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2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075743

RESUMO

Alphaviruses are emerging, mosquito-transmitted RNA viruses with poorly understood cellular tropism and species selectivity. Mxra8 is a receptor for multiple alphaviruses including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We discovered that while expression of mouse, rat, chimpanzee, dog, horse, goat, sheep, and human Mxra8 enables alphavirus infection in cell culture, cattle Mxra8 does not. Cattle Mxra8 encodes a 15-amino acid insertion in its ectodomain that prevents Mxra8 binding to CHIKV. Identical insertions are present in zebu, yak, and the extinct auroch. As other Bovinae lineages contain related Mxra8 sequences, this insertion likely occurred at least 5 million years ago. Removing the Mxra8 insertion in Bovinae enhances alphavirus binding and infection, while introducing the insertion into mouse Mxra8 blocks CHIKV binding, prevents infection by multiple alphaviruses in cells, and mitigates CHIKV-induced pathogenesis in mice. Our studies on how this insertion provides resistance to CHIKV infection could facilitate countermeasures that disrupt Mxra8 interactions with alphaviruses.

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(1): e1008292, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999809

RESUMO

Humoral immune responses initiate in the lymph node draining the site of viral infection (dLN). Some viruses subvert LN B cell activation; however, our knowledge of viral hindrance of B cell responses of important human pathogens is lacking. Here, we define mechanisms whereby chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus that causes outbreaks of acute and chronic arthritis in humans, hinders dLN antiviral B cell responses. Infection of WT mice with pathogenic, but not acutely cleared CHIKV, induced MyD88-dependent recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils to the dLN. Blocking this influx improved lymphocyte accumulation, dLN organization, and CHIKV-specific B cell responses. Both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2) contributed to impaired dLN organization and function. Infiltrating monocytes expressed iNOS through a local IRF5- and IFNAR1-dependent pathway that was partially TLR7-dependent. Together, our data suggest that pathogenic CHIKV triggers the influx and activation of monocytes and neutrophils in the dLN that impairs virus-specific B cell responses.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(528)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996462

RESUMO

One quarter of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Although most infected individuals successfully control or clear the infection, some individuals will progress to TB disease. Immune correlates identified using animal models are not always effectively translated to human TB, thus resulting in a slow pace of translational discoveries from animal models to human TB for many platforms including vaccines, therapeutics, biomarkers, and diagnostic discovery. Therefore, it is critical to improve our poor understanding of immune correlates of disease and protection that are shared across animal TB models and human TB. In this study, we have provided an in-depth identification of the conserved and diversified gene/immune pathways in TB models of nonhuman primate and diversity outbred mouse and human TB. Our results show that prominent differentially expressed genes/pathways induced during TB disease progression are conserved in genetically diverse mice, macaques, and humans. In addition, using gene-deficient inbred mouse models, we have addressed the functional role of individual genes comprising the gene signature of disease progression seen in humans with Mtb infection. We show that genes representing specific immune pathways can be protective, detrimental, or redundant in controlling Mtb infection and translate into identifying immune pathways that mediate TB immunopathology in humans. Together, our cross-species findings provide insights into modeling TB disease and the immunological basis of TB disease progression.

5.
Cell Stem Cell ; 26(2): 187-204.e10, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956038

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly by killing neural precursor cells (NPCs) and other brain cells. ZIKV also displays therapeutic oncolytic activity against glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). Here we demonstrate that ZIKV preferentially infected and killed GSCs and stem-like cells in medulloblastoma and ependymoma in a SOX2-dependent manner. Targeting SOX2 severely attenuated ZIKV infection, in contrast to AXL. As mechanisms of SOX2-mediated ZIKV infection, we identified inverse expression of antiviral interferon response genes (ISGs) and positive correlation with integrin αv (ITGAV). ZIKV infection was disrupted by genetic targeting of ITGAV or its binding partner ITGB5 and by an antibody specific for integrin αvß5. ZIKV selectively eliminated GSCs from species-matched human mature cerebral organoids and GBM surgical specimens, which was reversed by integrin αvß5 inhibition. Collectively, our studies identify integrin αvß5 as a functional cancer stem cell marker essential for GBM maintenance and ZIKV infection, providing potential brain tumor therapy.

6.
J Exp Med ; 217(2)2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757867

RESUMO

We previously generated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Zika virus (ZIKV) and identified one, ZIKV-116, that shares germline usage with mAbs identified in multiple donors. Here we show that ZIKV-116 interferes with ZIKV infection at a post-cellular attachment step by blocking viral fusion with host membranes. ZIKV-116 recognizes the lateral ridge of envelope protein domain III, with one critical residue varying between the Asian and African strains responsible for differential binding affinity and neutralization potency (E393D). ZIKV-116 also binds to and cross-neutralizes some dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) strains, with genotype-dependent inhibition explained by variation in a domain II residue (R204K) that potentially modulates exposure of the distally located, partially cryptic epitope. The V-J reverted germline configuration of ZIKV-116 preferentially binds to and neutralizes an Asian ZIKV strain, suggesting that this epitope may optimally induce related B cell clonotypes. Overall, these studies provide a structural and molecular mechanism for a cross-reactive mAb that uniquely neutralizes ZIKV and DENV1.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(11): e1008061, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697791

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes persistent arthritis in a subset of human patients. We report the isolation and functional characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from two patients infected with CHIKV in the Dominican Republic. Single B cell sorting yielded a panel of 46 human mAbs of diverse germline lineages that targeted epitopes within the E1 or E2 glycoproteins. MAbs that recognized either E1 or E2 proteins exhibited neutralizing activity. Viral escape mutations localized the binding epitopes for two E1 mAbs to sites within domain I or the linker between domains I and III; and for two E2 mAbs between the ß-connector region and the B-domain. Two of the E2-specific mAbs conferred protection in vivo in a stringent lethal challenge mouse model of CHIKV infection, whereas the E1 mAbs did not. These results provide insight into human antibody response to CHIKV and identify candidate mAbs for therapeutic intervention.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616920

RESUMO

Sexual transmission and persistence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the male reproductive tract has raised concerned for potential damaging effects on function. Animal studies have demonstrated that ZIKV virus can infect and damage the testis and epididymis, and these results has been correlated to lower sperm counts in ZIKV-infected humans. The prostate plays a vital role in the male reproductive tract, with acute and chronic prostatitis linked to male infertility. Here, we evaluated the effects of ZIKV virus on the prostate in mice and non-human primates. In mice, ZIKV infected the prostate and triggered inflammation that persisted even after virus clearance. Evidence of chronic prostatitis associated with ZIKV infection remained for several months. Similar histological findings were observed in the prostate of ZIKV-infected rhesus macaques. These studies establish that ZIKV replicates in the prostate and can cause acute and chronic inflammatory and proliferative changes in mouse and non-human primate models.

9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(4): 493-503.e6, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600501

RESUMO

14-3-3 protein family members facilitate the translocation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) to organelles that mediate downstream RLR signaling, leading to interferon production. 14-3-3ϵ promotes the cytosolic-to-mitochondrial translocation of RIG-I, while 14-3-3η facilitates MDA5 translocation to mitochondria. We show that the NS3 protein of Zika virus (ZIKV) antagonizes antiviral gene induction by RIG-I and MDA5 by binding to and sequestering the scaffold proteins 14-3-3ϵ and 14-3-3η. 14-3-3-binding is mediated by a negatively charged RLDP motif in NS3 that is conserved in ZIKV strains of African and Asian lineages and is similar to the one found in dengue and West Nile viruses. ZIKV NS3 is sufficient to inhibit the RLR-14-3-3ϵ/η interaction and to suppress antiviral signaling. Mutational perturbation of 14-3-3ϵ/η binding in a recombinant ZIKV leads to enhanced innate immune responses and impaired growth kinetics. Our study provides molecular understanding of immune evasion functions of ZIKV, which may guide vaccine and anti-flaviviral therapy development.

10.
J Virol ; 94(1)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619554

RESUMO

Type I interferons (IFNs) are key mediators of the innate immune response. Although members of this family of cytokines signal through a single shared receptor, biochemical and functional variation exists in response to different IFN subtypes. While previous work has demonstrated that type I IFNs are essential to control infection by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a globally emerging alphavirus, the contributions of individual IFN subtypes remain undefined. To address this question, we evaluated CHIKV pathogenesis in mice lacking IFN-ß (IFN-ß knockout [IFN-ß-KO] mice or mice treated with an IFN-ß-blocking antibody) or IFN-α (IFN regulatory factor 7 knockout [IRF7-KO] mice or mice treated with a pan-IFN-α-blocking antibody). Mice lacking either IFN-α or IFN-ß developed severe clinical disease following infection with CHIKV, with a marked increase in foot swelling compared to wild-type mice. Virological analysis revealed that mice lacking IFN-α sustained elevated infection in the infected ankle and in distant tissues. In contrast, IFN-ß-KO mice displayed minimal differences in viral burdens within the ankle or at distal sites and instead had an altered cellular immune response. Mice lacking IFN-ß had increased neutrophil infiltration into musculoskeletal tissues, and depletion of neutrophils in IFN-ß-KO but not IRF7-KO mice mitigated musculoskeletal disease caused by CHIKV. Our findings suggest disparate roles for the IFN subtypes during CHIKV infection, with IFN-α limiting early viral replication and dissemination and IFN-ß modulating neutrophil-mediated inflammation.IMPORTANCE Type I interferons (IFNs) possess a range of biological activity and protect against a number of viruses, including alphaviruses. Despite signaling through a shared receptor, there are established biochemical and functional differences among the IFN subtypes. The significance of our research is in demonstrating that IFN-α and IFN-ß both have protective roles during acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection but do so by distinct mechanisms. IFN-α limits CHIKV replication and dissemination, whereas IFN-ß protects from CHIKV pathogenesis by limiting inflammation mediated by neutrophils. Our findings support the premise that the IFN subtypes have distinct biological activities in the antiviral response.

11.
J Virol ; 93(24)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578287

RESUMO

CD137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily of cell surface proteins, acts as a costimulatory receptor on T cells, natural killer cells, B cell subsets, and some dendritic cells. Agonistic anti-CD137 monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy has been combined with other chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer trials. Based on its ability to promote tumor clearance, we hypothesized that anti-CD137 MAb might activate immune responses and resolve chronic viral infections. We evaluated anti-CD137 MAb therapy in a mouse infection model of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus that causes chronic polyarthritis in humans and is associated with reservoirs of CHIKV RNA that are not cleared efficiently by adaptive immune responses. Analysis of viral tropism revealed that CHIKV RNA was present preferentially in splenic B cells and follicular dendritic cells during the persistent phase of infection, and animals lacking B cells did not develop persistent CHIKV infection in lymphoid tissue. Anti-CD137 MAb treatment resulted in T cell-dependent clearance of CHIKV RNA in lymphoid tissue, although this effect was not observed in musculoskeletal tissue. The clearance of CHIKV RNA from lymphoid tissue by anti-CD137 MAb was associated with reductions in the numbers of germinal center B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Similar results were observed with anti-CD137 MAb treatment of mice infected with Mayaro virus, a related arthritogenic alphavirus. Thus, anti-CD137 MAb treatment promotes resolution of chronic alphavirus infection in lymphoid tissues by reducing the numbers of target cells for infection and persistence.IMPORTANCE Although CHIKV causes persistent infection in lymphoid and musculoskeletal tissues in multiple animals, the basis for this is poorly understood, which has hampered pharmacological efforts to promote viral clearance. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects on persistent CHIKV infection of an agonistic anti-CD137 MAb that can activate T cell and natural killer cell responses to clear tumors. We show that treatment with anti-CD137 MAb promotes the clearance of persistent alphavirus RNA from lymphoid but not musculoskeletal tissues. This occurs because anti-CD137 MAb-triggered T cells reduce the numbers of target germinal center B cells and follicular dendritic cells, which are the primary reservoirs for CHIKV in the spleen and lymph nodes. Our studies help to elucidate the basis for CHIKV persistence and begin to provide strategies that can clear long-term cellular reservoirs of infection.

12.
Neuron ; 103(5): 771-783, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487528

RESUMO

CNS infections continue to rise in incidence in conjunction with increases in immunocompromised populations or conditions that contribute to the emergence of pathogens, such as global travel, climate change, and human encroachment on animal territories. The severity and complexity of these diseases is impacted by the diversity of etiologic agents and their routes of neuroinvasion. In this review, we present historical, clinical, and molecular concepts regarding the mechanisms of pathogen invasion of the CNS. We also discuss the structural components of CNS compartments that influence pathogen entry and recent discoveries of the pathways exploited by pathogens to facilitate CNS infections. Advances in our understanding of the CNS invasion mechanisms of different neurotropic pathogens may enable the development of strategies to control their entry and deliver drugs to mitigate established infections.

13.
Cell Rep ; 28(10): 2634-2646.e4, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484074

RESUMO

The teratogenic potential of Zika virus (ZIKV) has made the development of an effective vaccine a global health priority. Here, we generate two gorilla adenovirus-based ZIKV vaccines that encode for pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins (GAd-Zvp) or prM and the ectodomain of E protein (GAd-Eecto). Both vaccines induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and prevent lethality after ZIKV challenge in mice. Protection is antibody dependent, CD8+ T cell independent, and for GAd-Eecto requires the complement component C1q. Immunization of GAd-Zvp induces antibodies against a key neutralizing epitope on domain III of E protein and confers durable protection as evidenced by memory B and long-lived plasma cell responses and challenge studies 9 months later. In two models of ZIKV infection during pregnancy, GAd-Zvp prevents maternal-to-fetal transmission. The gorilla adenovirus-based vaccine platform encoding full-length prM and E genes is a promising candidate for preventing congenital ZIKV syndrome and possibly infection by other flaviviruses.

14.
Cell Rep ; 28(10): 2647-2658.e5, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484075

RESUMO

Mxra8 is a recently described receptor for multiple alphaviruses, including Chikungunya (CHIKV), Mayaro (MAYV), Ross River (RRV), and O'nyong nyong (ONNV) viruses. To determine its role in pathogenesis, we generated mice with mutant Mxra8 alleles: an 8-nucleotide deletion that produces a truncated, soluble form (Mxra8Δ8/Δ8) and a 97-nucleotide deletion that abolishes Mxra8 expression (Mxra8Δ97/Δ97). Mxra8Δ8/Δ8 and Mxra8Δ97/Δ97 fibroblasts show reduced CHIKV infection in culture, and Mxra8Δ8/Δ8 and Mxra8Δ97/Δ97 mice have decreased infection of musculoskeletal tissues with CHIKV, MAYV, RRV, or ONNV. Less foot swelling is observed in CHIKV-infected Mxra8 mutant mice, which correlated with fewer infiltrating neutrophils and cytokines. A recombinant E2-D71A CHIKV with diminished binding to Mxra8 is attenuated in vivo in wild-type mice. Ectopic Mxra8 expression is sufficient to enhance CHIKV infection and lethality in transgenic flies. These studies establish a role for Mxra8 in the pathogenesis of multiple alphaviruses and suggest that targeting this protein may mitigate disease in humans.

15.
Nat Immunol ; 20(10): 1291-1298, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477918

RESUMO

Infections with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) can induce cross-reactive antibody responses. Two immunodominant epitopes-one to precursor membrane protein and one to the fusion loop epitope on envelope (E) protein-are recognized by cross-reactive antibodies1-3 that are not only poorly neutralizing, but can also promote increased viral replication and disease severity via Fcγ receptor-mediated infection of myeloid cells-a process termed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE)1,4,5. ADE is a significant concern for both ZIKV and DENV vaccines as the induction of poorly neutralizing cross-reactive antibodies may prime an individual for ADE on natural infection. In this report, we describe the design and production of covalently stabilized ZIKV E dimers, which lack precursor membrane protein and do not expose the immunodominant fusion loop epitope. Immunization of mice with ZIKV E dimers induces dimer-specific antibodies, which protect against ZIKV challenge during pregnancy. Importantly, the ZIKV E-dimer-induced response does not cross-react with DENV or induce ADE of DENV infection.

16.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007993, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465513

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that acutely causes fever as well as severe joint and muscle pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain persists in a substantial fraction of patients for months to years after the initial infection, yet we still have a poor understanding of what promotes chronic disease. While replicating virus has not been detected in joint-associated tissues of patients with persistent arthritis nor in various animal models at convalescent time points, viral RNA is detected months after acute infection. To identify the cells that might contribute to pathogenesis during this chronic phase, we developed a recombinant CHIKV that expresses Cre recombinase (CHIKV-3'-Cre). CHIKV-3'-Cre replicated in myoblasts and fibroblasts, and it induced arthritis during the acute phase in mice. Importantly, it also induced chronic disease, including persistent viral RNA and chronic myositis and synovitis similar to wild-type virus. CHIKV-3'-Cre infection of tdTomato reporter mice resulted in a population of tdTomato+ cells that persisted for at least 112 days. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric profiling revealed that these tdTomato+ cells predominantly were myofibers and dermal and muscle fibroblasts. Treatment with an antibody against Mxra8, a recently defined host receptor for CHIKV, reduced the number of tdTomato+ cells in the chronic phase and diminished the levels of chronic viral RNA, implicating these tdTomato+ cells as the reservoir of chronic viral RNA. Finally, isolation and flow cytometry-based sorting of the tdTomato+ fibroblasts from the skin and ankle and analysis for viral RNA revealed that the tdTomato+ cells harbor most of the persistent CHIKV RNA at chronic time points. Therefore, this CHIKV-3'-Cre and tdTomato reporter mouse system identifies the cells that survive CHIKV infection in vivo and are enriched for persistent CHIKV RNA. This model represents a useful tool for studying CHIKV pathogenesis in the acute and chronic stages of disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Derme/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Febre de Chikungunya/metabolismo , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Derme/metabolismo , Derme/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/virologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral
17.
J Exp Med ; 216(10): 2282-2301, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337735

RESUMO

Despite causing outbreaks of fever and arthritis in multiple countries, no countermeasures exist against Mayaro virus (MAYV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted alphavirus. We generated 18 neutralizing mAbs against MAYV, 11 of which had "elite" activity that inhibited infection with EC50 values of <10 ng/ml. Antibodies with the greatest inhibitory capacity in cell culture mapped to epitopes near the fusion peptide of E1 and in domain B of the E2 glycoproteins. Unexpectedly, many of the elite neutralizing mAbs failed to prevent MAYV infection and disease in vivo. Instead, the most protective mAbs bound viral antigen on the cell surface with high avidity and promoted specific Fc effector functions, including phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. In subclass switching studies, murine IgG2a and humanized IgG1 mAb variants controlled infection better than murine IgG1 and humanized IgG1-N297Q variants. An optimally protective antibody response to MAYV and possibly other alphaviruses may require tandem virus neutralization by the Fab moiety and effector functions of the Fc region.

18.
J Infect Dis ; 220(10): 1577-1588, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260518

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) caused an epidemic of congenital malformations in 2015-2016. Although many vaccine candidates have been generated, few have demonstrated efficacy against congenital ZIKV infection. Here, we evaluated lipid-encapsulated messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines and a DNA plasmid vaccine encoding the prM-E genes of ZIKV in mouse models of congenital infection. Although the DNA vaccine provided comparable efficacy against vertical transmission of ZIKV, the mRNA vaccines, including one that minimizes antibody-dependent enhancement of infection, elicited higher levels of antigen-specific long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. Despite the induction of robust neutralizing antibody titers by all vaccines, breakthrough seeding of the placenta and fetal head was observed in a small subset of type I interferon signaling-deficient immunocompromised dams. In comparison, evaluation of one of the mRNA vaccines in a human STAT2-knockin transgenic immunocompetent mouse showed complete protection against congenital ZIKV transmission. These data will inform ongoing human ZIKV vaccine development efforts and enhance our understanding of the correlates of vaccine-induced protection.

19.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(6): e1007790, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194854

RESUMO

Bourbon virus (BRBV) is an emerging tick-borne RNA virus in the orthomyxoviridae family that was discovered in 2014. Although fatal human cases of BRBV have been described, little is known about its pathogenesis, and no antiviral therapies or vaccines exist. We obtained serum from a fatal case in 2017 and successfully recovered the second human infectious isolate of BRBV. Next-generation sequencing of the St. Louis isolate of BRBV (BRBV-STL) showed >99% nucleotide identity to the original reference isolate. Using BRBV-STL, we developed a small animal model to study BRBV-STL tropism in vivo and evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the experimental antiviral drug favipiravir against BRBV-induced disease. Infection of Ifnar1-/- mice lacking the type I interferon receptor, but not congenic wild-type animals, resulted in uniformly fatal disease 6 to 10 days after infection. RNA in situ hybridization and viral yield assays demonstrated a broad tropism of BRBV-STL with highest levels detected in liver and spleen. In vitro replication and polymerase activity of BRBV-STL were inhibited by favipiravir. Moreover, administration of favipiravir as a prophylaxis or as post-exposure therapy three days after infection prevented BRBV-STL-induced mortality in immunocompromised Ifnar1-/- mice. These results suggest that favipiravir may be a candidate treatment for humans who become infected with BRBV.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Thogotovirus/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/deficiência , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/imunologia , Thogotovirus/patogenicidade , Células Vero , Tropismo Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Tropismo Viral/genética , Tropismo Viral/imunologia
20.
J Exp Med ; 216(8): 1728-1729, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243052

RESUMO

Fulminant viral hepatitis occurs in a very small number of infected individuals. Until now, the basis for this phenotype has remained unknown. In this issue of JEM, Belkaya et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190669) identify a deletion in the IL18BP gene in a severely affected child that results in excessive natural killer cell activation and uncontrolled killing of hepatocytes.

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