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1.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 138, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in grey matter covariance networks have been reported in preclinical and clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been associated with amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition and cognitive decline. However, the role of tau pathology on grey matter networks remains unclear. Based on previously reported associations between tau pathology, synaptic density and brain structural measures, tau-related connectivity changes across different stages of AD might be expected. We aimed to assess the relationship between tau aggregation and grey matter network alterations across the AD continuum. METHODS: We included 533 individuals (178 Aß-negative cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects, 105 Aß-positive CU subjects, 122 Aß-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 128 patients with AD dementia) from the BioFINDER-2 study. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from T1-weighted images and graph theory properties including degree, clustering coefficient, path length, and small world topology were calculated. Associations between tau positron emission tomography (PET) values and global and regional network measures were examined using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. Finally, we tested whether the association of tau pathology with cognitive performance was mediated by grey matter network disruptions. RESULTS: Across the whole sample, we found that higher tau load in the temporal meta-ROI was associated with significant changes in degree, clustering, path length, and small world values (all p < 0.001), indicative of a less optimal network organisation. Already in CU Aß-positive individuals associations between tau burden and lower clustering and path length were observed, whereas in advanced disease stages elevated tau pathology was progressively associated with more brain network abnormalities. Moreover, the association between higher tau load and lower cognitive performance was only partly mediated (9.3 to 9.5%) through small world topology. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a close relationship between grey matter network disruptions and tau pathology in individuals with abnormal amyloid. This might reflect a reduced communication between neighbouring brain areas and an altered ability to integrate information from distributed brain regions with tau pathology, indicative of a more random network topology across different AD stages.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
2.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e2237, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to hippocampal sclerosis is related to epileptogenic networks rather than a focal epileptogenic source. Graph-theoretical gray and white matter networks may help to identify alterations within these epileptogenic networks. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 14 controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including 3D-T1, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion tensor imaging. Subject-specific structural gray and white matter network properties (normalized path length, clustering, and small-worldness) were reconstructed. Group differences and differences between those with higher and lower seizure burden (<4 vs. ≥4 average monthly seizures in the last year) in network parameters were evaluated. Additionally, correlations between network properties and disease-related variables were calculated. RESULTS: All patients with hippocampal sclerosis as one group did not have altered gray or white matter network properties (all p > .05). Patients with lower seizure burden had significantly lower gray matter small-worldness and normalized clustering compared to controls and those with higher seizure burden (all p < .04). A higher number of monthly seizures was significantly associated with increased gray and white matter small-worldness, indicating a more rigid network. CONCLUSION: Overall, there were no differences in network properties in this group of patients with hippocampal sclerosis. However, patients with lower seizure burden had significantly lower gray matter network indices, indicating a more random organization. The correlation between higher monthly seizures and a more rigid network is driven by those with higher seizure burden, who presented a more rigid network compared to those with a lower seizure burden.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Substância Branca , Encéfalo , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose/patologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
3.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102725, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153688

RESUMO

Disentangling biologically distinct subgroups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may facilitate a deeper understanding of the neurobiology underlying clinical heterogeneity. We employed longitudinal [18F]FDG-PET standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) to map hypometabolism across cognitively-defined AD subgroups. Participants were 384 amyloid-positive individuals with an AD dementia diagnosis from ADNI who had a total of 1028 FDG-scans (mean time between first and last scan: 1.6 ± 1.8 years). These participants were categorized into subgroups on the basis of substantial impairment at time of dementia diagnosis in a specific cognitive domain relative to the average across domains. This approach resulted in groups of AD-Memory (n = 135), AD-Executive (n = 8), AD-Language (n = 22), AD-Visuospatial (n = 44), AD-Multiple Domains (n = 15) and AD-No Domains (for whom no domain showed substantial relative impairment; n = 160). Voxelwise contrasts against controls revealed that all AD-subgroups showed progressive hypometabolism compared to controls across temporoparietal regions at time of AD diagnosis. Voxelwise and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based linear mixed model analyses revealed there were also subgroup-specific hypometabolism patterns and trajectories. The AD-Memory group had more pronounced hypometabolism compared to all other groups in the medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate, and faster decline in metabolism in the medial temporal lobe compared to AD-Visuospatial. The AD-Language group had pronounced lateral temporal hypometabolism compared to all other groups, and the pattern of metabolism was also more asymmetrical (left < right) than all other groups. The AD-Visuospatial group had faster decline in metabolism in parietal regions compared to all other groups, as well as faster decline in the precuneus compared to AD-Memory and AD-No Domains. Taken together, in addition to a common pattern, cognitively-defined subgroups of people with AD dementia show subgroup-specific hypometabolism patterns, as well as differences in trajectories of metabolism over time. These findings provide support to the notion that cognitively-defined subgroups are biologically distinct.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
4.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376987

RESUMO

Biomarkers are needed to monitor disease progression in Alzheimer's disease. Grey matter network measures have such potential, as they are related to amyloid aggregation in cognitively unimpaired individuals and to future cognitive decline in predementia Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated how grey matter network measures evolve over time within individuals across the entire Alzheimer's disease cognitive continuum and whether such changes relate to concurrent decline in cognition. We included 190 cognitively unimpaired, amyloid normal (controls) and 523 individuals with abnormal amyloid across the cognitive continuum (preclinical, prodromal, Alzheimer's disease dementia) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and calculated single-subject grey matter network measures (median of five networks per individual over 2 years). We fitted linear mixed models to investigate how network measures changed over time and whether such changes were associated with concurrent changes in memory, language, attention/executive functioning and on the Mini-Mental State Examination. We further assessed whether associations were modified by baseline disease stage. We found that both cognitive functioning and network measures declined over time, with steeper rates of decline in more advanced disease stages. In all cognitive stages, decline in network measures was associated with concurrent decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination, with stronger effects for individuals closer to Alzheimer's disease dementia. Decline in network measures was associated with concurrent cognitive decline in different cognitive domains depending on disease stage: In controls, decline in networks was associated with decline in memory and language functioning; preclinical Alzheimer's disease showed associations of decline in networks with memory and attention/executive functioning; prodromal Alzheimer's disease showed associations of decline in networks with cognitive decline in all domains; Alzheimer's disease dementia showed associations of decline in networks with attention/executive functioning. Decline in grey matter network measures over time accelerated for more advanced disease stages and was related to concurrent cognitive decline across the entire Alzheimer's disease cognitive continuum. These associations were disease stage dependent for the different cognitive domains, which reflected the respective cognitive stage. Our findings therefore suggest that grey matter measures are helpful to track disease progression in Alzheimer's disease.

5.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173883

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by abnormal amyloid beta and tau processing. Previous studies reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (t-tau) levels vary between patients. Here we show that CSF t-tau variability is associated with distinct impairments in neuronal plasticity mediated by gene repression factors SUZ12 and REST. AD individuals with abnormal t-tau levels have increased CSF concentrations of plasticity proteins regulated by SUZ12 and REST. AD individuals with normal t-tau, on the contrary, have decreased concentrations of these plasticity proteins and increased concentrations in proteins associated with blood-brain and blood CSF-barrier dysfunction. Genomic analyses suggested that t-tau levels in part depend on genes involved in gene expression. The distinct plasticity abnormalities in AD as signaled by t-tau urge the need for personalised treatment.

6.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954344

RESUMO

Structural grey matter covariance networks provide an individual quantification of morphological patterns in the brain. The network integrity is disrupted in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and network properties show associations with the level of amyloid pathology and cognitive decline. Therefore, these network properties might be disease progression markers. However, it remains unclear when and how grey matter network integrity changes with disease progression. We investigated these questions in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers, whose conserved age at dementia onset allows individual staging based upon their estimated years to symptom onset. From the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational cohort, we selected T1-weighted MRI scans from 269 mutation carriers and 170 non-carriers (mean age 38 ± 15 years, mean estimated years to symptom onset -9 ± 11), of whom 237 had longitudinal scans with a mean follow-up of 3.0 years. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted, and we calculated for each individual the network properties which describe the network topology, including the size, clustering, path length and small worldness. We determined at which time point mutation carriers and non-carriers diverged for global and regional grey matter network metrics, both cross-sectionally and for rate of change over time. Based on cross-sectional data, the earliest difference was observed in normalized path length, which was decreased for mutation carriers in the precuneus area at 13 years and on a global level 12 years before estimated symptom onset. Based on longitudinal data, we found the earliest difference between groups on a global level 6 years before symptom onset, with a greater rate of decline of network size for mutation carriers. We further compared grey matter network small worldness with established biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (i.e. amyloid accumulation, cortical thickness, brain metabolism and cognitive function). We found that greater amyloid accumulation at baseline was associated with faster decline of small worldness over time, and decline in grey matter network measures over time was accompanied by decline in brain metabolism, cortical thinning and cognitive decline. In summary, network measures decline in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease, which is alike sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and the properties show decline over time prior to estimated symptom onset. These data suggest that single-subject networks properties obtained from structural MRI scans form an additional non-invasive tool for understanding the substrate of cognitive decline and measuring progression from preclinical to severe clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease.

7.
Neurobiol Aging ; 94: 71-80, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585492

RESUMO

The development of preventive strategies in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires measures that can predict future brain atrophy. Gray matter network measures are related to amyloid burden in cognitively normal older individuals and predict clinical progression in preclinical AD. Here, we show that within individuals with preclinical AD, gray matter network measures predict hippocampal atrophy rates, whereas other AD biomarkers (total gray matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid total tau, and Mini-Mental State Examination) do not. Furthermore, in brain areas where amyloid is known to start aggregating (i.e. anterior cingulate and precuneus), disrupted network measures predict faster atrophy in other distant areas, mostly involving temporal regions, which are associated with AD. When repeating analyses in age-matched, cognitively unimpaired individuals without amyloid or tau pathology, we did not find any associations between network measures and hippocampal atrophy, suggesting that the associations are specific for preclinical AD. Our findings suggest that disrupted gray matter networks may indicate a treatment opportunity in preclinical AD individuals but before the onset of irreversible atrophy and cognitive impairment.

8.
Neurology ; 93(4): e334-e346, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve (CR) and clinical progression across the Alzheimer disease (AD) spectrum. METHODS: We selected 839 ß-amyloid (Aß)-positive participants with normal cognition (NC, n = 175), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 437), or AD dementia (n = 227) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). CR was quantified using standardized residuals (W scores) from a (covariate-adjusted) linear regression with global cognition (13-item Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale) as an independent variable of interest, and either gray matter volumes or white matter hyperintensity volume as dependent variables. These W scores, reflecting whether an individual's degree of cerebral damage is lower or higher than clinically expected, were tested as predictors of diagnostic conversion (i.e., NC to MCI/AD dementia, or MCI to AD dementia) and longitudinal changes in memory (ADNI-MEM) and executive functions (ADNI-EF). RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 24 months (interquartile range 6-42). Corrected for age, sex, APOE4 status, and baseline cerebral damage, higher gray matter volume-based W scores (i.e., greater CR) were associated with a lower diagnostic conversion risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.22, p < 0.001) and slower decline in memory (ß = 0.48, p < 0.001) and executive function (ß = 0.67, p < 0.001). Stratified by disease stage, we found similar results for NC (diagnostic conversion: HR 0.30, p = 0.038; ADNI-MEM: ß = 0.52, p = 0.028; ADNI-EF: ß = 0.42, p = 0.077) and MCI (diagnostic conversion: HR 0.21, p < 0.001; ADNI-MEM: ß = 0.43, p = 0.003; ADNI-EF: ß = 0.59, p < 0.001), but opposite findings (i.e., more rapid decline) for AD dementia (ADNI-MEM: ß = -0.91, p = 0.002; ADNI-EF: ß = -0.77, p = 0.081). CONCLUSIONS: Among Aß-positive individuals, greater CR related to attenuated clinical progression in predementia stages of AD, but accelerated cognitive decline after the onset of dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Reserva Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Compostos de Anilina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Progressão da Doença , Etilenoglicóis , Função Executiva , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tiazóis , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(13): 3900-3909, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157938

RESUMO

Myelin determines the conduction of neuronal signals along axonal connections in networks of the brain. Loss of myelin integrity in neuronal circuits might result in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, the ratio of T1-weighted by T2-weighted MRI has been used as a proxy for myelin content in gray matter of the cortex. With this approach, we investigated whether AD dementia patients show lower cortical myelin content (i.e., a lower T1-w/T2-w ratio value). We selected structural T1-w and T2-w MR images of 293 AD patients and 172 participants with normal cognition (NC). T1-w/T2-w ratios were computed for the whole brain and within 90 automated anatomical labeling atlas regions using SPM12, compared between groups and correlated with the neuronal injury marker tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). In contrast to our hypothesis, AD patients showed higher whole brain T1-w/T2-w ratios than NC, and regionally in 31 anatomical areas (p < .0005; d = 0.21 to 0.48), predominantly in the inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, anterior cingulate, and precuneus. Regional higher T1-w/T2-w values were associated with higher CSF tau concentrations (p < .0005; r = .16 to .22) and worse MMSE scores (p < .0005; r = -.16 to -.21). These higher T1-w/T2-w values in AD seem to contradict previous pathological findings of demyelination and disconnectivity in AD. Future research should further investigate the biological processes reflected by increases in T1-w/T2-w values.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101786, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grey matter (GM) atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is most commonly modeled as a function of time. However, this approach does not take into account inter-individual differences in initial disease severity or changes due to aging. Here, we modeled GM atrophy within individuals across the AD clinical spectrum as a function of time, aging and MMSE, as a proxy for disease severity, and investigated how these models influence estimates of GM atrophy. METHODS: We selected 523 individuals from ADNI (100 preclinical AD, 288 prodromal AD, 135 AD dementia) with abnormal baseline amyloid PET/CSF and ≥1 year of MRI follow-up. We calculated total and 90 regional GM volumes for 2281 MRI scans (median [IQR]; 4 [3-5] scans per individual over 2 [1.6-4] years) and used linear mixed models to investigate atrophy as a function of time, aging and decline on MMSE. Analyses included clinical stage as interaction with the predictor and were corrected for baseline age, sex, education, field strength and total intracranial volume. We repeated analyses for a sample of participants with normal amyloid (n = 387) to assess whether associations were specific for amyloid pathology. RESULTS: Using time or aging as predictors, amyloid abnormal participants annually declined -1.29 ±â€¯0.08 points and - 0.28 ±â€¯0.03 points respectively on the MMSE and -12.23 ±â€¯0.47 cm3 and -8.87 ±â€¯0.34 respectively in total GM volume (p < .001). For the time and age models atrophy was widespread and preclinical and prodromal AD showed similar atrophy patterns. Comparing prodromal AD to AD dementia, AD dementia showed faster atrophy mostly in temporal lobes as modeled with time, while prodromal AD showed faster atrophy in mostly frontoparietal areas as modeled with age (pFDR < 0.05). Modeling change in GM volume as a function of decline on MMSE, slopes were less steep compared to those based on time and aging (-4.1 ±â€¯0.25 cm3 per MMSE point decline; p < .001) and showed steeper atrophy for prodromal AD compared to preclinical AD in the right inferior temporal gyrus (p < .05) and compared to AD dementia mostly in temporal areas (pFDR < 0.05). Associations with time, aging and MMSE remained when accounting for these effects in the other models, suggesting that all measures explain part of the variance in GM atrophy. Repeating analyses in amyloid normal individuals, effects for time and aging showed similar widespread anatomical patterns, while associations with MMSE were largely reduced. CONCLUSION: Effects of time, aging and MMSE all explained variance in GM atrophy slopes within individuals. Associations with MMSE were weaker than those for time or age, but specific for amyloid pathology. This suggests that at least some of the atrophy observed in time or age models may not be specific to AD.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Atrofia/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Neurobiol Aging ; 75: 109-116, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557769

RESUMO

Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is an early clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neurobiology underlying IADL disruptions is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between IADL functioning and cortical atrophy across the AD spectrum. We selected 162 memory-clinic subjects with subjective cognitive decline (n = 49), mild cognitive impairment (n = 26) or AD dementia (n = 87), and an available structural MRI acquired at 3.0 Tesla and Amsterdam IADL Questionnaire (A-IADL-Q) assessment. We used linear regression correcting for age, sex, education, vascular injuries, and total intracranial volume to investigate the association between gray matter volume and A-IADL-Q score, and voxel-based morphometry to investigate whether any associations were specific for distinct regions. Less gray matter volume was associated with lower A-IADL-Q scores (ß = 0.346, 95% CI = [0.185-0.507], p < 0.001), specifically in cortical regions covering the medial temporal lobes, cingulate cortex, and precuneus (all p(familywise error-corrected) < 0.05). Results were similar when repeating the analyses in amyloid-positive subjects (n = 78). Our findings illustrate that the A-IADL-Q detects functional impairment related to AD-specific neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Neurônios/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amiloide/metabolismo , Atrofia/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Brain ; 141(12): 3443-3456, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351346

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a heterogeneous disorder. Understanding the biological basis for this heterogeneity is key for developing personalized medicine. We identified atrophy subtypes in Alzheimer's disease dementia and tested whether these subtypes are already present in prodromal Alzheimer's disease and could explain interindividual differences in cognitive decline. First we retrospectively identified atrophy subtypes from structural MRI with a data-driven cluster analysis in three datasets of patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia: discovery data (dataset 1: n = 299, age = 67 ± 8, 50% female), and two independent external validation datasets (dataset 2: n = 181, age = 66 ± 7, 52% female; dataset 3: n = 227, age = 74 ± 8, 44% female). Subtypes were compared on clinical, cognitive and biological characteristics. Next, we classified prodromal Alzheimer's disease participants (n = 603, age = 72 ± 8, 43% female) according to the best matching subtype to their atrophy pattern, and we tested whether subtypes showed cognitive decline in specific domains. In all Alzheimer's disease dementia datasets we consistently identified four atrophy subtypes: (i) medial-temporal predominant atrophy with worst memory and language function, older age, lowest CSF tau levels and highest amount of vascular lesions; (ii) parieto-occipital atrophy with poor executive/attention and visuospatial functioning and high CSF tau; (iii) mild atrophy with best cognitive performance, young age, but highest CSF tau levels; and (iv) diffuse cortical atrophy with intermediate clinical, cognitive and biological features. Prodromal Alzheimer's disease participants classified into one of these subtypes showed similar subtype characteristics at baseline as Alzheimer's disease dementia subtypes. Compared across subtypes in prodromal Alzheimer's disease, the medial-temporal subtype showed fastest decline in memory and language over time; the parieto-occipital subtype declined fastest on executive/attention domain; the diffuse subtype in visuospatial functioning; and the mild subtype showed intermediate decline in all domains. Robust atrophy subtypes exist in Alzheimer's disease with distinct clinical and biological disease expression. Here we observe that these subtypes can already be detected in prodromal Alzheimer's disease, and that these may inform on expected trajectories of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise por Conglomerados , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sintomas Prodrômicos
13.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(8): 3143-3151, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Grey matter network disruptions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with worse cognitive impairment cross-sectionally. Our aim was to investigate whether indications of a more random network organization are associated with longitudinal decline in specific cognitive functions in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We included 231 individuals with SCD who had annually repeated neuropsychological assessment (3 ± 1 years; n = 646 neuropsychological investigations) available from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (54% male, age: 63 ± 9, MMSE: 28 ± 2). Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from baseline 3D-T1 MRI scans and we computed basic network (size, degree, connectivity density) and higher-order (path length, clustering, betweenness centrality, normalized path length [lambda] and normalized clustering [gamma]) parameters at whole brain and/or regional levels. We tested associations of network parameters with baseline and annual cognition (memory, attention, executive functioning, language composite scores, and global cognition [all domains with MMSE]) using linear mixed models, adjusted for age, sex, education, scanner and total gray matter volume. PRINCIPAL OBSERVATIONS: Lower network size was associated with steeper decline in language (ß ± SE = 0.12 ± 0.05, p < 0.05FDR). Higher-order network parameters showed no cross-sectional associations. Lower gamma and lambda values were associated with steeper decline in global cognition (gamma: ß ± SE = 0.06 ± 0.02); lambda: ß ± SE = 0.06 ± 0.02), language (gamma: ß ± SE = 0.11 ± 0.04; lambda: ß ± SE = 0.12 ± 0.05; all p < 0.05FDR). Lower path length values in precuneus and fronto-temporo-occipital cortices were associated with a steeper decline in global cognition. CONCLUSIONS: A more randomly organized grey matter network was associated with a steeper decline of cognitive functioning, possibly indicating the start of cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Idioma , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Percepção
14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 61: 198-206, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111486

RESUMO

Gray matter networks are disrupted in Alzheimer's disease and related to cognitive impairment. However, it is still unclear whether these disruptions are associated with cognitive decline over time. Here, we studied this question in a large sample of patients with mild cognitive impairment with extensive longitudinal neuropsychological assessments. Gray matter networks were extracted from baseline structural magnetic resonance imaging, and we tested associations of network measures and cognitive decline in Mini-Mental State Examination and 5 cognitive domains (i.e., memory, attention, executive function, visuospatial, and language). Disrupted network properties were cross-sectionally related to worse cognitive impairment. Longitudinally, lower small-world coefficient values were associated with a steeper decline in almost all domains. Lower betweenness centrality values correlated with a faster decline in Mini-Mental State Examination and memory, and at a regional level, these associations were specific for the precuneus, medial frontal, and temporal cortex. Furthermore, network measures showed additive value over established biomarkers in predicting cognitive decline. Our results suggest that gray matter network measures might have use in identifying patients who will show fast disease progression.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 9: 34, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28275349

RESUMO

Structural brain changes underlying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been well-researched, but most previous studies required subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) as a diagnostic criterion, diagnosed MCI based on a single screening test or lacked analyses in relation to neuropsychological impairment. This longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study aimed to overcome these limitations: The relationship between regional gray matter (GM) atrophy and behavioral performance was investigated over the course of 3 years in individuals unaware of cognitive decline, identified as amnestic MCI based on an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Region of interest analyses revealed GM atrophy in the left amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampus in MCI individuals compared to normally aging participants, which was specifically related to verbal memory impairment and evident already at the first measurement point. These findings demonstrate that GM atrophy is detectable in individuals with amnestic MCI despite unawareness of beginning cognitive decline. Thus, individuals with GM atrophy in regions associated with verbal memory impairment do not necessarily need to experience SCC before meeting neuropsychological criteria for MCI. These results have important implications for future research and diagnostic procedures of MCI.

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