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1.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3052-3061, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648336

RESUMO

Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) is expressed on progenitor cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) is detectable during homeostasis and increases in hypoplasia due to genetic defects or treatment with cytoreductive agents. Conversely, Flt3+ AML is associated with depletion of Flt3L to undetectable levels. After induction chemotherapy, Flt3L is restored in patients entering complete remission (CR) but remains depressed in those with refractory disease. Weekly sampling reveals marked differences in the kinetics of Flt3L response during the first 6 weeks of treatment, proportionate to the clearance of blasts and cellularity of the bone marrow. In the UK NCRI AML17 trial, Flt3L was measured at day 26 in a subgroup of 140 patients with Flt3 mutation randomized to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lestaurtinib or placebo. In these patients, attainment of CR was associated with higher Flt3L at day 26 (Mann-Whitney UP < .0001). Day 26 Flt3L was also associated with survival; Flt3L ≤291 pg/mL was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS), and Flt3L >1185 pg/mL was associated with higher overall survival (OS; P = .0119). The separation of EFS and OS curves increased when minimal residual disease (MRD) status was combined with Flt3L measurement, and Flt3L retained a near-significant association with survival after adjusting for MRD in a proportional hazards model. Serial measurement of Flt3L in patients who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant for AML illustrates the potential value of monitoring Flt3L to identify relapse. Measurement of Flt3L is a noninvasive test with the potential to inform clinical decisions in patients with AML.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609823

RESUMO

Smoking in pregnancy remains a public health problem. In the UK e-cigarettes are the most popular aid to quitting smoking outside of pregnancy, but we don't know the extent of e-cigarette use in pregnancy or how English Stop Smoking Services (SSS) respond to pregnant women who vape. In 2015 we surveyed SSS managers about cessation support for pregnant women and responses to clients who vaped. Subsequently we interviewed a sub-sample of managers to seek explanations for the SSS' position on e-cigarettes; interviews were thematically analysed. Survey response rate was 67.8% (72/106); overall managers reported 2.2% (range 1.4⁻4.3%) of pregnant clients were using e-cigarettes. Most SSS reported supporting pregnant women who already vaped, but would not recommend e-cigarette use; for women that were still smoking and not using e-cigarettes, 8.3% of SSS were likely/very likely to advise using e-cigarettes, with 56.9% of SSS unlikely/very unlikely to advise using them. Fifteen respondents were interviewed; interviewees were generally positive about the potential of e-cigarettes for cessation in pregnancy although concerns about perceived lack of evidence for safety were expressed and most wanted research on this. Clear guidance on e-cigarette use informed by pregnancy specific research will assist SSS to provide consistent evidence-based support.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Gestantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vaping , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cells ; 8(1)2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646564

RESUMO

Adverse outcomes following virus-associated disease in patients receiving allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have encouraged strategies to control viral reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. However, despite timely treatment with antiviral medication, some viral infections remain refractory to treatment, which hampers outcomes after HSCT, and are responsible for a high proportion of transplant-related morbidity and mortality. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived lymphocytes aims to improve cellular immunity and to prevent or treat viral diseases after HSCT. Early reports described the feasibility of transferring nonspecific lymphocytes from donors, which led to the development of cell therapy approaches based on virus-specific T cells, allowing a targeted treatment of infections, while limiting adverse events such as graft versus host disease (GvHD). Both expansion and direct selection techniques have yielded comparable results in terms of efficacy (around 70⁻80%), but efficacy is difficult to predict for individual cases. Generating bespoke products for each donor⁻recipient pair can be expensive, and there remains the major obstacle of generating products from seronegative or poorly responsive donors. More recent studies have focused on the feasibility of collecting and infusing partially matched third-party virus-specific T cells, reporting response rates of 60⁻70%. Future development of this approach will involve the broadening of applicability to multiple viruses, the optimization and cost-control of manufacturing, larger multicentred efficacy trials, and finally the creation of cell banks that can provide prompt access to virus-specific cellular product. The aim of this review is to summarise present knowledge on adoptive T cell manufacturing, efficacy and potential future developments.

4.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2538, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473695

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are potent regulators of immune responses largely through paracrine signaling. MSC secreted extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) are increasingly recognized as the key paracrine factors responsible for the biological and therapeutic function of MSCs. We report the first comprehensive study demonstrating the immunomodulatory effect of MSC-EVs on dendritic cell (DC) maturation and function. MSC-EVs were isolated from MSC conditioned media using differential ultracentrifugation. Human monocyte-derived DCs were generated in the absence or presence of MSC-EVs (20 ug/ml) then subjected to phenotypic and functional analysis in vitro. MSC-EV treatment impaired antigen uptake by immature DCs and halted DC maturation resulting in reduced expression of the maturation and activation markers CD83, CD38, and CD80, decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p70 and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß. MSC-EV treated DCs also demonstrated a diminished CCR 7 expression after LPS stimulation, coupled with a significantly reduced ability to migrate toward the CCR7-ligand CCL21, although they were still able to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation in vitro. Through microRNA profiling we have identified 49 microRNAs, which were significantly enriched in MSC-EVs compared to their parent MSCs. MicroRNAs with known effect on DC maturation and functions, including miR-21-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-223-3p, and miR-126-3p, were detected within the top 10 most enriched miRNAs in MSC-EVs, with MiR-21-5p as the third highest expressed miRNA in MSC-EVs. In silico analysis revealed that miR-21-5p targets the CCR7 gene for degradation. To verify these observations, DCs were transfected with miR-21-5p mimics and analyzed for their ability to migrate toward the CCR7-ligand CCL21 in vitro. MiR-21-5p mimic transfected DCs showed a clear trend of reduced CCR7 expression and a significantly decreased migratory ability toward the CCL21. Our findings suggest that MSC-EVs are able to recapitulate MSC mediated DC modulation and MSC-EV enclosed microRNAs may represent a novel mechanism through which MSCs modulate DC functions. As MSCs are currently used in clinical trials to treat numerous diseases associated with immune dysregulation, such as graft-versus-host disease and inflammatory bowel disease, our data provide novel evidence to inform potential future application of MSC-EVs as a cell-free therapeutic agent.

6.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(41): 1-84, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine preloading means using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit date while smoking normally. The aim is to reduce the drive to smoke, thereby reducing cravings for smoking after quit day, which are the main cause of early relapse. A prior systematic review showed inconclusive and heterogeneous evidence that preloading was effective and little evidence of the mechanism of action, with no cost-effectiveness data. OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of nicotine preloading in a routine NHS setting relative to usual care, (2) the mechanisms of the action of preloading and (3) the cost-effectiveness of preloading. DESIGN: Open-label randomised controlled trial with examination of mediation and a cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING: NHS smoking cessation clinics. PARTICIPANTS: People seeking help to stop smoking. INTERVENTIONS: Nicotine preloading comprised wearing a 21 mg/24 hour nicotine patch for 4 weeks prior to quit date. In addition, minimal behavioural support was provided to explain the intervention rationale and to support adherence. In the comparator group, participants received equivalent behavioural support. Randomisation was stratified by centre and concealed from investigators. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was 6-month prolonged abstinence assessed using the Russell Standard. The secondary outcomes were 4-week and 12-month abstinence. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed from baseline to 1 week after quit day. In a planned analysis, we adjusted for the use of varenicline (Champix®; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) as post-cessation medication. Cost-effectiveness analysis took a health-service perspective. The within-trial analysis assessed health-service costs during the 13 months of trial enrolment relative to the previous 6 months comparing trial arms. The base case was based on multiple imputation for missing cost data. We modelled long-term health outcomes of smoking-related diseases using the European-study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco (EQUIPT) model. RESULTS: In total, 1792 people were eligible and were enrolled in the study, with 893 randomised to the control group and 899 randomised to the intervention group. In the intervention group, 49 (5.5%) people discontinued preloading prematurely and most others used it daily. The primary outcome, biochemically validated 6-month abstinence, was achieved by 157 (17.5%) people in the intervention group and 129 (14.4%) people in the control group, a difference of 3.02 percentage points [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 6.41 percentage points; odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.62; p = 0.081]. Adjusted for use of post-quit day varenicline, the OR was 1.34 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.73; p = 0.028). Secondary abstinence outcomes were similar. The OR for the occurrence of serious AEs was 1.12 (95% CI 0.42 to 3.03). Moderate-severity nausea occurred in an additional 4% of the preloading group compared with the control group. There was evidence that reduced urges to smoke and reduced smoke inhalation mediated the effect of preloading on abstinence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at the 6-month follow-up for preloading relative to control was £710 (95% CI -£13,674 to £23,205), but preloading was dominant at 12 months and in the long term, with an 80% probability that it is cost saving. LIMITATIONS: The open-label design could partially account for the mediation results. Outcome assessment could not be blinded but was biochemically verified. CONCLUSIONS: Use of nicotine-patch preloading for 4 weeks prior to attempting to stop smoking can increase the proportion of people who stop successfully, but its benefit is undermined because it reduces the use of varenicline after preloading. If this latter effect could be overcome, then nicotine preloading appears to improve health and reduce health-service costs in the long term. Future work should determine how to ensure that people using nicotine preloading opt to use varenicline as cessation medication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33031001. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 41. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1485, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042760

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment for numerous hematological malignancies. However, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major complication affecting 40-70% of all transplant patients, whereby the earliest and most frequent presentation is in the skin. MicroRNAs play a role in varied biological process and have been reported as potential biomarkers for aGvHD. More recently, microRNAs have received added attention as circulatory biomarkers that can be detected in biofluids. In this study, we performed global microRNA expression profiling using a discovery cohort of diagnostic cutaneous aGvHD biopsies (n = 5, stages 1-3) and healthy volunteers (n = 4), in order to identify a signature list of microRNAs that could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for cutaneous aGvHD. Candidate microRNAs (n = 8) were then further investigated in a validation cohort of post-HSCT skin biopsies (n = 17), pre-HSCT skin biopsies (n = 6) and normal controls (n = 6) for their association with aGvHD. Expression of let-7c (p = 0.014), miR-503-5p (p = 0.003), miR-365a-3p (p = 0.02), miR-34a-5p (p < 0.001) and miR-34a-3p (p = 0.006) were significantly differentially expressed between groups and significantly associated with survival outcome in post-HSCT patients (miR-503-5p ROC AUC = 0.83 p = 0.021, Log Rank p = 0.003; miR-34a-3p ROC AUC = 0.93, p = 0.003, Log Rank p = 0.004). There was no association with relapse. A statistical interaction between miR-34a-3p and miR-503-5p (p = 0.016) was diagnostic for aGvHD. Expression levels of the miR-34a-5p protein target p53 were assessed in the epidermis of the skin, and an inverse correlation was identified (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.039). Expression of the validated candidate microRNAs was also assessed at day 28 post-HSCT in the sera of transplant recipients, in order to investigate their potential as circulatory microRNA biomarkers. Expression of miR-503-5p (p = 0.001), miR-34a-5p (p = 0.005), and miR-34a-3p (p = 0.004) was significantly elevated in the sera of patients who developed aGvHD versus no-aGvHD (n = 30) and miR-503-5p was associated with overall survival (OS) (ROC AUC = 0.80, p = 0.04, Log Rank p = 0.041). In conclusion, this investigation reports that microRNA expression levels in clinical skin biopsies, obtained at the time of cutaneous aGvHD onset, show potential as diagnostic biomarkers for aGvHD and as predictive biomarkers for OS. In addition, the same microRNAs can be detected in the circulation and show predictive association with post-HSCT outcomes.

8.
Int J Immunogenet ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043490

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only cure for most haematological malignancies, however, the mortality rate remains high. Complications after HSCT include relapse, graft versus host disease (GvHD), graft rejection and infection. Over the last few years several groups, have demonstrated that non-HLA gene polymorphisms can be predictive of outcome after HSCT. Since the glucocorticoid cortisol is pivotal in the regulation of the immune system, we decided to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6198, rs33388 and rs33389) within the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and correlate with HSCT outcome. The training set consisted of patients (n = 458) who underwent HSCT for acute leukaemia between 1983 and 2005. In the recipients, the absence of the ACT haplotype and absence of the T allele of rs33388 were associated with decreased OS and the absence of the ACT haplotype, the absence of the T allele of rs33388 and the presence of the ATA haplotype were associated with increased risk of relapse. In addition, the presence of the ACT haplotype in the recipient showed a trend to be associated with increased risk of chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD). The patients in this cohort received mainly myeloablative conditioning (n = 327). The SNPs in the glucocorticoid receptor were then investigated in a validation set (n = 251) of HSCT patients transplanted for acute leukaemia from 2006. This cohort contained significantly more patients that had received reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Some of the results could be validated in these patients. However, contrary to the training set, the absence of the haplotype ACT in the donor in this cohort was associated with increased risk of cGvHD. Differences in the conditioning were shown to influence the results. These results are the first to associate GR SNPs with HSCT outcome and demonstrate the inherent problems of replicating SNP association studies in HSCT, due to different pre-transplant regimens.

9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 233, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are increasingly used for reducing or stopping smoking, with some studies showing positive outcomes. However, little is known about views on ECs during pregnancy or postpartum and previous studies have nearly all been conducted in the US and have methodological limitations, such as not distinguishing between smokers and ex/non-smokers. A greater understanding of this topic will help to inform both clinicians and EC interventions. We elicited views and experiences of ECs among UK pregnant or recently pregnant women. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews, using topic guides, with pregnant or recently pregnant women, who were current or recent ex-smokers. To ensure broad views of ECs were obtained, recruitment was from several geographical locations and via various avenues of recruitment. This included stop smoking services, antenatal and health visitor clinics, a pregnancy website and an informal network. Participants were 15 pregnant and 15 postpartum women, including nine current EC users, 11 ex-users, and 10 never-users. Five women who were interviewed in pregnancy were later interviewed in postpartum to explore if their views had changed. Audio data was transcribed verbatim and framework analysis was applied. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged: motivations for use (e.g., for stopping or reducing smoking), social stigma (e.g., avoiding use in public, preferring 'discrete' NRT), using the EC (e.g., mostly used at home); consumer aspects (e.g., limited advice available), and harm perceptions (e.g., viewed as less harmful than smoking; concerns about safety and addiction). CONCLUSIONS: ECs were viewed positively by some pregnant and postpartum women and seen as less harmful than smoking and useful as aids for reducing and stopping smoking. However, due to perceived social stigma, some women feel uncomfortable using ECs in public, especially during pregnancy, and had concerns about safety and nicotine dependence. Health professionals and designers of EC interventions need to provide women with up-to-date and consistent information and advice about safety and dependence, as well as considering the influence of social stigma.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3907, 2018 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500387

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source to develop cell therapy for many diseases. Human platelet lysate (PLT) is increasingly used as an alternative to foetal calf serum (FCS) for clinical-scale MSC production. To date, the global surface protein expression of PLT-expended MSCs (MSC-PLT) is not known. To investigate this, paired MSC-PLT and MSC-FCS were analysed in parallel using high-throughput flow cytometry for the expression of 356 cell surface proteins. MSC-PLT showed differential surface protein expression compared to their MSC-FCS counterpart. Higher percentage of positive cells was observed in MSC-PLT for 48 surface proteins, of which 13 were significantly enriched on MSC-PLT. This finding was validated using multiparameter flow cytometry and further confirmed by quantitative staining intensity analysis. The enriched surface proteins are relevant to increased proliferation and migration capacity, as well as enhanced chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation properties. In silico network analysis revealed that these enriched surface proteins are involved in three distinct networks that are associated with inflammatory responses, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular motility. This is the first study reporting differential cell surface protein expression between MSC-PLT and MSC-FSC. Further studies are required to uncover the impact of those enriched proteins on biological functions of MSC-PLT.

11.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1446, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176973

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major cause of adverse outcome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high incidence (20-50%). A novel, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict for prevalence and severity would enable improved prophylaxis and reduce morbidity. Circulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-423, miR-199, miR-93*, and miR-377 have previously been associated with aGvHD in post-HSCT patient plasma, but validation is lacking and their expression within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has not been explored. This study replicated elevated serum expression of miR-423 (p < 0.001), miR-199 (p = 0.04), miR-93* (p < 0.001), and miR-377 (p = 0.03) in aGvHD, using a prognostic cohort of day 14 (D14) post-HSCT patient samples (n = 81). Expression also associated with disease severity. Further analysis at aGvHD diagnosis in an independent cohort (n = 65) confirmed high miR-423 (p = 0.02), miR-199 (p = 0.007), and miR-93* (p = 0.004) expression at disease onset. Investigation of expression patterns during early HSCT sequential timepoints (pre-HSCT to D28) identified elevated miRNAs at D7 post-HSCT in all transplant patients. In a novel investigation of miRNA expression in serum EVs (n = 15), miR-423 (p = 0.09), miR-199 (p = 0.008), and miR-93* (p = 0.001) levels were lower at D14 in patients who later developed aGvHD, and this was replicated for miR-423 (p = 0.02) and miR-199 (p = 0.04) (n = 47). Comparing serum to circulating EVs, at D14 patients remaining aGvHD-free had higher expression of miR-423 (p = 0.03), miR-199 (p = 0.009), and miR-93* (p = 0.002) in the EV fraction. Results verify the capacity for circulating miR-423, miR-199, and miR-93* as diagnostic and prognostic aGvHD biomarkers. The novel finding of their differential expression in EVs suggests a potential role in aGvHD etiology.

12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 496, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638379

RESUMO

The success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) lies with the ability of the engrafting immune system to remove residual leukemia cells via a graft-versus-leukemia effect (GvL), caused either spontaneously post-HSCT or via donor lymphocyte infusion. GvL effects can also be initiated by allogenic mismatched natural killer cells, antigen-specific T cells, and activated dendritic cells of leukemic origin. The history and further application of this GvL effect and the main mechanisms will be discussed and reviewed in this chapter.

13.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(3): e1274478, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405496

RESUMO

NK cells have shown promise in therapy of hematological cancers, in particular against acute myeloid leukemia. In contrast, the more NK cell-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is difficult to treat with NK-cell-based therapies, and we hypothesized that pre-activation of NK cells could overcome this resistance. We show in pediatric and adult patients with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) perturbed NK cell effector functions at diagnosis. Using an in vivo rat model for T-ALL, Roser leukemia (RL), suppressed NK cell effector functions were observed. NK cells from T-ALL patients had reduced expression of the activating receptors NKp46 and DNAM-1, but not NKG2D. In contrast to T-ALL patients, NKG2D but not NKp46 was downregulated on NK cells during rat RL. Decreased frequencies of terminally differentiated NKG2A+CD57-CD56dim NK cells in human T-ALL was paralleled in the rat by reduced frequencies of bone marrow NK cells expressing the maturation marker CD11b, possibly indicating impairment of differentiation during leukemia. RL was highly resistant to autologous NK cells, but this resistance was overcome upon pre-activation of NK cells with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18, with concomitant upregulation of activation markers and activating receptors. Importantly, adoptive transfers of IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 pre-activated NK cells significantly slowed progression of RL in vivo. The data thus shows that T-ALL blasts normally resistant to NK cells may be targeted by cytokine pre-activated autologous NK cells, and this approach could have potential implications for immunotherapeutic protocols using NK cells to more efficiently target leukemia.

14.
Front Immunol ; 8: 308, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392786

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the most frequent and serious complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high mortality rate. A clearer understanding of the molecular pathogenesis may allow for improved therapeutic options or guide personalized prophylactic protocols. Circulating microRNAs are expressed in body fluids and have recently been associated with the etiology of aGvHD, but global expression profiling in a HSCT setting is lacking. This study profiled expression of n = 799 mature microRNAs in patient serum, using the NanoString platform, to identify microRNAs that showed altered expression at aGvHD diagnosis. Selected microRNAs (n = 10) were replicated in independent cohorts of serum samples taken at aGvHD diagnosis (n = 42) and prior to disease onset (day 14 post-HSCT, n = 47) to assess their prognostic potential. Sera from patients without aGvHD were used as controls. Differential microRNAs were investigated in silico for predicted networks and mRNA targets. Expression analysis identified 61 microRNAs that were differentially expressed at aGvHD diagnosis. miR-146a (p = 0.03), miR-30b-5p (p = 0.007), miR-374-5p (p = 0.02), miR-181a (p = 0.03), miR-20a (p = 0.03), and miR-15a (p = 0.03) were significantly verified in an independent cohort (n = 42). miR-146a (p = 0.01), miR-20a (p = 0.03), miR-18 (p = 0.03), miR-19a (p = 0.03), miR-19b (p = 0.01), and miR-451 (p = 0.01) were differentially expressed 14 days post-HSCT in patients who later developed aGvHD (n = 47). High miR-19b expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (p = 0.008), whereas high miR-20a and miR-30b-5p were associated with lower rates of non-relapse mortality (p = 0.05 and p = 0.008) and improved OS (p = 0.016 and p = 0.021). Pathway analysis associated the candidate microRNAs with hematological and inflammatory disease. Circulating biofluid microRNAs show altered expression at aGvHD onset and have the capacity to act as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Their differential expression in serum suggests a role for circulatory microRNAs in aGvHD pathology, which warrants further investigation.

15.
Front Immunol ; 8: 79, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28373870

RESUMO

For over 60 years, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the major curative therapy for several hematological and genetic disorders, but its efficacy is limited by the secondary disease called graft versus host disease (GvHD). Huge advances have been made in successful transplantation in order to improve patient quality of life, and yet, complete success is hard to achieve. This review assimilates recent updates on pathophysiology of GvHD, prophylaxis and treatment of GvHD-related complications, and advances in the potential treatment of GvHD.

16.
Front Immunol ; 8: 380, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421078

RESUMO

The outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is controlled by genetic factors among which the leukocyte antigen human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is most important. In addition, minor histocompatibility antigens and non-HLA gene polymorphisms in genes controlling immune responses are known to contribute to the risks associated with HSCT. Besides single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in protein coding genes, SNPs in regulatory elements such as microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to these genetic risks. However, genetic risks require for their realization the expression of the respective gene or miRNA. Thus, gene and miRNA expression studies may help to identify genes and SNPs that indeed affect the outcome of HSCT. In this review, we summarize gene expression profiling studies that were performed in recent years in both patients and animal models to identify genes regulated during HSCT. We discuss SNP-mRNA-miRNA regulatory networks and their contribution to the risks associated with HSCT in specific examples, including forkheadbox protein 3 and regulatory T cells, the role of the miR-155 and miR-146a regulatory network for graft-versus-host disease, and the function of MICA and its receptor NKG2D for the outcome of HSCT. These examples demonstrate how SNPs affect expression or function of proteins that modulate the alloimmune response and influence the outcome of HSCT. Specific miRNAs targeting these genes and directly affecting expression of mRNAs are identified. It might be valuable in the future to determine SNPs and to analyze miRNA and mRNA expression in parallel in cohorts of HSCT patients to further elucidate genetic risks of HSCT.

17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(5): 805-812, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212937

RESUMO

Alemtuzumab conditioning is highly effective at reducing the incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in reduced-intensity fludarabine and melphalan transplantation with cyclosporine monotherapy. Less frequent and lower dose scheduling may be used with sibling donors, but an optimal regimen for matched unrelated donors has not been defined. In this retrospective observational study of 313 patients, the incidence and severity of GVHD was compared in patients receiving 3 different dose schedules: the standard 100-mg regimen (20 mg on days -7 to -3), 60 mg (30 mg on days -4 and -2), or 50 mg (10 mg on days -7 to -3). Patients treated with 100 mg, 60 mg, or 50 mg developed acute GVHD grades I to IV with an incidence of 74%, 65%, and 64%, respectively, whereas 36%, 32%, and 41% developed chronic GHVD. An excess of severe acute grades III/IV GVHD was observed in the 50-mg cohort (15% versus 2% to 6%; P = .016). The relative risk of severe acute grade GVHD remained more than 3-fold higher in the 50-mg cohort compared with the 100-mg cohort after adjustment for differences in HLA match, age, gender mismatch, cytomegalovirus risk, and diagnosis (P = .030). The findings indicate that the 60-mg alemtuzumab schedule was comparable with the 100-mg schedule, but more attenuated schedules may increase the risk of severe grade GVHD.


Assuntos
Alemtuzumab/administração & dosagem , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/química , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Doadores não Relacionados , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 30(1): 239-259, 2017 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806199

RESUMO

The workshop on "New Approaches to Investigate Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity" was held on June 5, 2014 at the Foresight Center, University of Liverpool. The aims of the workshop were to (1) discuss our current understanding of the genetic, clinical, and chemical basis of small molecule drug hypersensitivity, (2) highlight the current status of assays that might be developed to predict potential drug immunogenicity, and (3) identify the limitations, knowledge gaps, and challenges that limit the use of these assays and utilize the knowledge gained from the workshop to develop a pathway to establish new and improved assays that better predict drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions during the early stages of drug development. This perspective reviews the clinical and immunological bases of drug hypersensitivity and summarizes various experts' views on the different topics covered during the meeting.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Animais , Bioensaio , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Indústria Farmacêutica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Immunol ; 198(1): 138-146, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895173

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Treg) attenuate dendritic cell (DC) maturation and stimulatory function. Current knowledge on the functional impact of semimature DC is limited to CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Little is known about the molecular basis underpinning the functional effects of Treg-treated DC (Treg-DC). We present novel evidence that Treg-DC skewed CD4+ naive T cell polarization toward a regulatory phenotype and impaired CD8+ T cell allo-reactive responses, including their ability to induce target tissue damage in a unique in vitro human graft-versus-host disease skin explant model. Microarray analysis clustered Treg-DC as a discrete population from mature-DC and immature-DC, with 51 and 93 genes that were significantly over- or underexpressed, respectively, compared with mature-DC. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed an intermediate expression level of CD38, CD83, CD80 and CD86 mRNA in Treg-DC, lower than mature-DC, higher than immature-DC. We also observed an attenuation of NF-κB pathway, an upstream regulator of the aforementioned genes, concomitant with reduced expression of two NF-κB-signaling related genes RELB and NFκBIZ, in the Treg-DC, together with an increased expression of Wnt5a, a negative regulator of DC differentiation. We further confirmed that the Treg-DC-mediated skewed CD4+ naive T cell polarization resulted from decreased IL-12 secretion by Treg-DC, which may be post-transcriptionally modulated by decreased expression of microRNA-155 in Treg-DC. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating a transcriptional modulation of DC function by human Treg, partially via attenuation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and upregulation of Wnt5a, suggesting Treg may interfere with DC reprogramming during maturation, thereby modulating DC function.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Transcrição Genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/imunologia , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo
20.
Front Immunol ; 7: 470, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27881982

RESUMO

Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity, and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effector cells contained in the stem cell graft. Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system allowed improved donor selection, including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow, other stem cell sources like granulocyte-colony stimulating-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells have been established in clinical routine. Use of reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning regimens has been associated with a marked reduction of non-hematological toxicities and eventually, non-relapse mortality allowing older patients and individuals with comorbidities to undergo allogeneic HSCT and to benefit from GvL or antitumor effects. Whereas in the early years, malignant disease eradication by high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy was the ultimate goal; nowadays, allogeneic HSCT has been recognized as cellular immunotherapy relying prominently on immune mechanisms and to a lesser extent on non-specific direct cellular toxicity. This chapter will summarize the key milestones of HSCT and introduce current developments.

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