 126, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women. Several studies have investigated the relationship between the C3435T polymorphism of ABCB1 gene and risk of breast cancer; but the results are conflicting. In the present study, we sought to assess the relationship between the C3435T polymorphism in ABCB1 gene and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of the Moroccan population. METHODS: A case control study was performed on 60 breast cancer patients and 68 healthy women. The ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Furthermore, a meta-analysis including 16 studies with 6094 cases of breast cancer and 8646 controls was performed. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were 50 % for CC, 33.3 % for CT and 16.7 % for TT in patients and 41.2 % for CC, 48.5 % for CT and 10.3 % for TT respectively in the control group. This difference was not statistically significant. The same trend as observed in the allele distribution between patients and controls (P = 0.84). Findings from the meta-analysis showed that the ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model (OR = 0.907; 95 % CI = 0.767-1.073; P = 0.25) as well as in the recessive model (OR = 1.181; 95 % CI = 0.973-1.434; P = 0.093) and in the allele contrast model (OR = 1.098; 95 % CI = 0.972-1.240; P = 0.133). However, the stratification of studies on ethnic basis showed that the TT genotype was associated with the risk of breast cancer in Asians (OR = 1.405; 95 % CI = 1.145-1.725; P = 0.001), Caucasians (OR = 1.093; 95 % CI = 1.001-1.194; P = 0.048) and North African (OR = 2.028; 95 % CI = 1.220-3.371; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: We have noted that the implication of C3435T variant on the risk of breast cancer was ethnicity-dependent. However, there is no evidence that ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism could play a role in susceptibility to breast cancer in Morocco. Further studies with a larger sample size, extended to other polymorphisms are needed to understand the influence of ABCB1 genetic variants on the risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Risco
14.
J Genet ; 95(2): 303-9, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27350673

RESUMO

Ischaemic stroke is a multifactorial disease. Genetic polymorphisms involved in lipid, inflammatory and thrombotic metabolisms play an important role in the development of ischaemic stroke. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between T1131C APOA5 and SG13S114 ALOX5AP polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke in 175 cases and 201 controls. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. In the case of T-1131C APOA5, a modest risk of ischaemic stroke was noticed with CC (OR: 2.86; 95% CI = 1.24-6.58; Pc = 0.039) and C allele (OR: 1.54; 95% CI = 1.01-2.33; Pc = 0.014). For SG13S114 ALOX5AP, a significant association was observed among subjects with TT (OR: 2.57; 95% CI =1.49-4.83; Pc = 0.009) and T allele (OR: 1.59; 95% CI = 1.16-2.19; Pc = 0.008). According to the risk factors of ischaemic stroke, a positive correlation was observed only between SG13S114 variant of ALOX5AP gene and hypertension (Pc = 0.026). Despite lower sample size, T-1131C APOA5 and SG13S114 variants could be considered an independent genetic risk factor of ischaemic stroke in Moroccan population.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ativadoras de 5-Lipoxigenase/genética , Apolipoproteína A-V/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
15.
Meta Gene ; 9: 56-61, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27222817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common multifactorial disease. Numerous studies have found that genetic plays an essential role in MI occurrence. The main objective of our case-control study is to explore the association of G894T eNOS (rs1799983), 4G/5G PAI (rs1799889) and T1131C APOA5 (rs662799) polymorphisms with MI susceptibility in the Moroccan population. METHODS AND RESULTS: 118 MI patients were recruited vs 184 healthy controls. DNA samples were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method using MboI, BslI and MseI restriction enzymes respectively for the G894T eNOS, 4G/5G PAI and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms. Our results show that the G894T eNOS was significantly associated with increased risk of MI under the three genetic transmission models (dominant: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.05-2.58, P = 0.003; recessive: OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 0.74-6.16, P = 0.03; additive: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.06-2.23, P = 0.001). The T1131C APOA5 polymorphism was associated to MI risk in recessive and additive models (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.72-3.2, P = 0.04 and OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.26-2.51, P = 0.03 respectively). For the 4G/5G PAI variant, even the cases and controls groups were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), the dominant and additive models show a statistically significant association with MI risk (OR = 7.96, 95%CI = 3.83-16.36, P = 0.01 and OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.4-2.72, P = 0.03 respectively). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that G894T eNOS and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms may be considered as genetic markers of MI among the Moroccan population. Further studies including larger sample sizes and exploring more genetic associations are needed to confirm our results and to better understand the susceptibility to MI.

16.
eNeurologicalSci ; 3: 17-20, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430530

RESUMO

Introduction: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) are both motor neuron disorders. SMA results from the deletion of the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene. High or low SMN1 copy number and the absence of SMN2 have been reported as risk factors for the development or severity of SALS. Objective: To investigate the role of SMN gene copy number in the onset and severity of SALS in Malians. Material and Methods: We determined the SMN1 and SMN2 copy number in genomic DNA samples from 391 Malian adult volunteers, 120 Yoruba from Nigeria, 120 Luyha from Kenya and 74 U.S. Caucasians using a Taqman quantitative PCR assay. We evaluated the SALS risk based on the estimated SMA protein level using the Veldink formula (SMN1 copy number + 0.2 ∗ SMN2 copy number). We also characterized the disease natural history in 15 ALS patients at the teaching hospital of Point G, Bamako, Mali. Results: We found that 131 of 391 (33.5%) had an estimated SMN protein expression of ≤ 2.2; 60 out of 391 (15.3%) had an estimated SMN protein expression < 2 and would be at risk of ALS and the disease onset was as early as 16 years old. All 15 patients were male and some were physically handicapped within 1-2 years in the disease course. Conclusion: Because of the short survival time of our patients, family histories and sample DNA for testing were not done. However, our results show that sporadic ALS is of earlier onset and shorter survival time as compared to patients elsewhere. We plan to establish a network of neurologists and researchers for early screening of ALS.

18.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 81, 2015 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of specific mutations in cancer patients may lead to the discovery of genes, which can affect susceptibility and/or prognosis. It has previously been reported that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are linked to breast cancer. Here, we evaluated the use of the High Resolution Melting (HRM) approach to screen for mutations in exon 11 of BRCA1 gene in Moroccan patients. METHODS: HRM analysis was used to screen exon 11 from 71 breast cancer patients in order to detect different variants. Conventional Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the presence of possible mutations. Distribution of different SNPs was determined by SNaPshot analysis software. RESULTS: In order to assess the efficacy of the HRM approach to screen for mutations, especially in diagnosis, we first used two samples with previously known mutations, "2924delA and 3398delC". Indeed, these previously known sequence variants were detected by the HRM approach and yielded melting curves with atypical shape relative to wild-type control sequences. We then analyzed, 69 samples from breast cancer patients using the HRM method, and were able to detect two samples with atypical curves. Sequencing of the two samples, using the conventional Sanger approach, confirmed the presence of the same SNP (c.2612C > T) in both samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that the HRM approach represents a reliable and highly sensitive method for mutation scanning, especially in diagnosis.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Marrocos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Springerplus ; 4: 38, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25674498

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) is an important signal transducer of cellular responses to DNA damage, whose defects has been associated with increased risk for breast cancer. The CHEK2 1100delC mutation has been reported to confer a twofold increased risk of breast cancer among carriers. The frequency of the mutation varies among populations. The highest frequency has been described in Northern and Eastern European countries. However, the 1100delC mutation has been investigated in different case-control studies and none in Moroccan population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this variant and determine its contribution to the development of breast cancer in sporadic cases and also in members of breast cancer families who tested negative or positive for a deleterious mutation in BRCA1/BRCA2. METHODS: In this case-control study we performed the CHEK2 1100delC mutation analysis by ASO-PCR in 134 breast cancer patients and 114 unaffected control individuals. Most of these families had several cases of breast cancer or ovarian cancer (or both). RESULTS: No CHEK2 1100delC mutations were detected in any of 134 individuals, including 59 women diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age (<40 years), 10 women with bilateral breast cancer, and 6 women with ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary genetic analysis are consistent with the reported very low frequency of CHEK2 1100delC mutation in North American populations (compared with Northern Europe), rendering CHEK2 1100delC such as an unlikely to be major breast cancer susceptibility genes.

20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 14: 206, 2014 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25492126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves interactions between the host genetic susceptibility, intestinal microflora and mucosal immune responses through the pattern recognition receptor. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induce an aberrant immune response to indigenous intestinal flora, which might favor IBD development. In this study, we aimed to determine whether TLR4 gene was associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) among Moroccan patients, and evaluated its correlation with clinical manifestation of the disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 117 patients with IBD and 112 healthy unrelated blood donors. TLR4 polymorphisms: Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. PCR products were cleaved with Nco I for the Asp299Gly polymorphism and Hinf I for the Thr399Ile polymorphism. Meta-analysis was performed to test the association of 299Gly and 399Ileu carriage with CD, UC and the overall IBD risk. RESULTS: Our study revealed that the frequency of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile did not differ significantly between patients and controls in the Moroccan population. However, meta-analysis demonstrated significantly higher frequencies of both Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile SNPs in IBD and CD and for 399Ileu carriage in UC patients. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis provides evidence that TLR4 polymorphisms confer a significant increased risk for the overall IBD development.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Marrocos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
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