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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus system showed high specificity, while attaining also high sensitivity. We hereby analysed the performance of the individual criteria items and their contribution to the overall performance of the criteria. METHODS: We combined the EULAR/ACR derivation and validation cohorts for a total of 1197 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and n=1074 non-SLE patients with a variety of conditions mimicking SLE, such as other autoimmune diseases, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and the 23 specific criteria items. We also tested performance omitting the EULAR/ACR criteria attribution rule, which defines that items are only counted if not more likely explained by a cause other than SLE. RESULTS: Positive ANA, the new entry criterion, was 99.5% sensitive, but only 19.4% specific, against a non-SLE population that included other inflammatory rheumatic, infectious, malignant and metabolic diseases. The specific criteria items were highly variable in sensitivity (from 0.42% for delirium and 1.84% for psychosis to 75.6% for antibodies to double-stranded DNA), but their specificity was uniformly high, with low C3 or C4 (83.0%) and leucopenia <4.000/mm³ (83.8%) at the lowest end. Unexplained fever was 95.3% specific in this cohort. Applying the attribution rule improved specificity, particularly for joint involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Changing the position of the highly sensitive, non-specific ANA to an entry criterion and the attribution rule resulted in a specificity of >80% for all items, explaining the higher overall specificity of the criteria set.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444321

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic and incurable autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in synovial lining of joints. To identify the signaling pathways involved in RA, its disease activity, and treatment response, we adapted a systems immunology approach to simultaneously quantify 42 signaling nodes in 21 immune cell subsets (e.g., IFNα→p-STAT5 in B cells) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 194 patients with longstanding RA (including 98 patients before and after treatment), and 41 healthy controls (HC). We found multiple differences between patients with RA compared to HC, predominantly in cytokine-induced Jak/STAT signaling in many immune cell subsets, suggesting pathways that may be associated with susceptibility to RA. We also found that high RA disease activity, compared to low disease activity, was associated with decreased (e.g., IFNα→p-STAT5, IL-10→p-STAT1) or increased (e.g., IL-6→STAT3) response to stimuli in multiple cell subsets. Finally, we compared signaling in patients with established, refractory RA before and six months after initiation of methotrexate (MTX) or TNF inhibitors (TNFi). We noted significant changes from pre-treatment to post-treatment in IFNα→p-STAT5 signaling and IL-10→p-STAT1 signaling in multiple cell subsets; these changes brought the aberrant RA signaling profiles toward those of HC. This large, comprehensive functional signaling pathway study provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of RA and shows the potential of quantification of cytokine-induced signaling as a biomarker of disease activity or treatment response.

3.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 103, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167852

RESUMO

The response to viral infection generally includes an activation of the adaptive immune response to produce cytotoxic T cells and neutralizing antibodies. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 activates the innate immune system through the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-bradykinin pathways, blocks interferon production and reduces an effective adaptive immune response. This model has therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Humanos , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Musculoskeletal pain and fatigue are common features in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a physiological mechanism diminishing inflammation, engaged by stimulating the vagus nerve. We evaluated the effects of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in patients with SLE and with musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: 18 patients with SLE and with musculoskeletal pain ≥4 on a 10 cm Visual Analogue Scale were randomised (2:1) in this double-blind study to receive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) or sham stimulation (SS) for 4 consecutive days. Evaluations at baseline, day 5 and day 12 included patient assessments of pain, disease activity (PtGA) and fatigue. Tender and swollen joint counts and the Physician Global Assessment (PGA) were completed by a physician blinded to the patient's therapy. Potential biomarkers were evaluated. RESULTS: taVNS and SS were well tolerated. Subjects receiving taVNS had a significant decrease in pain and fatigue compared with SS and were more likely (OR=25, p=0.02) to experience a clinically significant reduction in pain. PtGA, joint counts and PGA also improved. Pain reduction and improvement of fatigue correlated with the cumulative current received. In general, responses were maintained through day 12. Plasma levels of substance P were significantly reduced at day 5 compared with baseline following taVNS but other neuropeptides, serum and whole blood-stimulated inflammatory mediators, and kynurenine metabolites showed no significant change at days 5 or 12 compared with baseline. CONCLUSION: taVNS resulted in significantly reduced pain, fatigue and joint scores in SLE. Additional studies evaluating this intervention and its mechanisms are warranted.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 594253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013940
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14446, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879327

RESUMO

The concept that exposure in utero to maternal anti-brain antibodies contributes to the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been entertained for over a decade. We determined that antibodies targeting Caspr2 are present at high frequency in mothers with brain-reactive serology and a child with ASD, and further demonstrated that exposure in utero to a monoclonal anti-Caspr2 antibody, derived from a mother of an ASD child, led to an-ASD like phenotype in male offspring. Now we propose a new model to study the effects of in utero exposure to anti-Caspr2 antibody. Dams immunized with the extracellular portion of Caspr2 express anti-Caspr2 antibodies throughout gestation to better mimic the human condition. Male but not female mice born to dams harboring polyclonal anti-Caspr2 antibodies showed abnormal cortical development, decreased dendritic complexity of excitatory neurons and reduced numbers of inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus, as well as repetitive behaviors and impairments in novelty interest in the social preference test as adults. These data supporting the pathogenicity of anti-Caspr2 antibodies are consistent with the concept that anti-brain antibodies present in women during gestation can alter fetal brain development, and confirm that males are peculiarly susceptible.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, mechanism of action, and preliminary efficacy of rituximab followed by belimumab in the treatment of refractory lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial, 43 patients with recurrent or refractory LN were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide (CYC), and glucocorticoids followed by weekly belimumab infusions until week 48 (RCB group) or with rituximab and CYC but no belimumab infusions (RC group). Patients were followed up until week 96. Percentages of total and autoreactive B cell subsets in the patients' peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment with belimumab did not increase the incidence of adverse events in patients with refractory LN. At week 48, a complete or partial renal response occurred in 11 (52%) of 21 patients receiving belimumab, compared to 9 (41%) of 22 patients in the RC group who did not receive belimumab (P = 0.452). Lack of improvement in or worsening of LN was the major reason for treatment failure. B cell depletion occurred in both groups, but the percentage of B cells remained lower in those receiving belimumab (geometric mean number of B cells at week 60, 53 cells/µl in the RCB group versus 11 cells/µl in the RC group; P = 0.0012). Percentages of total and autoreactive transitional B cells increased from baseline to week 48 in both groups. However, percentages of total and autoreactive naive B cells decreased from baseline to week 48 in the belimumab group compared to the no belimumab RC group (P = 0.0349), a finding that is consistent with impaired maturation of naive B cells and enhanced censoring of autoreactive B cells. CONCLUSION: The addition of belimumab to a treatment regimen with rituximab and CYC was safe in patients with refractory LN. This regimen diminished maturation of transitional to naive B cells during B cell reconstitution, and enhanced the negative selection of autoreactive B cells. Clinical efficacy was not improved with rituximab and CYC in combination with belimumab when compared to a therapeutic strategy of B cell depletion alone in patients with LN.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1333-1339, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been validated with high sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the new criteria with regard to disease duration, sex and race/ethnicity, and compared its performance against the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria. METHODS: Twenty-one SLE centres from 16 countries submitted SLE cases and mimicking controls to form the validation cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of the EULAR/ACR 2019, SLICC 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria were evaluated. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of female (n=1098), male (n=172), Asian (n=118), black (n=68), Hispanic (n=124) and white (n=941) patients; with an SLE duration of 1 to <3 years (n=196) and ≥5 years (n=879). Among patients with 1 to <3 years disease duration, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 81%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well in men (sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%) and women (sensitivity 97%, specificity 94%). Among women, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 82%). Among white patients, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (95% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 83%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well among black patients (sensitivity of 98%, specificity 100%), and had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria among Hispanic patients (100% vs 86%) and Asian patients (97% vs 77%). CONCLUSIONS: The EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria perform well among patients with early disease, men, women, white, black, Hispanic and Asian patients. These criteria have superior sensitivity than the ACR criteria and/or superior specificity than the SLICC criteria across many subgroups.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536928

RESUMO

The high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been shown to exert proinflammatory effects on many cells of the innate immune system. Originally identified as a nuclear protein, HMGB1 has been found to play an important role in mediating inflammation when released from apoptotic or necrotic cells as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of non-resolving inflammation, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies and systemic inflammation involving multiple organ systems. SLE patients have impaired clearance of apoptotic debris, which releases HMGB1 and other DAMPs extracellularly. HMGB1 activity is implicated in multiple disease phenotypes in SLE, including lupus nephritis and neuropsychiatric lupus. Elucidating the various properties of HMGB1 in SLE provides a better understanding of the disease and opens up new opportunities for designing potential therapeutics.

10.
J Exp Med ; 217(8)2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556101

RESUMO

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has long been appreciated as a major regulator of blood pressure, but has more recently been recognized as a mechanism for modulating inflammation as well. While there has been concern in COVID-19 patients over the use of drugs that target this system, the RAS has not been explored fully as a druggable target. The abbreviated description of the RAS suggests that its dysregulation may be at the center of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Animais , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Pneumopatias/virologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
JCI Insight ; 5(12)2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396533

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis, one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), has a heterogeneous clinical and pathological presentation. For example, proliferative nephritis identifies a more aggressive disease class that requires immunosuppression. However, the current classification system relies on the static appearance of histopathological morphology, which does not capture differences in the inflammatory response. Therefore, a biomarker grounded in the disease biology is needed in order to understand the molecular heterogeneity of lupus nephritis and identify immunologic mechanism and pathways. Here, we analyzed the patterns of 1000 urine protein biomarkers in 30 patients with active lupus nephritis. We found that patients stratify over a chemokine gradient inducible by IFN-γ. Higher values identified patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. After integrating the urine proteomics with the single-cell transcriptomics of kidney biopsies, we observed that the urinary chemokines defining the gradient were predominantly produced by infiltrating CD8+ T cells, along with natural killer and myeloid cells. The urine chemokine gradient significantly correlated with the number of kidney-infiltrating CD8+ cells. These findings suggest that urine proteomics can capture the complex biology of the kidney in lupus nephritis. Patient-specific pathways could be noninvasively tracked in the urine in real time, enabling diagnosis and personalized treatment.

12.
J Rheumatol ; 47(7): 1145-1149, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295852

RESUMO

In this 2020 Dunlop-Dottridge Lecture, the authors discuss cognitive impairment (CI), one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients often report CI as the most bothersome disease-related manifestation, with a great effect on their quality of life. Nevertheless, studies focusing on CI remain scarce and no effective targeted therapy has been identified. We herein present murine models of CI in SLE with insights into the pathogenesis of this condition as well as the role of the renin angiotensin system in microglial activation. We will discuss the role of neuroimaging as a useful objective assessment tool, describing our experience in previous and ongoing clinical trials of CI in patients with SLE.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1403, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179753

RESUMO

Patients with Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience various peripheral and central nervous system manifestations including spatial memory impairment. A subset of autoantibodies (DNRAbs) cross-react with the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). We find that these DNRAbs act as positive allosteric modulators on NMDARs with GluN2A-containing NMDARs, even those containing a single GluN2A subunit, exhibiting a much greater sensitivity to DNRAbs than those with exclusively GluN2B. Accordingly, GluN2A-specific antagonists provide greater protection from DNRAb-mediated neuronal cell death than GluN2B antagonists. Using transgenic mice to perturb expression of either GluN2A or GluN2B in vivo, we find that DNRAb-mediated disruption of spatial memory characterized by early neuronal cell death and subsequent microglia-dependent pathologies requires GluN2A-containing NMDARs. Our results indicate that GluN2A-specific antagonists or negative allosteric modulators are strong candidates to treat SLE patients with nervous system dysfunction.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia , Memória Espacial , Animais , Morte Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/imunologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética
14.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(2): 233-242, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502417

RESUMO

The Accelerating Medicines Partnership (AMP) Lupus Network was established as a partnership between the National Institutes of Health, pharmaceutical companies, nonprofit stakeholders, and lupus investigators across multiple academic centers to apply high-throughput technologies to the analysis of renal tissue, urine, and blood from patients with lupus nephritis (LN). The AMP network provides publicly accessible data to the community with the goal of generating new scientific hypotheses and improving diagnostic and therapeutic tools so as to improve disease outcomes. We present here a description of the structure of the AMP Lupus Network and a summary of the preliminary results from the phase 1 studies. The successful completion of phase 1 sets the stage for analysis of a large cohort of LN samples in phase 2 and provides a model for establishing similar discovery cohorts.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organização & administração , Dados Preliminares , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/epidemiologia , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(7): 1505-1513, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitors (statins) are standard treatment for hyperlipidaemia. In addition to lipid-lowering abilities, statins exhibit multiple anti-inflammatory effects. The objectives of this study were to determine whether treatment of patients with RA with lovastatin decreased CRP or reduced disease activity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 12 week trial of lovastatin vs placebo in 64 RA patients with mild clinical disease activity but an elevated CRP. The primary efficacy end point was the reduction in mean log CRP. Secondary end points included disease activity, RF and anti-CCP antibody titres. Mechanistic end points included levels of serum cytokines. Safety was assessed; hepatic and muscle toxicities were of particular interest. RESULTS: Baseline features were similar between groups. No significant difference in mean log CRP reduction between the two groups was observed, and disease activity did not change from baseline in either treatment group. Mechanistic analyses did not reveal significant changes in any biomarkers. A post hoc analysis of subjects not using biologic therapy demonstrated a significantly greater proportion achieving ⩾20% reduction in CRP from baseline in the lovastatin group compared with placebo (P-value = 0.007). No difference was observed in subjects receiving biologics. Lovastatin was well tolerated with no serious safety concerns. CONCLUSION: This study showed no anti-inflammatory or clinical effects on RA disease activity after 12 weeks of treatment with lovastatin. Lovastatin had a modest effect on CRP in subjects not using biologics, suggesting statins may be anti-inflammatory in selected patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00302952.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Lovastatina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(4): 238-250, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853010

RESUMO

The immune mechanisms that cause tissue injury in lupus nephritis have been challenging to define. The advent of high-dimensional cellular analyses, such as single-cell RNA sequencing, has enabled detailed characterization of the cell populations present in small biopsy samples of kidney tissue. In parallel, the development of methods that cryopreserve kidney biopsy specimens in a manner that preserves intact, viable cells, has enabled the uniform analysis of tissue samples collected at multiple sites and across many geographic areas and demographic cohorts with high-dimensional platforms. The application of these methods to kidney biopsy samples from patients with lupus nephritis has begun to define the phenotypes of both infiltrating and resident immune cells, as well as parenchymal cells, present in nephritic kidneys. The detection of similar immune cell populations in urine suggests that it might be possible to non-invasively monitor immune activation in kidneys. Once applied to large patient cohorts, these high-dimensional studies might enable patient stratification according to patterns of immune cell activation in the kidney or identify disease features that can be used as surrogate measures of efficacy in clinical trials. Applied broadly across multiple inflammatory kidney diseases, these studies promise to enormously expand our understanding of renal inflammation in the next decade.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Biópsia por Agulha , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Masculino , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(46): 23254-23263, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570601

RESUMO

Macrophage polarization is critical to inflammation and resolution of inflammation. We previously showed that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can engage receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) to direct monocytes to a proinflammatory phenotype characterized by production of type 1 IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, HMGB1 plus C1q form a tetramolecular complex cross-linking RAGE and LAIR-1 and directing monocytes to an antiinflammatory phenotype. Lipid mediators, as well as cytokines, help establish a milieu favoring either inflammation or resolution of inflammation. This study focuses on the induction of lipid mediators by HMGB1 and HMGB1 plus C1q and their regulation of IRF5, a transcription factor critical for the induction and maintenance of proinflammatory macrophages. Here, we show that HMGB1 induces leukotriene production through a RAGE-dependent pathway, while HMGB1 plus C1q induces specialized proresolving lipid mediators lipoxin A4, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 through a RAGE- and LAIR-1-dependent pathway. Leukotriene exposure contributes to induction of IRF5 in a positive-feedback loop. In contrast, resolvins (at 20 nM) block IRF5 induction and prevent the differentiation of inflammatory macrophages. Finally, we have generated a molecular mimic of HMGB1 plus C1q, which cross-links RAGE and LAIR-1 and polarizes monocytes to an antiinflammatory phenotype. These findings may provide a mechanism to control nonresolving inflammation in many pathologic conditions.


Assuntos
Complemento C1q/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Animais , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/biossíntese , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/metabolismo , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Peritonite/imunologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
19.
Lupus Sci Med ; 6(1): e000352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592329

RESUMO

Objective: Bone health in SLE is adversely affected by vitamin D deficiency, inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoid use. We hypothesised that vitamin D supplementation would increase markers of bone formation and decrease markers of bone resorption in SLE subjects. Methods: We studied 43 vitamin D-deficient SLE subjects who participated in a 12-week randomised controlled trial of 2000-4000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation versus placebo. Subjects had inactive SLE (SLE Disease Activity Index ≤4) and were taking <20 mg prednisone daily at baseline. We assayed baseline and week 12 serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP) and C-telopeptide (CTX). We tested the effect of vitamin D versus placebo on change (Δ) in P1NP and ΔCTX in an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary analyses evaluated whether vitamin D affected bone turnover among subjects achieving vitamin D repletion (≥30 ng/mL) or currently taking glucocorticoids. Results: 28 subjects were randomised to vitamin D and 15 to placebo. Mean age was 39 years and 40% were using glucocorticoids at enrolment. Repletion was achieved by 46% in the vitamin D group versus none in the placebo group. Changes in bone turnover markers were not significantly different in the vitamin D group versus placebo group (median ΔP1NP -0.2 vitamin D group vs -1.1 placebo group (p=0.83); median ΔCTX +3.5 vitamin D group vs -37.0 placebo group (p=0.50)). The effect of vitamin D did not differ based on achieving vitamin D repletion or baseline glucocorticoid use. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation did not affect the 12-week change in bone turnover markers among SLE subjects in this trial.

20.
JCI Insight ; 4(20)2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536480

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pathologic T cell-B cell interactions and autoantibody production. Defining the T cell populations that drive B cell responses in SLE may enable design of therapies that specifically target pathologic cell subsets. Here, we evaluated the phenotypes of CD4+ T cells in the circulation of 52 SLE patients drawn from multiple cohorts and identified a highly expanded PD-1hiCXCR5-CD4+ T cell population. Cytometric, transcriptomic, and functional assays demonstrated that PD-1hiCXCR5-CD4+ T cells from SLE patients are T peripheral helper (Tph) cells, a CXCR5- T cell population that stimulates B cell responses via IL-21. The frequency of Tph cells, but not T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, correlated with both clinical disease activity and the frequency of CD11c+ B cells in SLE patients. PD-1hiCD4+ T cells were found within lupus nephritis kidneys and correlated with B cell numbers in the kidney. Both IL-21 neutralization and CRISPR-mediated deletion of MAF abrogated the ability of Tph cells to induce memory B cell differentiation into plasmablasts in vitro. These findings identify Tph cells as a highly expanded T cell population in SLE and suggest a key role for Tph cells in stimulating pathologic B cell responses.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-maf/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Celular/genética , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Separação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-maf/genética , RNA-Seq , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
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