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1.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(5): 525-536, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472888

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions play an important role in alcohol use. Understanding the psychosocial mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence alcohol use outcomes is critical for identifying modifiable targets and developing prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we examined the role of sensation seeking and social support from family and friends in linking genetic risk to alcohol use. We also examined the role of social support in moderating the associations between genetic risk and sensation seeking and alcohol use. Data were drawn from a sample of 2,836 European American adults from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (46% male, mean age = 35.65, standard deviation [SD] = 10.78). Results from path analysis indicated that genome-wide polygenic scores for alcohol consumption (alc-GPS) were associated with higher sensation seeking, which in turn was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. alc-GPS was also associated with higher alcohol use indirectly via lower levels of family support. In addition, high friend support attenuated the association between alc-GPS and sensation seeking and alcohol use. The pattern of associations was similar for males and females, with some differences in the associations between social support and alcohol use observed across age. Our findings highlight the important role of intermediate phenotypes and gene-environment interplay in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex alcohol use outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and correlates of lifetime cannabis use (i.e., experimental [use 1-5 times] and non-experimental [use ≥ 6 times]) in relation to interpersonal trauma (IPT) above and beyond relevant covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A large (n = 9,889) representative sample of college students at an urban university in the southeastern part of the United States. METHODS: Participants were 4 cohorts of first-year college students who completed measures of demographics, cannabis, alcohol, nicotine, and IPT. Associations were estimated using multinomial logistic regressions. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime cannabis use was 28.1% and 17.4% for non-experimental and experimental cannabis use, respectively. IPT was significantly associated with experimental and non-experimental cannabis use above and beyond effects of sex, race, cohort, alcohol, and nicotine. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that cannabis use is prevalent among college students and is associated with IPT above and beyond associations with sex, race, and other substance use.

4.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 523-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is prevalent among Black Americans, and may increase risk for alcohol use and related problems. Understanding the mediating and moderating factors in the pathways linking racial discrimination to alcohol use outcomes is important for prevention and intervention efforts. We tested depressive symptoms as a mediator and ethnic-racial identity as a moderator in the relation between racial discrimination and alcohol use outcomes among Black American young adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 independent samples of Black American young adults recruited from different regions in the United States. The first sample included 383 Black American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female), and the second sample included 165 Black American young adults (Mage = 21.56, SD = 4.92; 75% female). RESULTS: Racial discrimination was associated with alcohol consumption and problems indirectly via depressive symptoms across the 2 independent samples. Moderation was evident for one sample such that high private regard levels buffered the association between racial discrimination and alcohol consumption, whereas high public regard levels exacerbated the association between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination experiences put Black American young adults at risk for alcohol use and related problems through increased depressive symptoms. Ethnic-racial identity may buffer or exacerbate these associations depending on the specific dimension. The findings imply the need to target depressive symptoms and alcohol use simultaneously to promote health and well-being among Black Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão , Racismo , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1367-1376, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446935

RESUMO

Behaviors and disorders related to self-regulation, such as substance use, antisocial behavior and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are collectively referred to as externalizing and have shared genetic liability. We applied a multivariate approach that leverages genetic correlations among externalizing traits for genome-wide association analyses. By pooling data from ~1.5 million people, our approach is statistically more powerful than single-trait analyses and identifies more than 500 genetic loci. The loci were enriched for genes expressed in the brain and related to nervous system development. A polygenic score constructed from our results predicts a range of behavioral and medical outcomes that were not part of genome-wide analyses, including traits that until now lacked well-performing polygenic scores, such as opioid use disorder, suicide, HIV infections, criminal convictions and unemployment. Our findings are consistent with the idea that persistent difficulties in self-regulation can be conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental trait with complex and far-reaching social and health correlates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Autocontrole , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/genética , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Biologia Computacional , Crime/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Herança Multifatorial , Análise Multivariada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suicídio , Desemprego
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1932296, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221252

RESUMO

Background: The novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a collective crisis that imposed an abrupt and unprecedented impact on college students, as universities were closed with little warning. Paired with the challenges associated with physical distancing (e.g. economic stress, job loss, food insecurity, housing challenges) and the simultaneous need to balance continued and new academic demands, impact will be wide-ranging. It is critical to determine the structure of the impact of this heterogeneous stressor (e.g. health concerns, pandemic worry, financial concerns) for prevention and intervention planning. Objective: Through an existing recruitment pipeline we were in a unique position to study the wide-ranging reach of this pandemic in a cohort of students for whom their university experiences were like no other cohort in history. Method: Data were collected from students who were in their third year of college during the onset of the pandemic; of the N = 1,899 in the cohort who were invited to participate in this COVID-related survey, 897 (47.2%) completed measures of impact between May and July of 2020. Results: A series of confirmatory and exploratory models were fit to examine the structure of the pandemic-related domains. Following estimation of a single-factor model, a correlated five factors model, as well as two second-order factor structures, the five correlated factors (exposure, worry, housing/food instability, social media, substance use) model was found to represent the data most appropriately, while producing an interpretable solution. Conclusions: These measurement model analyses set the stage for future research to examine how these correlated factors impact psychiatric, substance, and academic outcomes in this vulnerable population.

7.
Behav Genet ; 51(5): 543-558, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117972

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions and environmental influences both play an important role in adolescent externalizing behavior; however, they are not always independent. To elucidate gene-environment interplay, we examined the interrelationships between externalizing polygenic risk scores, parental knowledge, and peer substance use in impacting adolescent externalizing behavior across two time-points in a high-risk longitudinal sample of 1,200 adolescents (764 European and 436 African ancestry; Mage = 12.99) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that externalizing polygenic scores were directly associated with adolescent externalizing behavior but also indirectly via peer substance use, in the European ancestry sample. No significant polygenic association nor indirect effects of genetic risk were observed in the African ancestry group, likely due to more limited power. Our findings underscore the importance of gene-environment interplay and suggest peer substance use may be a mechanism through which genetic risk influences adolescent externalizing behavior.

8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110842

RESUMO

Objective: Risky substance use among college students is widespread, and associated with numerous adverse consequences. Current interventions focus primarily on students' current substance use; we hypothesize that shifting focus from current use to underlying risk factors is a complementary approach that may improve effectiveness of prevention/intervention programming. This approach aligns with the personalized medicine movement, which aims to harness knowledge about underlying etiological factors to provide individuals with specific information about their unique risk profiles and personalized recommendations, to motivate and enable individuals to better self-regulate their health. Method: Our group is building and evaluating an online Personalized Feedback Program (PFP) for college students that provides feedback about the individual's underlying genetically influenced externalizing and internalizing risk factors for substance use, along with personalized recommendations/resources. The project capitalizes on work from a university-wide research project (Spit for Science; S4S), in which > 12,000 students (˜70% of 5 years of incoming freshmen) are being followed longitudinally to assess substance use and related factors across the college years. In this article, we describe our foundational work to develop the PFP. Results: From the S4S data, we have identified risk factors across four domains (Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, Extraversion, and Neuroticism) that are correlated with college students' substance use. We developed an online self-guided PFP, in collaboration with professionals from student affairs, and using feedback from students, with the ultimate goal of conducting a randomized clinical trial. Conclusion: The provision of personalized risk information represents a novel approach to complement and extend existing college substance use programming. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020091390, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias), which may have led to inconsistent genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and AUD, as well as paradoxically negative genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and psychiatric disorders and/or medical conditions. The authors used genomic structural equation modeling to elucidate the genetics of alcohol consumption and problematic consequences of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT. METHODS: To explore these unexpected differences in genetic correlations, the authors conducted the first item-level and the largest GWAS of AUDIT items (N=160,824) and applied a multivariate framework to mitigate previous biases. RESULTS: The authors identified novel patterns of similarity (and dissimilarity) among the AUDIT items and found evidence of a correlated two-factor structure at the genetic level ("consumption" and "problems," rg=0.80). Moreover, by applying empirically derived weights to each of the AUDIT items, the authors constructed an aggregate measure of alcohol consumption that was strongly associated with alcohol dependence (rg=0.67), moderately associated with several other psychiatric disorders, and no longer positively associated with health and positive socioeconomic outcomes. Lastly, by conducting polygenic analyses in three independent cohorts that differed in their ascertainment and prevalence of AUD, the authors identified novel genetic associations between alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse, and health. CONCLUSIONS: This work further emphasizes the value of AUDIT for both clinical and genetic studies of AUD and the importance of using multivariate methods to study genetic associations that are more closely related to AUD.

10.
Addiction ; 116(11): 3008-3018, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: College students report high levels of alcohol use, which can be exacerbated by interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT). Romantic relationships may represent salient contexts for moderating associations between IPT and alcohol use. We examined whether relationship status, partner alcohol use and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between IPT and alcohol use, and whether these associations varied in a sex-specific manner. DESIGN: University-wide longitudinal survey of college students. SETTING: Large, urban public university in mid-Atlantic United States. PARTICIPANTS: We used two subsets of participants (n = 5673 and 3195) from the Spit for Science project, a longitudinal study of college students. Participants completed baseline assessments during the autumn of their freshman year and were invited to complete follow-up assessments every spring thereafter. Participants were included in the present study if they completed surveys at baseline and at least one follow-up assessment (meanfollow-ups  = 1.70, range = 1-4). MEASUREMENTS: Predictors included precollege and college-onset IPT, relationship status, partner alcohol use, relationship satisfaction and sex. Alcohol consumption was the primary outcome of interest. Pre-college IPT was measured at baseline and all other measures were assessed at each follow-up. FINDINGS: Individuals with pre-college IPT consumed more alcohol than those without IPT, but this was mitigated for those in relationships (ß = -0.15, P = 0.046, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.29, 0.00). Individuals with college-onset IPT consumed more alcohol than those without IPT, and this was more pronounced for those with higher partner alcohol use (ß = -0.18, P = 0.001, 95% CI = -0.29, -0.07). Relationship satisfaction was not a significant moderator of the associations between IPT and alcohol use (Ps > 0.05 and 95% CIs include 0). CONCLUSIONS: Involvement in relationships, but not relationship satisfaction, appears to reduce the effects of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) on alcohol use among US college students, while high partner alcohol use appears to exacerbate it. The moderating effects of relationship characteristics depend on the developmental timing of IPT.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Universidades , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudantes
11.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(1): 3-13, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use/misuse is a costly public health problem, particularly among college students in the United States. Alcohol use tends to increase during adolescence and peaks in the early/mid-20s; however, there is significant heterogeneity among alcohol use during the college years. Several studies applying a mixture modeling framework to extract latent profiles of alcohol consumption have been conducted. However, none to our knowledge has included only those exposed to trauma, a group known to be at risk for alcohol misuse. The aim of this longitudinal study (n = 1,186) was to identify profiles of alcohol consumption and their associations with demographic and trauma-related constructs. METHOD: Data were collected from a larger study of college students attending a large public university. Participants in the current study were, on average, 18.46 years old at study entry, primarily female (69.6%), and of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds (e.g., 48.8% White, 20.4% Black, 16.8% Asian). RESULTS: Results suggest evidence for four latent profiles. These classes include an initially high increasing, an initially high decreasing, an initially low decreasing, and an initially low increasing, the last of which had not been found. Using analyses of variance, profile membership was associated with number of traumas, probable posttraumatic stress disorder, broad drinking motives, and trauma-specific drinking-to-cope motives. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that drinking motives and trauma-related factors are important correlates of these latent alcohol profiles. Work clarifying the longitudinal interrelations between profile membership and these factors is needed to help inform more effective prevention and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Motivação , Estudantes , Universidades
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 166, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723218

RESUMO

Predictive models for recovering from alcohol use disorder (AUD) and identifying related predisposition biomarkers can have a tremendous impact on addiction treatment outcomes and cost reduction. Our sample (N = 1376) included individuals of European (EA) and African (AA) ancestry from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) who were initially assessed as having AUD (DSM-5) and reassessed years later as either having AUD or in remission. To predict this difference in AUD recovery status, we analyzed the initial data using multimodal, multi-features machine learning applications including EEG source-level functional brain connectivity, Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS), medications, and demographic information. Sex and ancestry age-matched stratified analyses were performed with supervised linear Support Vector Machine application and were calculated twice, once when the ancestry was defined by self-report and once defined by genetic data. Multifeatured prediction models achieved higher accuracy scores than models based on a single domain and higher scores in male models when the ancestry was based on genetic data. The AA male group model with PRS, EEG functional connectivity, marital and employment status features achieved the highest accuracy of 86.04%. Several discriminative features were identified, including collections of PRS related to neuroticism, depression, aggression, years of education, and alcohol consumption phenotypes. Other discriminated features included being married, employed, medication, lower default mode network and fusiform connectivity, and higher insula connectivity. Results highlight the importance of increasing genetic homogeneity of analyzed groups, identifying sex, and ancestry-specific features to increase prediction scores revealing biomarkers related to AUD remission.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/genética , Encéfalo , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
13.
Addict Biol ; 26(6): e13015, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604983

RESUMO

Risky behaviors, such as substance use and unprotected sex, are associated with various physical and mental health problems. Recent genome-wide association studies indicated that variation in the cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) gene plays a role in risky behaviors and self-control. In this phenome-wide scan for risky behavior, it was tested if underlying common vulnerability could be (partly) explained by pleiotropic effects of this gene and how large the effects were. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-level and gene-level association tests within four samples (25 and Up, Spit for Science, Netherlands Twin Register, and UK Biobank and meta-analyses over all samples (combined sample of 362,018 participants) were conducted to test associations between CADM2, substance- and sex-related risk behaviors, and various measures related to self-control. We found significant associations between the CADM2 gene, various risky behaviors, and different measures of self-control. The largest effect sizes were found for cannabis use, sensation seeking, and disinhibition. Effect sizes ranged from 0.01% to 0.26% for single top SNPs and from 0.07% to 3.02% for independent top SNPs together, with sufficient power observed only in the larger samples and meta-analyses. In the largest cohort, we found indications that risk-taking proneness mediated the association between CADM2 and latent factors for lifetime smoking and regular alcohol use. This study extends earlier findings that CADM2 plays a role in risky behaviors and self-control. It also provides insight into gene-level effect sizes and demonstrates the feasibility of testing mediation. These findings present a good starting point for investigating biological etiological pathways underlying risky behaviors.

14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(1): 59-70, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1147-1156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

16.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(2): 169-175, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study tested direct and indirect associations between racial discrimination and civic engagement via emotion regulation strategies. Differences between males and females were also explored. METHOD: African American college students (76% female; Mage = 18.42) participating in a university-wide research study provided self-reports of their racial discrimination experiences, use of emotion regulation strategies, and civic engagement attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Greater racial discrimination was associated with less use of reappraisal (i.e., thinking about emotions in a different way) and, in turn, use of reappraisal was associated with greater civic engagement attitudes. The same association was found for civic engagement behaviors. However, reappraisal was associated with greater civic engagement behaviors for females and less civic engagement behaviors for males. CONCLUSION: The current study highlights the need to consider the role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on college students' sociopolitical development and civic engagement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Racismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108489, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among adult college students in the US, cannabis use is common and associated with considerable negative consequences to health, cognition, and academic functioning, underscoring the importance of identifying risk and protective factors. Cannabis use is influenced by genetic factors, but genetic risk is not determinative. Accordingly, it is critical to identify environments that reduce risk among those who are at elevated genetic risk. This study examined the impact of polygenic scores for cannabis initiation, various forms of social activity participation, and peer deviance on recent cannabis use. Our aim was to test whether these environments moderate genetic risk for cannabis use. METHODS: Data came from a longitudinal sample of undergraduate college students of European American (EA; NEA = 750) and African American (AA; NAA = 405) ancestry. Generalized estimating equations with a logit link function were used to examine main effects and two-way interactions. RESULTS: Engagement with church activities was associated with lower probability of cannabis use. Peer deviance was associated with higher probability of cannabis use. Engagement with community activities moderated the influence of the polygenic risk score in the EA sample, such that PRS was associated with recent cannabis use among those who never engaged in community activities. This effect did not replicate in AAs, which may have been due to the portability of PRS based on EA discovery samples. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that community activities may limit the influence of genetic risk, as associations between PRS and cannabis use were only observed among individuals who never engaged in community activities.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
18.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12880, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064741

RESUMO

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (rg = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (rg = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (rg = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (rgs = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Tabagismo/genética
19.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520978179, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289453

RESUMO

Prior studies have demonstrated that sexual minority college students are two to four times more likely to experience sexual victimization (e.g., sexual assault and/or unwanted or uncomfortable sexual experiences) compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, research that has focused on the detrimental effects of sexual victimization on health outcomes has paid more attention to heterosexual college samples and community-based adults. Understanding how sexual victimization influences mental health and substance use outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and asexual (LGBQA) emerging adults in college is warranted given that this developmental period represents a critical risk period for trauma exposure, risk behavior, and psychological distress. Thus, the current study tested how sexual victimization was associated with depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms among 234 diverse college students who self-identified as LGBQA. Additionally, social support was tested as a moderator. Findings indicated that sexual victimization was related to greater depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and AUD symptoms. In addition, perceived social support moderated the relation between sexual victimization and depressive symptoms, however, in a direction contrary to hypotheses. In particular, higher sexual victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among LGBQA students with higher levels of social support (b = .29, p = .00), and was not significant among LGBQA students with lower levels of social support (b = .13, p = .26). The current study highlights the need to consider the detrimental effects of sexual victimization on health outcomes among LGBQA college students, as well as the mechanisms through which social support may be influencing these relations.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5562, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144568

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Genetic variation contributes to initiation, regular smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation. We present a Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-based genome-wide association study in 58,000 European or African ancestry smokers. We observe five genome-wide significant loci, including previously unreported loci MAGI2/GNAI1 (rs2714700) and TENM2 (rs1862416), and extend loci reported for other smoking traits to nicotine dependence. Using the heaviness of smoking index from UK Biobank (N = 33,791), rs2714700 is consistently associated; rs1862416 is not associated, likely reflecting nicotine dependence features not captured by the heaviness of smoking index. Both variants influence nearby gene expression (rs2714700/MAGI2-AS3 in hippocampus; rs1862416/TENM2 in lung), and expression of genes spanning nicotine dependence-associated variants is enriched in cerebellum. Nicotine dependence (SNP-based heritability = 8.6%) is genetically correlated with 18 other smoking traits (rg = 0.40-1.09) and co-morbidities. Our results highlight nicotine dependence-specific loci, emphasizing the FTND as a composite phenotype that expands genetic knowledge of smoking.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Tabagismo/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Metanálise como Assunto , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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