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1.
Am Surg ; : 31348221086821, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387524

RESUMO

We investigated whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected rates of interpersonal violence (IV). A retrospective study was performed using city-wide crime data and the trauma registry at one high-volume trauma center pre-pandemic [PP] (March-October 2019) and during the pandemic [PA] (March-October 2020). The proportion of trauma admissions attributable to IV remained unchanged from PP to PA, but IV increased as a proportion of overall crime (34% to 41%, p<0.001). Assaults decreased, but there was a proportionate increase in penetrating trauma which was mostly attributable to firearms. Despite a reduction in admissions due to IV in the first 4 months of the pandemic, the rates of violence subsequently exceeded that of the same months in 2019. The cause of the observed increase of IV is multi-factorial. Future studies aimed at identifying the root causes are essential to mitigate violence during this ongoing health crisis.

2.
Am Surg ; : 31348221083948, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults (OAs; ≥ 65 years) comprise a growing population in the United States and are anticipated to require an increasing number of emergency general surgery procedures (EGSPs). The aims of this study were to identify the frequency of EGSPs and compare cost of care in OAs managed at teaching hospitals (THs) vs nonteaching hospitals (NTHs). METHODS: A retrospective review of data from the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database from 2009 to 2018 for OAs undergoing EGSPs was undertaken. Data collected included demographics, all patient-refined (APR)-severity of illness (SOI), APR-risk of mortality (ROM), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), EGSPs (partial colectomy (PC), small bowel resection, cholecystectomy, operative management of peptic ulcers, lysis of adhesions, appendectomy, and laparotomy, categorized hospital charges, length of stay (LOS), and mortality. RESULTS: Of the 55,401 OAs undergoing EGSPs in this study, 28,575 (51.6%) were treated at THs and 26,826 (48.4%) at NTHs. OAs at THs presented with greater APR-ROM (major 25.6% vs 24.9%, extreme 22.6% vs 22.0%, P=.01), and CCI (3.1±3 vs 2.7±2.8, P<.001) compared to NTHs. Lysis of adhesions, cholecystectomy, and PC comprised the overall most common EGSPs. Older adults at THs incurred comparatively higher median hospital charges for every EGSP due to increased room charges and LOS. Mortality was higher at THs (6.13% vs 5.33%, P<.001). CONCLUSION: While acuity of illness appears similar, cost of undergoing EGSPs for OAs is higher in THs vs NTHs due to increased LOS. Future work is warranted to determine and mitigate factors that increase LOS at THs.

3.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
4.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(4): 419-427, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on duration of antibiotics in patients managed with an open abdomen (OA) due to intra-abdominal infection (IAI) are scarce. We hypothesized that patients with IAI managed with OA rather than closed abdomen (CA) would have higher rates of secondary infections (SIs) independent of the duration of the antibiotic treatment. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with IAI requiring laparotomy for source control. Demographic and antibiotic duration values were collected. Primary outcomes were SI (surgical site, bloodstream, pneumonia, urinary tract) and mortality. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, chi-square/Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-one centers contributed 752 patients. The average age was 59.6 years, 43.6% were women, and 43.9% were managed with OA. Overall mortality was 16.1%, with higher rates among OA patients (31.6% vs 4.4%, p < 0.001). OA patients had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (4.7 vs 1.8, p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (3.6 vs 2.7, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (16.1 vs 9.4, p < 0.001). The mean duration of antibiotics was 6.5 days (8.0 OA vs 5.4 CA, p < 0.001). A total of 179 (23.8%) patients developed SI (33.1% OA vs 16.8% CA, p < 0.001). Longer antibiotic duration was associated with increased rates of SI: 1 to 2 days, 15.8%; 3 to 5 days, 20.4%; 6 to 14 days, 26.6%; and more than 14 days, 46.8% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IAI managed with OA had higher rates of SI and increased mortality compared with CA. A prolonged duration of antibiotics was associated with increased rates of SI. Increased antibiotic duration is not associated with improved outcomes in patients with IAI and OA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Abdome/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/complicações , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/etiologia , Laparotomia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Am Surg ; : 31348221078955, 2022 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) management has mostly involved large database analysis, which limits understanding of a complex and heterogeneous disease. We aimed to review the clinical course and outcomes of PP and acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFC) that require intervention at 1 high-volume center. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with APFC and PP undergoing drainage (2011-2018) was performed. Patients were divided into groups based on initial intervention: surgical (SR), percutaneous (PC), or endoscopic (EN) drainage. Primary outcome was mortality by initial intervention type. Secondary outcomes included subsequent interventions required, length of stay (LOS), readmission rates, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Of 88 patients, 40 (46.1%) underwent SR, 40 (44.9%) PC, and 8 (9.0%) EN. No patients in EN group had APACHE II scores>20. Pancreatic necrosis was higher in SR (80.5%) and PC (62.5%) groups (P = .006). There were no differences in mortality, LOS, or readmission rates. Ten patients in the PC group underwent subsequent surgical intervention, of which 9 were due to bowel ischemia. The PC group was 3.4 times more likely to be discharged to rehabilitation over home when compared to the other 2 groups (P = .04). CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing surgical or percutaneous drainage of APFC and PP have a greater burden of illness and more local complications requiring intervention compared to endoscopic drainage. The heterogeneity in presentation of peripancreatic fluid collections in acute pancreatitis must be considered when evaluating the benefits of each intervention.

6.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 7(1): e000821, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Damage control laparotomy (DCL) remains an important tool in the trauma surgeon's armamentarium. Inconsistency in reporting standards have hindered careful scrutiny of DCL outcomes. We sought to develop a core outcome set (COS) for DCL clinical studies to facilitate future pooling of data via meta-analysis and Bayesian statistics while minimizing reporting bias. METHODS: A modified Delphi study was performed using DCL content experts identified through Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) 'landmark' DCL papers and EAST ad hoc COS task force consensus. RESULTS: Of 28 content experts identified, 20 (71%) participated in round 1, 20/20 (100%) in round 2, and 19/20 (95%) in round 3. Round 1 identified 36 potential COS. Round 2 achieved consensus on 10 core outcomes: mortality, 30-day mortality, fascial closure, days to fascial closure, abdominal complications, major complications requiring reoperation or unplanned re-exploration following closure, gastrointestinal anastomotic leak, secondary intra-abdominal sepsis (including anastomotic leak), enterocutaneous fistula, and 12-month functional outcome. Despite feedback provided between rounds, round 3 achieved no further consensus. CONCLUSIONS: Through an electronic survey-based consensus method, content experts agreed on a core outcome set for damage control laparotomy, which is recommended for future trials in DCL clinical research. Further work is necessary to delineate specific tools and methods for measuring specific outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V, criteria.

7.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(2): 97-104, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619068

RESUMO

Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) can result in life-threatening illness requiring surgery. Surgical options for managing severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile colitis include total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy or creation of a diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade vancomycin lavage. Methods: The Surgical Infection Society's Therapeutics and Guidelines Committee convened to develop guidelines for summarizing the current SIS recommendations for total abdominal colectomy versus diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade lavage for severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile colitis. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database were searched for pertinent studies. Severe infection was defined as laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection with leukocytosis (white blood cell count of ≥15,000 cells/mL) or elevated creatinine (serum creatinine level >1.5 mg/dL). Fulminant infection was defined as laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection with hypotension or shock, ileus, or megacolon. Perforation was defined as complete disruption of the colon wall. Total abdominal colectomy was defined as resection of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon with end ileostomy. For the purpose of the guideline, the terms subtotal colectomy, total abdominal colectomy, and rectal-sparing total colectomy were used interchangeably. Diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade enema was defined as creation of both a diverting loop ileostomy with intra-operative colonic lavage and post-operative antegrade vancomycin unless otherwise specified. Evaluation of the published evidence was performed using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Using a process of iterative consensus, all committee members voted to accept or reject each recommendation. Results: We recommend that total abdominal colectomy be the procedure of choice for definitive therapy of severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile colitis. In select patients, colon preservation using diverting loop ileostomy with intra-colonic vancomycin may be associated with higher rates of ostomy reversal and restoration of gastrointestinal continuity but may lead to development of recurrent C. difficile colitis. Conclusions: This guideline summarizes the current Surgical Infection Society recommendations regarding use of total abdominal colectomy versus diverting loop ileostomy with antegrade lavage for adults with severe or fulminant, non-perforated C. difficile infection.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Colite , Clostridioides , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/métodos , Colite/cirurgia , Humanos , Ileostomia/efeitos adversos , Ileostomia/métodos , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
8.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 439-446, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults (OAs) ≥ 65 years of age, representing the fastest growing segment in the United States, are anticipated to require a greater percentage of emergency general surgery procedures (EGSPs) with an associated increase in health care costs. The aims of this study were to identify the frequency of EGSP and charges incurred by OA compared to their younger counterparts in the state of Maryland. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission from 2009 to 2018 was undertaken. Patients undergoing urgent or emergent ESGP were divided into 2 groups (18-64 years and ≥65 years). Data collected included demographics, APR-severity of illness (SOI), APR-risk of mortality (ROM), the EGSP (partial colectomy [PC], small bowel resection [SBR], cholecystectomy, operative management of peptic ulcer disease, lysis of adhesions, appendectomy, and laparotomy), length of stay (LOS), and hospital charges. P-values (P < .05) were significant. RESULTS: Of the 181,283 patients included in the study, 55,401 (38.1%) were ≥65 years of age. Older adults presented with greater APR-SOI (major 37.7% vs 21.3%, extreme 5.2% vs 9.3%), greater APR-ROM (major 25.3% vs 8.7%, extreme 22.3% vs 5.3%), underwent PC (24.5% vs 10.9%) and SBR (12.8% vs 7.0%) more frequently, and incurred significantly higher median hospital charges for every EGSP, consistently between 2009 and 2018 due to increased LOS and complications when compared to those ≤65 years of age. CONCLUSION: These findings stress the need for validated frailty indices and quality improvement initiatives focused on the care of OAs in emergency general surgery to maximize outcomes and optimize cost.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apendicectomia/economia , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colecistectomia/economia , Colecistectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colectomia/métodos , Emergências/economia , Emergências/epidemiologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Preços Hospitalares , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Laparotomia/economia , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Aderências Teciduais/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Crit Care Clin ; 37(1): 191-203, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190770

RESUMO

Dementia is a terminal illness that leads to progressive cognitive and functional decline. As the elderly population grows, the incidence of dementia in hospitalized older adults increases and is associated with poor short-term and long-term outcomes. Delirium is associated with an accelerated cognitive decline in hospitalized patients with dementia. The first step in the management of dementia is accurate and early diagnosis. Evidence-based management guidelines in the setting of critical illness and dementia are lacking. The cornerstone of management is defining goals of care early in the course of hospitalization and using palliative care and hospice when deemed appropriate.


Assuntos
Delírio , Demência , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos
10.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1073-1077, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous drainage as the initial procedure for severe pancreatitis (SP) may not always be optimal. Our aim was to identify the characteristics of patients who failed percutaneous drainage and compare their outcomes with patients who underwent surgical intervention as the initial approach. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected emergency general surgery registry of patients admitted to a tertiary-care, academic center with the diagnosis of SP who underwent an intervention was performed (2010-2018). Patients were divided into successful drainage (SD), drainage failure (DF), and surgery first (SF) groups. DF was defined as the need for surgical intervention. RESULTS: The study included 129 patients. Fifty (38.8%) patients underwent SF as their initial management modality. Among 79 patients who underwent drainage, 34 (43.0%) were in the DF group and progressed to surgical intervention. Within that group, 19 (55.9%) underwent open necrosectomy. The DF group was more likely to have lower rates of peripancreatic fluid collections, a higher rate of necrotizing pancreatitis, and a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score when compared with the DS group. Mortality was higher in the DF and SF groups, and total length of stay and ICU length of stay were highest in the DF group. DISCUSSION: Patients who experience failure of drainage for SP have high morbidity and mortality rates and fare worse overall than patients who undergo surgery as the primary intervention. Patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and a higher APACHE II score might warrant surgical intervention over a drainage-first approach.


Assuntos
Drenagem/métodos , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Pancreatite/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Surg Res ; 256: 149-155, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the current utilization patterns of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of aorta (REBOA) for hemorrhage control in nontrauma patients. METHODS: Data on REBOA use in nontrauma emergency general surgery patients from six centers, 2014-2019, was pooled for analysis. We performed descriptive analyses using Fisher's exact, Student's t, chi-squared, or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with acute hemorrhage from nontrauma sources were identified. REBOA placement was primarily performed by trauma attendings (20/37, 54%) and vascular attendings (13/37, 35%). In seven patients (19%), balloons were positioned prophylactically but never inflated. In 24 (65%) of 37 patients, REBOA was placed in the operating room. 28/37 balloons (76%) were advanced to zone 1, 8/37 (22%) were advanced to zone 3, and there was one REBOA use in the inferior vena cava. Most common indications were gastrointestinal and peripartum bleeding. In the 30 cases of balloon inflation, 24 of 30 (80%) resulted in improved hemodynamics. Eleven of 30 patients (37%) died before discharge. One patient developed a distal embolism, but there were no reports of limb loss. Twelve patients (40% of all REBOA inflations and 63% of survivors) were discharged to home. CONCLUSIONS: REBOA has been used in a range of acutely hemorrhaging emergency general surgery patients with low rates of access-related complications. Mortality is high in this patient population and further research is needed; however, appropriate patient selection and early use may improve survival in these life-threatening cases.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
13.
ASAIO J ; 66(5): 520-523, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425255

RESUMO

Patients supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are at risk for intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Flow through the return cannula may be compromised in these patients, resulting in inadequate support and end-organ malperfusion. Early decompressive laparotomy can mitigate these complications and potentially improve outcomes. Here we review a series of nine patients undergoing early decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome at a single institution and propose an algorithmic approach to the management of these patients.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/etiologia , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/cirurgia , Laparotomia/métodos , Adulto , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Am J Surg ; 218(6): 1046-1051, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623878

RESUMO

Differentiation between SBO that will resolve with supportive measures and those requiring surgery remains challenging. WSC administration may be diagnostic and therapeutic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of a SBO protocol using WSC challenge. A protocol was implemented at five tertiary care centers. Demographics, prior surgical history, time to operation, complications, and LOS were analyzed. 283 patients were admitted with SBO; 13% underwent immediate laparotomy; these patients had a median LOS of 7.5 days. The remaining 245 were candidates for WSC challenge. Of those, 80% received contrast. 139 (71%) had contrast passage to the colon. LOS in these patients was 4 days. Sixty-five patients (29%) failed contrast passage within 24 h and underwent surgery. LOS was 9 days. 8% of patients in whom contrast passage was observed at 24 h nevertheless subsequently underwent surgery. 4% of patients who failed WSC challenge did not proceed to surgery. Our multicenter trial revealed that implementation of a WSC protocol may facilitate early recognition of partial from complete obstruction.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Diatrizoato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestino Delgado , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1028-1032, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638519

RESUMO

Hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have decreased since the advent of specific medical therapy in the 1980s. The authors' clinical experience at a tertiary center, however, has been that procedures to treat PUD complications have not declined. This study tested the hypothesis that despite decreases in PUD hospitalizations, the volume of procedures for PUD complications has remained consistent. The study population included all inpatient encounters in the state of Maryland from 2009 to 2014 with a primary ICD-9 diagnosis code for PUD. Data on annual patient volume, demographics, anatomic location, procedures, complications, and outcomes were collected, and PUD prevalence rates were calculated. The study population consisted of the state's entire population, not a sample; statistical analysis was not applied. Hospitalizations for PUD declined from 2,502 in 2009 to 2,101 in 2014, whereas the percentage of hospitalizations with procedures increased from 27.1 to 31.5 per cent. Endoscopy was performed in 19.8 per cent of hospitalizations, operation in 9.4 per cent, and angiography in 1.3 per cent. Of 13,974 inpatient encounters, 30 per cent had at least one inhospital complication. Overall inpatient mortality was 2.2 per cent. PUD hospitalizations are declining in Maryland, mirroring national trends. A subset of patients continue to need urgent procedures for PUD complications, including nearly 10 per cent needing operation. Inpatient mortality among patients admitted for PUD was 2.2 per cent, congruent with other studies. Despite the efficacy of modern medical therapy, these data underscore the importance of teaching surgical residents the cognitive and operative skills necessary to manage PUD complications.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Úlcera Péptica/complicações , Úlcera Péptica/cirurgia , Angiografia/efeitos adversos , Angiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Úlcera Péptica/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
17.
World J Emerg Surg ; 14: 39, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404221

RESUMO

Background: Severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis (SCIAS) has high mortality, thought due in part to progressive bio-mediator generation, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure. Treatment includes early antibiotics and operative source control. At surgery, open abdomen management with negative-peritoneal-pressure therapy (NPPT) has been hypothesized to mitigate MOF and death, although clinical equipoise for this operative approach exists. The Closed or Open after Laparotomy (COOL) study (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03163095) will prospectively randomize eligible patients intra-operatively to formal abdominal closure or OA with NPTT. We review the ethical basis for conducting research in SCIAS. Main body: Research in critically ill incapacitated patients is important to advance care. Conducting research among SCIAS is complicated due to the severity of illness including delirium, need for emergent interventions, diagnostic criteria confirmed only at laparotomy, and obtundation from anaesthesia. In other circumstances involving critically ill patients, clinical experts have worked closely with ethicists to apply principles that balance the rights of patients whilst simultaneously permitting inclusion in research. In Canada, the Tri-Council Policy Statement-2 (TCPS-2) describes six criteria that permit study enrollment and randomization in such situations: (a) serious threat to the prospective participant requires immediate intervention; (b) either no standard efficacious care exists or the research offers realistic possibility of direct benefit; (c) risks are not greater than that involved in standard care or are clearly justified by prospect for direct benefits; (d) prospective participant is unconscious or lacks capacity to understand the complexities of the research; (e) third-party authorization cannot be secured in sufficient time; and (f) no relevant prior directives are known to exist that preclude participation. TCPS-2 criteria are in principle not dissimilar to other (inter)national criteria. The COOL study will use waiver of consent to initiate enrollment and randomization, followed by surrogate or proxy consent, and finally delayed informed consent in subjects that survive and regain capacity. Conclusions: A delayed consent mechanism is a practical and ethical solution to challenges in research in SCIAS. The ultimate goal of consent is to balance respect for patient participants and to permit participation in new trials with a reasonable opportunity for improved outcome and minimal risk of harm.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/ética , Sepse/cirurgia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11164, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371752

RESUMO

Different kinematic models have been proposed for the triple junction between the North American, Cocos and Caribbean plates. The two most commonly accepted hypotheses on its driving mechanism are (a) the North American drag of the forearc and (b) the Cocos Ridge subduction push. We present an updated GPS velocity field which is analyzed together with earthquake focal mechanisms and regional relief. The two hypotheses have been used to make kinematic predictions that are tested against the available data. An obliquity analysis is also presented to discuss the potential role of slip partitioning as driving mechanism. The North American drag model presents a better fit to the observations, although the Cocos Ridge push model explains the data in Costa Rica and Southern Nicaragua. Both mechanisms must be active, being the driving of the Central American forearc towards the NW analogous to a push-pull train. The forearc sliver moves towards the west-northwest at a rate of 12-14 mm/yr, being pinned to the North American plate in Chiapas and western Guatemala, where the strike-slip motion on the volcanic arc must be very small.

19.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 595-600, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267899

RESUMO

Interhospital transfer of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients is a common occurrence. Modern individual hospital practices for interhospital transfers have unknown variability. A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database was undertaken from 2013 to 2015. EGS encounters were divided into three groups: encounters not transferred, encounters transferred from a hospital, and encounters transferred to a hospital. In total, 380,405 EGS encounters were identified, including 12,153 (3.2%) encounters transferred to a hospital, 10,163 (2.7%) encounters transferred from a hospital, and 358,089 (94.1%) encounters not transferred. For individual hospitals, percentage of encounters transferred to a hospital ranged from 0 to 30.05 per cent, encounters transferred from a hospital from 0.02 to 14.62 per cent, and encounters not transferred from 69.25 to 99.95 per cent of total encounters at individual hospitals. Percentage of encounters transferred from individual hospitals was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = -0.59), whereas percentage of encounters transferred to individual hospitals was directly correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = 0.51). Individual hospital practices for interhospital transfer of EGS patients have substantial variability. This is the first study to describe individual hospital interhospital transfer practices for EGS.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Maryland , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contrato de Transferência de Pacientes
20.
J Surg Res ; 243: 391-398, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent occurrence of interhospital transfers in emergency general surgery (EGS), rates of transfer of complications are undescribed. Improved understanding of hospital transfer patterns has a multitude of implications, including quality measurement. The objective of this study was to describe individual hospital transfer rates of mortal encounters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken from 2013 to 2015 of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database. Two groups of EGS encounters were identified: encounters with death following transfer and encounters with death without transfer. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was defined as the percentage of EGS hospital encounters with mortality initially presenting to a hospital transferred to another hospital before death at the receiving hospital. RESULTS: Overall, 370,242 total EGS encounters were included, with 17,003 (4.6%) of the total EGS encounters with mortality. Encounters with death without transfer encompassed 15,604 (91.8%) of mortal EGS encounters and encounters with death following transfer 1399 (8.2%). EGS disease categories of esophageal varices or perforation, necrotizing fasciitis, enterocutaneous fistula, and pancreatitis had over 10% of these total mortal encounters with death following transfer. For individual hospitals, percentage of mortal encounters transferred ranged from 0.8% to 35.2%. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume for all state hospitals (P < 0.001, r = -0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Broad variability in individual hospital practices exists for mortality transferred to other institutions. Application of this knowledge of percentage of mortal encounters transferred includes consideration in hospital quality metrics.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doente Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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