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1.
Psychiatry ; : 1-4, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720862

RESUMO

The width of a human hair sourced from a female elementary school student was measured by light diffraction using red and blue laser pointers. The two laser sources both provided consistent estimates of the hair diameter of approximately 50 µm. The overall experiment and writing process provided a temporary respite from COVID-19 shelter-in-place requirements and deteriorating spring weather that precluded outdoor activities.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657123

RESUMO

Large singlet exciton diffusion lengths are a hallmark of high performance in organic based devices such as photovoltaics, chemical sensors, and photodetectors. In this study, exciton dynamics of a two-dimensional covalent organic framework, COF-5, is investigated using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques. Following photoexcitation, the COF-5 exciton decays via three pathways: 1) excimer formation (4 ± 2 ps), 2) excimer relaxation (160 ± 40 ps), and 3) excimer decay (>3 ns). Excita-tion fluence-dependent transient absorption studies suggest that COF-5 has a relatively large diffusion coefficient (0.08 cm2/s). Furthermore, exciton-exciton annihilation processes are characterized as a function of COF-5 crystallite domain size in four different samples, which reveal domain-size dependent exciton diffusion kinetics. These results reveal that exciton diffusion in COF-5 is constrained by its crystalline domain size. These insights indicate the outstanding promise of delocalized excitonic processes available in 2D COFs, which motivate their continued design and implementation into optoelectronic devices.

3.
Water Res ; 182: 115950, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604026

RESUMO

Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have raised great concern due to their ubiquity in aquatic environments, and adsorption technologies are among the most promising treatment solutions. This study investigated the key factors that influence the adsorption of anionic PFASs on conventional and emerging adsorbents. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of 20 target PFASs at environmentally relevant concentrations by three different activated carbon (AC) materials and two different ß-cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs). Experiments were conducted in Milli-Q water and in groundwater. Major physical properties of the adsorbents were measured, along with general water chemistry parameters for each groundwater sample. Principal component analysis (PCA) was subsequently employed to extract the important associations from the multivariate dataset. The distinct performances of ACs and CDPs were attributed to their different surface chemistry and the distinct nature of their adsorption binding sites. Hydrophobic interactions dominated PFAS adsorption onto ACs while CDPs mostly attracted anionic PFASs via favorable electrostatic interactions. ACs of a smaller average particle size performed better, with our data pointing to an increased external specific surface area as the likely reason. pH and the concentration of cations were the primary contributors to adsorption inhibition in groundwater. Higher pH values limit anionic PFAS adsorption by deprotonating the functional groups on adsorbent surfaces. The elevated levels of cations in some groundwater samples limited the effects of attractive electrostatic interactions. Knowledge of PFAS adsorption mechanisms gained from this study can be used to design more efficient adsorbents and to predict their performance under a range of environmental scenarios.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2002812, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614510

RESUMO

2D hybrid halide perovskites with the formula (A')2 (A)n -1 Pbn I3 n +1 have remarkable stability and promising efficiency in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices, yet fundamental understanding of film formation, key to optimizing these devices, is lacking. Here, in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) is used to monitor film formation during spin-coating. This elucidates the general film formation mechanism of 2D halide perovskites during one-step spin-coating. There are three stages of film formation: sol-gel, oriented 3D, and 2D. Three precursor phases form during the sol-gel stage and transform to perovskite, first giving a highly oriented 3D-like phase at the air/liquid interface followed by subsequent nucleations forming slightly less oriented 2D perovskite. Furthermore, heating before crystallization leads to fewer nucleations and faster removal of the precursors, improving orientation. This outlines the primary causes of phase distribution and perpendicular orientation in 2D perovskite films and paves the way for rationally designed film fabrication techniques.

5.
Water Res ; 173: 115551, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032887

RESUMO

The performance of adsorbents for the removal of organic micropollutants (MPs) from water can be influenced by the presence of water matrix constituents. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of water matrix constituents on the performance of coconut-shell activated carbon (CCAC), porous ß-cyclodextrin polymer (CDP), and CDP coated on cellulose microcrystal (CDP@CMC) adsorbents. MP removals were measured in batch experiments for a mixture of 90 MP at 1 µg L-1 and MP breakthrough was measured in rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) experiments for a mixture of 15 MP at 500 ng L-1. All experiments were performed first with nanopure water, and subsequently with six different water samples collected from two separate groundwater, surface water, and wastewater effluent sources. The results of batch and RSSCT experiments demonstrate more rapid adsorption kinetics and less adsorption inhibition in the presence of matrix constituents for CDP adsorbents relative to CCAC. Further, the treatment capacity of CDP@CMC in the RSSCT experiments was higher than that of CCAC, particularly in more complex water matrices. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate associations between adsorption inhibition among groups of MPs and the concentrations of specific water matrix constituents. For CCAC, adsorption inhibition was observed for all MPs and was primarily attributed to the presence of dissolved organic matter with molar weight less than 1000 Da. For CDP adsorbents, adsorption inhibition was primarily observed for cationic MPs and was attributed to the screening of the negative surface charge of CDP by inorganic ions in water samples with high ionic strength. These data further demonstrate the value of CDP as an alternative adsorbent to CCAC for the removal of MPs during water and wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Celulose , Carvão Vegetal , Ciclodextrinas , Polímeros , Águas Residuárias , Água
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(2): 783-791, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894972

RESUMO

Here we report that a covalent organic framework (COF), which contains 2,5-di(imine)-substituted 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (diiminol) moieties, undergoes color changes in the presence of solvents or solvent vapor that are rapid, passive, reversible, and easily detectable by the naked eye. A new visible absorption band appears in the presence of polar solvents, especially water, suggesting reversible conversion to another species. This reversibility is attributed to the ability of the diiminol to rapidly tautomerize to an iminol/cis-ketoenamine and its inability to doubly tautomerize to a diketoenamine. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest similar energies for the two tautomers in the presence of water, but the diiminol is much more stable in its absence. Time-dependent DFT calculations confirm that the iminol/cis-ketoenamine absorbs at longer wavelength than the diiminol and indicate that this absorption has significant charge-transfer character. A colorimetric humidity sensing device constructed from an oriented thin film of the COF responded quickly to water vapor and was stable for months. These results suggest that tautomerization-induced electronic structure changes can be exploited in COF platforms to give rapid, reversible sensing in systems that exhibit long-term stability.

7.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 963-970, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910625

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are molecule-based 2D and 3D materials that possess a wide range of mechanical and electronic properties. We have performed a joint experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of boroxine-linked COFs grown under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and characterized using scanning tunneling spectroscopy on Au(111) and hBN/Cu(111) substrates. Our results show that a single hBN layer electronically decouples the COF from the metallic substrate, thus suppressing substrate-induced broadening and revealing new features in the COF electronic local density of states (LDOS). The resulting sharpening of LDOS features allows us to experimentally determine the COF band gap, bandwidths, and the electronic hopping amplitude between adjacent COF bridge sites. These experimental parameters are consistent with the results of first-principles theoretical predictions.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(1): 16-20, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820958

RESUMO

Redox-active covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are promising materials for energy storage devices because of their high density of redox sites, permanent and controlled porosity, high surface areas, and tunable structures. However, the low electrochemical accessibility of their redox-active sites has limited COF-based devices either to thin films (<250 nm) grown on conductive substrates or to thicker films (1 µm) when a conductive polymer is introduced into the COF pores. Electrical energy storage devices constructed from bulk microcrystalline COF powders, eliminating the need for both thin-film formation and conductive polymer guests, would offer both improved capacity and potentially scalable fabrication processes. Here we report on the synthesis and electrochemical evaluation of a new phenazine-based 2D COF (DAPH-TFP COF), as well as its composite with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Both the COF and its PEDOT composite were evaluated as powders that were solution-cast onto bulk electrodes serving as current collectors. The unmodified DAPH-TFP COF exhibited excellent electrical access to its redox sites, even without PEDOT functionalization, and outperformed the PEDOT composite of our previously reported anthraquinone-based system. Devices containing DAPH-TFP COF were able to deliver both high-energy and high-power densities, validating the promise of unmodified redox-active COFs that are easily incorporated into electrical energy storage devices.

9.
Adv Mater ; 32(2): e1905776, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763734

RESUMO

Imine-linked 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) form more rapidly than previously reported under Brønsted acid-catalyzed conditions, showing signs of crystallinity within a few minutes, and maximum crystallinity within hours. These observations contrast with the multiday reaction times typically employed under these conditions. In addition, vacuum activation, which is often used to isolate COF materials significantly erodes the crystallinity and surface area of the several isolated materials, as measured by N2 sorption and X-ray diffraction. This loss of material quality during isolation for many networks has historically obscured otherwise effective polymerization conditions. The influence of the activation procedure is characterized in detail for three COFs, with the commonly used 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene-terephthaldehyde network (TAPB-PDA COF), the most prone to pore collapse. When the networks are activated carefully, rapid COF formation is general for all five of the imine-linked 2D COFs studied, with all exhibiting excellent crystallinity and surface areas, including the highest surface areas reported to date for three materials. Furthermore, to simplify the workup of COF materials, a simple nitrogen flow method provides high-quality materials without the need for specialized equipment. These insights have important implications for studying and understanding how 2D COFs form.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1367-1374, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867961

RESUMO

Homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) polymerization is a poorly understood process in which topologically planar monomers react to form planar macromolecules, often termed 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs). While these COFs have traditionally been limited to weakly crystalline aggregated powders, they were recently grown as micron-sized single crystals by temporally resolving the growth and nucleation processes. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the nucleation and growth rates of 2D COFs via kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations using COF-5 as an example, which show that nucleation and growth have second-order and first-order dependences on monomer concentration, respectively. The computational results were confirmed experimentally by systematic measurements of COF nucleation and growth rates performed via in situ X-ray scattering, which validated the respective monomer concentration dependencies of the nucleation and elongation processes. A major consequence is that there exists a threshold monomer concentration below which growth dominates over nucleation. Our computational and experimental findings rationalize recent empirical observations that, in the formation of 2D COF single crystals, growth dominates over nucleation when monomers are added slowly, so as to limit their concentrations. This mechanistic understanding of the nucleation and growth processes will inform the rational control of polymerization in two dimensions and ultimately enable access to high-quality samples of designed two-dimensional polymers.

11.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(11): 1892-1899, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807691

RESUMO

Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) are composed of structurally precise, permanently porous, layered polymer sheets. 2D COFs have traditionally been synthesized as polycrystalline aggregates with small crystalline domains. Only recently have a small number of 2D COFs been obtained as single crystals, which were prepared by a seeded growth approach via the slow introduction of monomers, which favored particle growth over nucleation. However, these procedures are slow and operationally difficult, making it desirable to develop polymerization methods that do not require the continuous addition of reactants over days or weeks. Here, we achieve the rapid growth of boronate ester-linked COFs by chemically suppressing nucleation via addition of an excess of a monofunctional competitor, 4-tert-butylcatechol (TCAT), into the polymerization. In situ X-ray scattering measurements show that TCAT suppresses colloid nucleation, which enables seeded growth polymerizations in the presence of high monomer concentrations. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations reveal that TCAT limits oligomers to sizes below the critical nucleus size and that in-plane expansion is restricted compared to out-of-plane oriented attachment of oligomers. The simulations are consistent with transmission electron micrographs, which show that the particles grow predominantly in the stacking direction. This mechanistic insight into the role of the modulators in 2D polymerizations enables the size and aspect ratio of COF colloids to be controlled under operationally simple conditions. This chemically controlled growth strategy will accelerate the discovery and exploration of COF materials and their emergent properties.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872540

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are highly modular porous crystalline polymers that are of interest for applications such as charge-storage devices, nanofiltration membranes, and optoelectronic devices. COFs are typically synthesized as microcrystalline powders, which limits their performance in these applications, and their limited solubility precludes large-scale processing into more useful morphologies and devices. We report a general, scalable method to exfoliate two-dimensional imine-linked COF powders by temporarily protonating their linkages. The resulting suspensions were cast into continuous crystalline COF films up to 10 cm in diameter, with thicknesses ranging from 50 nm to 20 µm depending on the suspension composition, concentration, and casting protocol. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the film fabrication process proceeds through a partial depolymerization/repolymerization mechanism, providing mechanically robust films that can be easily separated from their substrates.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19728-19735, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743009

RESUMO

The synthesis of periodic two-dimensional (2D) polymers and characterization of their optoelectronic behaviors are challenges at the forefront of polymer chemistry and materials science. Recently, we showed that layered 2D polymers known as 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) can be synthesized as single crystals by preparing COF particles as colloidal suspensions. Here we expand this approach from the condensation of boronic acids and catechols to the dehydrative trimerization of polyboronic acids. The resulting boroxine-linked colloids are the next class of 2D COFs to be obtained as single-crystalline particles, as demonstrated here for four 2D COFs and one 3D COF. Colloidal stabilization enables detailed structural analysis by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Solution fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the COF crystallites are highly emissive compared to their respective monomer solutions. Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the origin of this enhanced emission can be attributed to through-space communication of chromophores between COF sheets. These observations will motivate the development of colloidal COF systems as a platform to organize functional aromatic systems into precise and predictable assemblies with emergent properties.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(41): 14708-14714, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407425

RESUMO

Nanotubes assembled from macrocyclic precursors offer a unique combination of low dimensionality, structural rigidity, and distinct interior and exterior microenvironments. Usually the weak stacking energies of macrocycles limit the length and mechanical strength of the resultant nanotubes. Imine-linked macrocycles were recently found to assemble into high-aspect ratio (>103 ), lyotropic nanotubes in the presence of excess acid. Yet these harsh conditions are incompatible with many functional groups and processing methods, and lower acid loadings instead catalyze macrocycle degradation. Here we report pyridine-2,6-diimine-linked macrocycles that assemble into high-aspect ratio nanotubes in the presence of less than 1 equiv of CF3 CO2 H per macrocycle. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a cooperative self-assembly mechanism. The low acid concentrations needed to induce assembly enabled nanofibers to be obtained by touch-spinning, which exhibit higher Young's moduli (1.33 GPa) than many synthetic polymers and biological filaments. These findings represent a breakthrough in the design of inverse chromonic liquid crystals, as assembly under such mild conditions will enable the design of structurally diverse and mechanically robust nanotubes from synthetically accessible macrocycles.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(34): 13315-13319, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411879

RESUMO

Disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethanes are commonly found in drinking water. Trihalomethanes are formed upon chlorination of natural organic matter found in many drinking water sources. Inspired by molecular CHCl3⊂cavitand host-guest complexes, we designed porous polymers composed of resorcinarene receptors. These materials show higher affinity for halomethanes than a specialty activated carbon used for trihalomethane removal. The cavitand polymers show similar removal kinetics as activated carbon and have high capacity (49 mg g-1 of CHCl3). These materials maintain their performance in drinking water and can be thermally regenerated. Cavitand polymers also outperform commercial resins for 1,4-dioxane adsorption, which contaminates many water sources. These materials show promise for water treatment and demonstrate the value of using supramolecular receptors to design adsorbents for water purification.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(35): 12049-12053, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210007

RESUMO

Organic micropollutants (MPs) are anthropogenic substances that contaminate water resources at trace concentrations. Many MPs, including per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), have come under increased scrutiny because of their environmental persistence and association with various health problems. A ß-cyclodextrin polymer linked with tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile (TFN-CDP) has high affinity for cationic and many neutral MPs from contaminated water because of anionic groups incorporated during the polymerization. But TFN-CDP does not bind many anionic MPs strongly, including anionic PFASs. To address this shortcoming, we reduced the nitrile groups in TFN-CDP to primary amines, which reverses its affinity towards charged MPs. TFN-CDP exhibits adsorption distribution coefficients (log KD values) of 2-3 for cationic MPs and -0.5-1.5 for anionic MPs, whereas the reduced TFN-CDP exhibits log KD values of -0.5-1.5 for cationic MPs and 2-4 for anionic MPs, with especially high affinity towards anionic PFASs. Kinetic studies of the removal of 10 anionic PFASs at environmentally relevant concentrations showed 80-98 % removal of all contaminants after 30 min and was superior to commercial granular activated carbon. These findings demonstrate the scope and tunability of CD-based adsorbents derived from a single polymerization and the promise of novel adsorbents constructed from molecular receptors.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(16): 6473-6478, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964670

RESUMO

Carbene polymerization provides polyolefins that cannot be readily prepared from olefin monomers; however, controlled and living carbene polymerization has been a long-standing challenge. Here we report a new class of initiators, (π-allyl)palladium carboxylate dimers, which polymerize ethyl diazoacetate, a carbene precursor in a controlled and quasi-living manner, with nearly quantitative yields, degrees of polymerization >100, molecular weight dispersities 1.2-1.4, and well-defined, diversifiable chain ends. This method also provides block copolycarbenes that undergo microphase segregation. Experimental and theoretical mechanistic analysis supports a new dinuclear mechanism for this process.

18.
Chem Sci ; 10(13): 3796-3801, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996969

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) consist of monomers arranged in predictable structures with emergent properties. However, improved crystallinity, porosity, and solution processability remain major challenges. To this end, colloidal COF nanoparticles are useful for mechanistic studies of nucleation and growth and enable advanced spectroscopy and solution processing of thin films. Here we present a general approach to synthesize imine-linked 2D COF nanoparticles and control their size by favoring imine polymerization while preventing the nucleation of new particles. The method yields uniform, crystalline, and high-surface-area particles and is applicable to several imine-linked COFs. In situ X-ray scattering experiments reveal the nucleation of amorphous polymers, which crystallize via imine exchange processes during and after particle growth, consistent with previous mechanistic studies of imine-linked COF powders. The separation of particle formation and growth processes offers control of particle size and may enable further improvements in crystallinity in the future.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 504, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700706

RESUMO

Significant interest exists in lead trihalides that present the perovskite structure owing to their demonstrated potential in photovoltaic, lasing, and display applications. These materials are also notable for their unusual phase behavior often displaying easily accessible phase transitions. In this work, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, performed on perovskite cesium lead bromide nanocrystals, maps the lattice response to controlled excitation fluence. These nanocrystals undergo a reversible, photoinduced orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition which is discernible at fluences greater than 0.34 mJ cm-2 through the loss of orthorhombic features and shifting of high-symmetry peaks. This transition recovers on the timescale of 510 ± 100 ps. A reversible crystalline-to-amorphous transition, observable through loss of Bragg diffraction intensity, occurs at higher fluences (greater than 2.5 mJ cm-2). These results demonstrate that light-driven phase transitions occur in perovskite materials, which will impact optoelectronic applications and enable the manipulation of non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the broad perovskite material class.

20.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(6): 1432-1441, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701978

RESUMO

Cross-linked polymers are used in many commercial products and are traditionally incapable of recycling via melt reprocessing. Recently, tough and reprocessable cross-linked polymers have been realized by incorporating cross-links that undergo associative exchange reactions, such as transesterification, at elevated temperatures. Here we investigate how cross-linked polymers containing urethane linkages relax stress under similar conditions, which enables their reprocessing. Materials based on hydroxyl-terminated star-shaped poly(ethylene oxide) and poly((±)-lactide) were cross-linked with methylene diphenyldiisocyanate in the presence of stannous octoate catalyst. Polymers with lower plateau moduli exhibit faster rates of relaxation. Reactions of model urethanes suggest that exchange occurs through the tin-mediated exchange of the urethanes that does not require free hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, samples were incapable of elevated-temperature dissolution in a low-polarity solvent (1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) but readily dissolved in a high-polarity aprotic solvent (DMSO, 24 to 48 h). These findings indicate that urethane linkages, which are straightforward to incorporate, impart dynamic character to polymer networks of diverse chemical composition, likely through a urethane reversion mechanism.

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