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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 533-548, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320544

RESUMO

Cellular turnover represents a fundamental aspect of immunological homeostasis. While many factors appear to regulate leukocyte removal during inflammatory resolution, recent studies suggest that members of the galectin family play a unique role in orchestrating this process. Unlike cellular removal through apoptotic cell death, several members of the galectin family induce surface expression of phosphatidylserine (PS), a phagocytic marker on cells undergoing apoptosis, in the absence of cell death. However, similar to PS on cells undergoing apoptosis, galectin-induced PS exposure sensitizes cells to phagocytic removal. As galectins appear to prepare cells for phagocytic removal without actually inducing apoptotic cell death, this process has recently been coined preaparesis. Given the unique characteristics of galectin-induced PS exposure in the context of preaparesis, we will examine unique considerations when evaluating the potential impact of different galectin family members on PS exposure and cell viability.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Galectinas , Leucócitos , Fagocitose , Fosfatidilserinas , Apoptose/imunologia , Galectinas/metabolismo , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 549-564, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320545

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied in biology in the past years. This class of molecules can be derived from endogenous sources (e.g., phagocytic cells as neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages, and organelles as mitochondria and peroxisomes) and participate in physiological and pathological conditions. The beneficial and harmful effects of ROS depend on redox regulation, which establishes the balance between their production and the activity of antioxidant systems to prevent oxidative stress in vivo. Neutrophils are the immune effectors most well depicted with an intense oxidative burst in response to tissue inflammation. Several proteins and members of the galectin family are involved in this fine modulation of ROS production by neutrophils. Interestingly, studies have indicated that Galectin-1 (Gal-1) can up- or downregulate ROS production by neutrophils even when exposed to N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) or Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA), both of which are potent neutrophil stimulants that trigger high levels of ROS production. Similarly, Galectin-3 (Gal-3) induces ROS in neutrophils from a sterile or nonsterile inflammatory environment, possibly creating a negative loop that could control ROS production. Besides, superoxide production is also induced by Galectin-8 (Gal-8) and Galectin-9 (Gal-9) in neutrophils but in a different manner. We describe herein the luminol and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence technique by using a luminometer as a method of assessment to measure ROS production by human neutrophils isolated and exposed to purified human recombinant Gal-1. The protocol described herein could be applied for the investigation of the role of other galectins in the modulation of ROS production by neutrophils.


Assuntos
Galectinas , Neutrófilos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Galectinas/genética , Galectinas/metabolismo , Galectinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 151-168, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320525

RESUMO

Glycan binding proteins (GBPs) possess the unique ability to regulate a wide variety of biological processes through interactions with highly modifiable cell surface glycans. While many studies demonstrate the impact of glycan modification on GBP recognition and activity, the relative contribution of subtle changes in glycan structure on GBP binding can be difficult to define. To overcome limitations in the analysis of GBP-glycan interactions, recent studies utilized glycan microarray platforms containing hundreds of structurally defined glycans. These studies not only provided important information regarding GBP-glycan interactions in general but have also resulted in significant insight into binding specificity and biological activity of the galectin family. We will describe the methods used when employing glycan microarray platforms to examine galectin-glycan binding specificity and function.


Assuntos
Galectinas , Polissacarídeos , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Galectinas/metabolismo , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Polissacarídeos/química , Ligação Proteica
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 289-306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320532

RESUMO

Galectins are multifunctional glycan-binding proteins present in various tissues that participate in multiple physiological and pathological processes and are considered as not only biomarkers of human diseases but also molecular targets for treating cancer and inflammatory illnesses in many organs. In the glycobiology field, it is crucial to determine the pattern of galectin expression and location in cells and tissues. Confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging technology that represents a unique approach to investigate the expression and location of biomolecules in various tissues and cells. The confocal microscope acquires images of the specimen through the reflected or fluorescent light from the objective's focal plane, using laser light focused on a small spot inside the tissue or cell. This technique provides high-resolution and high-contrast images without artifacts generated by conventional microscopy and enables reconstruction of virtual tridimensional images by acquiring multiple sections from several focal planes, which makes it possible to obtain the precise spatial location of any cellular structure or molecule. Furthermore, confocal microscopy is a non-invasive tissue imaging strategy used in clinical practices. We describe herein the immunofluorescence confocal method for examining galectins in frozen tissue sections and mammalian cell culture.


Assuntos
Galectinas , Testes Imunológicos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Mamíferos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 339-352, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320534

RESUMO

Molecular imaging (MI) is a non-invasive growing technology that allows the investigation of cellular and molecular processes in basic and clinical research and medicine. Luminescent proteins and radionuclides can be associated to target molecules providing high-definition and real-time image of whole body in few minutes or hours. Several MI studies have enabled the determination of molecular partners, in vivo tracking, and fate of compounds in different disorders. Considering that galectins are multifaceted proteins with great impact in many biological events, here we describe methods and strategies to generate labeled galectins for in vivo non-invasive imaging studies.


Assuntos
Galectinas , Imagem Molecular , Proteínas Luminescentes
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 517-531, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320543

RESUMO

Over a century ago, Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood group antigens could predict the immunological outcome of red blood cell transfusion. While the discovery of ABO(H) blood group antigens revolutionized transfusion medicine, many questions remain regarding the development and regulation of naturally occurring anti-blood group antibody formation. Early studies suggested that blood group antibodies develop following stimulation by bacteria that express blood group antigens. While this may explain the development of anti-blood group antibodies in blood group-negative individuals, how blood group-positive individuals protect themselves against blood group-positive microbes remained unknown. Recent studies suggest that several members of the galectin family specifically target blood group-positive microbes, thereby providing innate immune protection against blood group antigen-positive microbes regardless of the blood group status of an individual. Importantly, subsequent studies suggest that this unique form of immunity may not be limited to blood group expressing microbes, but may reflect a more generalized form of innate immunity against molecular mimicry. As this form of antimicrobial activity represents a unique and unprecedented form of immunity, we will examine important considerations and methodological approaches that can be used when seeking to ascertain the potential antimicrobial activity of various members of the galectin family.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Galectinas , Galectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mimetismo Molecular
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2442: 1-40, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320517

RESUMO

Galectins are a large family of carbohydrate binding proteins with members in nearly every lineage of multicellular life. Through tandem and en-mass genome duplications, over 15 known vertebrate galectins likely evolved from a single common ancestor extant in pre-chordate lineages. While galectins have divergently evolved numerous functions, some of which do not involve carbohydrate recognition, the vast majority of the galectins have retained the conserved ability to bind variably modified polylactosamine (polyLacNAc) residues on glycans that modify proteins and lipids on the surface of host cells and pathogens. In addition to their direct role in microbial killing, many proposed galectin functions in the immune system and cancer involve crosslinking glycosylated receptors and modifying signaling pathways or sensitivity to antigen from the outside in. However, a large body of work has uncovered intracellular galectin functions mediated by carbohydrate- and non-carbohydrate-dependent interactions. In the cytoplasm, galectins can tune intracellular kinase and G-protein-coupled signaling cascades important for nutrient sensing, cell cycle progression, and transformation. Particularly, but interconnected pathways, cytoplasmic galectins serve the innate immune system as sensors of endolysosomal damage, recruiting and assembling the components of autophagosomes during intracellular infection through carbohydrate-dependent and -independent activities. In the nucleus, galectins participate in pre-mRNA splicing perhaps through interactions with non-coding RNAs required for assembly of spliceosomes. Together, studies of galectin function paint a picture of a functionally dynamic protein family recruited during eons of evolution to regulate numerous essential cellular processes in the context of multicellular life.


Assuntos
Galectinas , Sistema Imunitário , Ciclo Celular , Galectinas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28489, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Investigate polymorphisms and expressions of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), galectin-1 (Gal-1), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) with and without comorbidities to help understanding the mechanisms involved in triggering these disorders in PLHIV and in their prognosis. DESIGN: Here we evaluated the potential correlation between the genetic polymorphism and/or protein levels of HLA-G, Gal-1, and IL-10 with and without comorbidities of PLHIV. METHODS: Two hundred HIV patients under antiretroviral treatment (83 with comorbidities and 117 without comorbidities) and 200 healthy individuals (controls) were genotyped, using PCR, for HLA-G 14-base pair polymorphism located at the 3' untranslated region in exon 8 insertion/insertion (Ins/Ins: low HLA-G expression) or deletion/deletion (Del/Del: high HLA-G expression). Soluble levels of HLA-G (sHLA-G), Gal-1, and IL-10 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbet assay. RESULTS: HIV patients without comorbidities exhibited higher frequency of 14-base pair Del/Del genotype than HIV patients with comorbidities. As expected, HIV patients Ins/Ins with and without comorbidities produced less sHLA-G than controls. However, HIV patients Del/Del with comorbidities expressed sHLA-G more than controls and HIV patients Del/Del without comorbidities. Interestingly, patients that showed low levels sHLA-G, and presence of comorbidities, exhibited high Gal-1 serum levels. However, an increase in soluble levels of IL-10 in PLHIV was observed when compared to controls, especially in the PLHIV group without comorbidities suggesting, a protective role of IL-10 in the development of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that the high expression of sHLA-G and IL-10 or Gal-1 could be associated and could be associated with the development or not of comorbidities in PLHIV.


Assuntos
Galectina 1 , Infecções por HIV , Antígenos HLA-G , Interleucina-10 , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Galectina 1/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos HLA-G/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
9.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960790

RESUMO

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses play a critical role in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this context, because the triggering-receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is considered an intrinsic amplifier of inflammatory signals, this study investigated the role of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) as a biomarker of the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Based on their clinical scores, we enrolled COVID-19 positive patients (n = 237) classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical groups. Clinical data and patient characteristics were obtained from medical records, and their plasma inflammatory mediator profiles were evaluated with immunoassays. Plasma levels of sTREM-1 were significantly higher among patients with severe disease compared to all other groups. Additionally, levels of sTREM-1 showed a significant positive correlation with other inflammatory parameters, such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, and neutrophil counts, and a significant negative correlation was observed with lymphocyte counts. Most interestingly, sTREM-1 was found to be a strong predictive biomarker of the severity of COVID-19 and was related to the worst outcome and death. Systemic levels of sTREM-1 were significantly correlated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8, which can release TREM-1 from the surface of peripheral blood cells. Our findings indicated that quantification of sTREM-1 could be used as a predictive tool for disease outcome, thus improving the timing of clinical and pharmacological interventions in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-8/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Glycobiology ; 31(10): 1295-1307, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224566

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle has the intrinsic ability to self-repair through a multifactorial process, but many aspects of its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that some members of the mammalian ß-galactoside-binding protein family (galectins) are involved in the muscular repair process (MRP), including galectin-3 (Gal-3). However, there are many questions about the role of this protein on muscle self-repair. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Gal-3 is required for: (i) muscle repair in vivo by using a chloride-barium myolesion mouse model and (ii) mouse primary myoblasts myogenic programming. Injured muscle from Gal-3 knockout mice (GAL3KO) showed persistent inflammation associated with compromised muscle repair and the formation of fibrotic tissue on the lesion site. In GAL3KO mice, osteopontin expression remained high even after 7 and 14 d of the myolesion, while Myoblast differentiation transcription factor (MyoD) and myogenin had decreased their expression. In GAL3KO mouse primary myoblast cell culture, Paired Box 7 (Pax7) detection seems to sustain even when cells are stimulated to differentiation and MyoD expression is drastically reduced. The detection and temporal expression levels of these transcriptional factors appear to be altered in Gal-3-deficient myoblast. Gal-3 expression in wild-type mice for GAL3KO states, both in vivo and in vitro, in sarcoplasm/cytoplasm and myonuclei; as differentiation proceeds, Gal-3 expression is drastically reduced, and its location is confined to the sarcolemma/plasma cell membrane. We also observed a change in the temporal-spatial profile of Gal-3 expression and muscle transcription factors levels during the myolesion. Overall, these results demonstrate that endogenous Gal-3 is required for the skeletal muscle repair process.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Compostos de Bário/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Bário/farmacologia , Cloretos/administração & dosagem , Cloretos/farmacologia , Galectina 3/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia
11.
Bioinform Biol Insights ; 14: 1177932220915240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425512

RESUMO

Phage display is a powerful technique to select high-affinity antibodies for different purposes, including biopharmaceuticals. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) presented itself as a robust solution, making it possible to assess billions of sequences of the variable domains from selected sublibraries. Handling this process, a central difficulty is to find the selected clones. Here, we present the AutomaTed Tool For Immunoglobulin Analysis (ATTILA), a new tool to analyze and find the enriched variable domains throughout a biopanning experiment. The ATTILA is a workflow that combines publicly available tools and in-house programs and scripts to find the fold-change frequency of deeply sequenced amplicons generated from selected VH and VL domains. We analyzed the same human Fab library NGS data using ATTILA in 5 different experiments, as well as on 2 biopanning experiments regarding performance, accuracy, and output. These analyses proved to be suitable to assess library variability and to list the more enriched variable domains, as ATTILA provides a report with the amino acid sequence of each identified domain, along with its complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), germline classification, and fold change. Finally, the methods employed here demonstrated a suitable manner to combine amplicon generation and NGS data analysis to discover new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).

13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 521(3): 674-680, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685208

RESUMO

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multifunctional glycan-binding protein that participates in many pathophysiological events and has been described as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target for severe disorders, such as cancer. Several probes for Gal-3 or its ligands have been developed, however both the pathophysiological mechanisms and potential biomedical applications of Gal-3 remain not fully assessed. Molecular imaging using bioluminescent probes provides great sensitivity for in vivo and in vitro analysis for both cellular and whole multicellular organism tracking and target detection. Here, we engineered a chimeric molecule consisting of Renilla luciferase fused with mouse Gal-3 (RLuc-mGal-3). RLuc-mGal-3 preparation was highly homogenous, soluble, active, and has molecular mass of 65,870.95 Da. This molecule was able to bind to MKN45 cell surface, property which was inhibited by the reduction of Gal-3 ligands on the cell surface by the overexpression of ST6GalNAc-I. In order to obtain an efficient and stable delivery system, RLuc-mGal-3 was adsorbed to poly-lactic acid nanoparticles, which increased binding to MKN45 cells in vitro. Furthermore, bioluminescence imaging showed that RLuc-mGal-3 was able to indicate the presence of implanted tumor in mice, event drastically inhibited by the presence of lactose. This novel bioluminescent chimeric molecule offers a safe and highly sensitive alternative to fluorescent and radiolabeled probes with potential application in biomedical research for a better understanding of the distribution and fate of Gal-3 and its ligands in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/metabolismo , Luciferases de Renilla/metabolismo , Substâncias Luminescentes/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Galectina 3/análise , Galectina 3/genética , Humanos , Luciferases de Renilla/análise , Luciferases de Renilla/genética , Substâncias Luminescentes/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Polissacarídeos/análise , Ligação Proteica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
14.
Glycoconj J ; 37(1): 77-93, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823246

RESUMO

Dystroglycanopathies are diseases characterized by progressive muscular degeneration and impairment of patient's quality of life. They are associated with altered glycosylation of the dystrophin-glycoprotein (DGC) complex components, such as α-dystroglycan (α-DG), fundamental in the structural and functional stability of the muscle fiber. The diagnosis of dystroglycanopathies is currently based on the observation of clinical manifestations, muscle biopsies and enzymatic measures, and the available monoclonal antibodies are not specific for the dystrophic hypoglycosylated muscle condition. Thus, modified α-DG mucins have been considered potential targets for the development of new diagnostic strategies toward these diseases. In this context, this work describes the synthesis of the hypoglycosylated α-DG mimetic glycopeptide NHAc-Gly-Pro-Thr-Val-Thr[αMan]-Ile-Arg-Gly-BSA (1) as a potential tool for the development of novel antibodies applicable to dystroglycanopathies diagnosis. Glycopeptide 1 was used for the development of polyclonal antibodies and recombinant monoclonal antibodies by Phage Display technology. Accordingly, polyclonal antibodies were reactive to glycopeptide 1, which enables the application of anti-glycopeptide 1 antibodies in immune reactive assays targeting hypoglycosylated α-DG. Regarding monoclonal antibodies, for the first time variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) immunoglobulin domains were selected by Phage Display, identified by NGS and described by in silico analysis. The best-characterized VH and VL domains were cloned, expressed in E. coli Shuffle T7 cells, and used to construct a single chain fragment variable that recognized the Glycopeptide 1 (GpαDG1 scFv). Molecular modelling of glycopeptide 1 and GpαDG1 scFv suggested that their interaction occurs through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts involving amino acids from scFv (I51, Y33, S229, Y235, and P233) and R8 and α-mannose from Glycopeptide 1.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Distroglicanas/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Mucinas/imunologia , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/diagnóstico , Distroglicanas/química , Glicoproteínas/síntese química , Humanos , Mucinas/química
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 599736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584667

RESUMO

In the last few months, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide and has provoked an exceptional effort from the scientific community to understand the disease. Clinical evidence suggests that severe COVID-19 is associated with both dysregulation of damage tolerance caused by pulmonary immunopathology and high viral load. In this review article, we describe and discuss clinical studies that show advances in the understanding of mild and severe illness and we highlight major points that are critical for improving the comprehension of different clinical outcomes. The understanding of pulmonary immunopathology will contribute to the identification of biomarkers in an attempt to classify mild, moderate, severe and critical COVID-19 illness. The interface of pulmonary immunopathology and the identification of biomarkers are critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce the systemic and pulmonary hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16348, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705028

RESUMO

The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. The ZIKV infection is usually asymptomatic or is associated with mild clinical manifestations; however, increased numbers of cases of microcephaly and birth defects have been recently reported. To date, neither a vaccine nor an antiviral treatment has become available to control ZIKV replication. Among the natural compounds recognized for their medical properties, flavonoids, which can be found in fruits and vegetables, have been found to possess biological activity against a variety of viruses. Here, we demonstrate that the citrus flavanone naringenin (NAR) prevented ZIKV infection in human A549 cells in a concentration-dependent and ZIKV-lineage independent manner. NAR antiviral activity was also observed when primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were infected by ZIKV. NAR displayed its antiviral activity when the cells were treated after infection, suggesting that NAR acts on the viral replication or assembly of viral particles. Moreover, a molecular docking analysis suggests a potential interaction between NAR and the protease domain of the NS2B-NS3 protein of ZIKV which could explain the anti-ZIKV activity of NAR. Finally, the results support the potential of NAR as a suitable candidate molecule for developing anti-ZIKV treatments.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Replicação Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Flavanonas/química , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Montagem de Vírus , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
17.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 80-89, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630079

RESUMO

Here we report the effects of exogenous and endogenous galectin-1 (Gal-1) in modulating the functional responses of human and murine neutrophils at different stages of activation, i.e. naive, primed, and activated. Exposure to Gal-1 did not induce ROS production in either naive or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-primed (fMLP; 10-9 M) neutrophils. However, Gal-1 elicited a concentration-dependent ROS production in neutrophils activated with fMLP at concentrations ranging from 10-8 M to 10-6 M. Additional fMLP (10-7 M) stimulation of fMLP-activated neutrophils increased ROS production, whose intensity was inversely related to the fMLP concentration used in the first activation step (10-8 M to 10-6 M), and was not influenced by the presence of Gal-1. Naive neutrophils treated with Gal-1 and then exposed to fMLP (10-6 M) or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (10-7 M) produced less ROS, as compared to naive neutrophils not treated with Gal-1. Interestingly, these in vitro Gal-1 effects were associated with Gal-1 carbohydrate-binding activity and the ability to decrease FPR-1 (formyl peptide receptor 1) expression in naive human neutrophils. Conversely, positive ROS modulation by Gal-1 in activated neutrophils was not associated with FPR-1 expression but it was related to its carbohydrate recognition. In vitro, fMLP stimulation of Gal-1-/- mouse neutrophils produced more ROS than fMLP stimulation of Gal-1+/+ neutrophils and this effect may be associated with increased FPR-1 expression. Exogenous Gal-1 induced ROS production in Gal-1-/- mouse neutrophils more effectively than in Gal-1+/+ mouse neutrophils. Compared to Gal-1+/+ mice, Gal-1-/- mice exhibited lower bacterial load in the peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood, thus indicating a greater bactericidal activity in vivo. These findings demonstrate that endogenous Gal-1 restricts ROS generation that correlates with bacterial killing capacity in inflammatory neutrophils. Thus, endogenous and exogenous Gal-1 may either positively or negatively modulate the effector functions of neutrophils according to the cell activation stage.


Assuntos
Galectina 1/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1762, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440233

RESUMO

Among responders to microbial invasion, neutrophils represent one of the earliest and perhaps most important factors that contribute to initial host defense. Effective neutrophil immunity requires their rapid mobilization to the site of infection, which requires efficient extravasation, activation, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and eventual killing of potential microbial pathogens. Following pathogen elimination, neutrophils must be eliminated to prevent additional host injury and subsequent exacerbation of the inflammatory response. Galectins, expressed in nearly every tissue and regulated by unique sensitivity to oxidative and proteolytic inactivation, appear to influence nearly every aspect of neutrophil function. In this review, we will examine the impact of galectins on neutrophils, with a particular focus on the unique biochemical traits that allow galectin family members to spatially and temporally regulate neutrophil function.


Assuntos
Galectinas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
19.
Carbohydr Res ; 472: 23-32, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453095

RESUMO

α-Dystroglycan (α-DG) mucins are essential for maintenance of the structural and functional stability of the muscle fiber and, when hypoglycosylated, they are directly involved in pathological processes such as dystroglycanopathies. Thus, this work reports the synthesis of the novel 1,2,3-triazole-derived glycosyl amino acids αGlcNAc-1-O-triazol-2Manα-ThrOH (1) and Gal-ß1,4-αGlcNAc-1-O-triazol-2Manα-ThrOH (2), followed by solid-phase assembly to get the corresponding glycopeptides NHAcThrVal[αGlcNAc-1-triazol-2Manα]ThrIleArgGlyOH (3) and NHAcThrVal[Gal-ß1,4-αGlcNAc-1-triazol-2Manα]ThrIleArgGlyOH (4) as analogs of α-DG mucins. The glycosyl amino acids 1 (72%) and 2 (35%) were synthesized by Cu(I)-assisted 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions (CuAAC) between the azide-glycosyl amino acid αManN3-FmocThrOBn (5) and the corresponding alkyne-functionalyzed sugars 2'-propynyl-αGlcNAc (6) and 2'-propynyl-Gal-ß1,4-αGlcNAc (7), followed by hydrogenation reactions. Subsequently, glycopeptides 3 (23%) and 4 (12%) were obtained by solid phase synthesis, involving sequential couplings of Fmoc-protected amino acids or the glycosyl amino acids 1 and 2, followed by cleavage from resin, N-acetylation and O-deacetylation (NaOMe) reactions. Lastly, enzymatic galactosylation of glycopeptide 3 with bovine ß-1,4-GalT showed that it was not a substrate for this enzyme, which could be better elucidated by docking simulations with ß-1,4-GalT.


Assuntos
Distroglicanas/química , Glicopeptídeos/síntese química , Mucinas/química , Triazóis/química , Animais , Bovinos , Glicopeptídeos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , N-Acetil-Lactosamina Sintase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida
20.
J Infect ; 77(5): 391-397, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226191

RESUMO

Sepsis is an overwhelming systemic inflammation resulting from an uncontrolled infection that causes extensive tissue damage, organ dysfunction and eventually death. A growing body of evidence indicates that impaired neutrophil migration to the site of infection is associated with poor outcome in sepsis. Here we show that galectin-3 (Gal-3), an endogenous glycan-binding protein, plays a critical role in sepsis outcome. We found that serum Gal-3 concentration increased in patients with septic shock and mice undergoing sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice deficient in Gal-3 (Gal-3 KO) are more resistant to sepsis induced by CLP, showing lower levels of biochemical markers and neutrophil infiltration for organ injury/dysfunction than those observed in wild-type mice (WT). Furthermore, Gal-3 KO mice show an increased number of neutrophils in the primary focus of infection and reduced bacterial loads in the peritoneal cavity, blood, and lungs. Mechanistically, blood neutrophils from septic mice show higher levels of surface-bound Gal-3 than neutrophils from naive mice. The deficiency of Gal-3 was associated with increased rolling and adhesion of these cells in mesenteric venules. Our results indicate that Gal-3, secreted during sepsis, inhibits neutrophil migration into the infectious focus, which promotes the bacterial spread and worsens the outcome of sepsis.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/imunologia , Galectina 3/sangue , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Sepse/imunologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Idoso , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Galectina 3/imunologia , Galectinas , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritônio/microbiologia
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