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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(14): 8999-9007, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551550

RESUMO

Electrochemically mediated amine regeneration (EMAR) was recently developed to avoid the use of thermal means to release CO2 captured from postcombustion flue gas in the benchmark amine process. To address concerns related to the high vapor pressure of ethylenediamine (EDA) as the primary amine used in EMAR, a mixture of EDA and aminoethylethanolamine (AEEA) was investigated. The properties of the mixed amine systems, including the absorption rates, electrolyte pH and conductivity, and CO2 capacity, were evaluated in comparison with those of solely EDA. The mixed amine system had similar properties to that of EDA, indicating no significant changes would be necessary for the future implementation of the EMAR process with mixed amines as opposed to that with just EDA. The electrochemical performance of the mixed amines in terms of the cell voltage, gas desorption rate, electron utilization, and energetics was also investigated. A 50/50 mixture of EDA and AEEA displayed the lowest energetics: ∼10% lower than that of 100% EDA. With this mixture, a continuous EMAR process, in which the absorption column was connected to the electrochemical cell as the desorption stage, was tested over 100 h. The cell voltage was very stable and there was a steady gas output close to theoretical values. The desorbed gas was further analyzed and found to be 100% CO2, confirming no evaporation of the amine. The mixed absorbent composition was also characterized using titration and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and the results showed no amine degradation. These findings that demonstrate a stable, low vapor pressure absorbent with improved energetics are promising and could be a guideline for the future development of EMAR for CO2 capture from flue gas and other sources.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2278, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385274

RESUMO

Carbon capture is essential for mitigating carbon dioxide emissions. Compared to conventional chemical scrubbing, electrochemically mediated carbon capture utilizing redox-active sorbents such as quinones is emerging as a more versatile and economical alternative. However, the practicality of such systems is hindered by the requirement of toxic, flammable organic electrolytes or often costly ionic liquids. Herein, we demonstrate that rationally designed aqueous electrolytes with high salt concentration can effectively resolve the incompatibility between aqueous environments and quinone electrochemistry for carbon capture, eliminating the safety, toxicity, and at least partially the cost concerns in previous studies. Salt-concentrated aqueous media also offer distinct advantages including extended electrochemical window, high carbon dioxide activity, significantly reduced evaporative loss and material dissolution, and importantly, greatly suppressed competing reactions including under simulated flue gas. Correspondingly, we achieve continuous carbon capture-release operations with outstanding capacity, stability, efficiency and electrokinetics, advancing electrochemical carbon separation further towards practical applications.

3.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(50): 10858-10867, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747280

RESUMO

Nonaqueous polyelectrolyte solutions have recently been proposed as potential battery electrolytes due to their unique ability to tune the mobility of the anion relative to that of the electrochemically active lithium ion. This could potentially be used to study the effect of concentration polarization during battery charge, a major limiting factor in achieving fast charge rates that is caused by high anion mobility. An important consideration in the design of polyelectrolyte solutions for battery applications is the solubility of the polymer in battery-relevant carbonate blend solvents. Little is understood from a transport perspective, however, about the importance of designing the polymer to be solvophillic or if it is sufficient to obtain solubility through the incorporation of appended ions alone (as with polystyrene sulfonate in water). Using a model polysulfone-based system without added salt, we investigate the conductivity, viscosity, and diffusion of polyelectrolyte solutions over a range of concentrations and molecular weights in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water. In both solvents, sulfonated polysulfone is readily soluble and the charged group is known to dissociate, but the neutral backbone polymer is only soluble in DMSO. We find marked differences in the transport behavior of polymer solutions prepared from the two solvents, particularly at high concentrations. Comparing this transport behavior to that of the monomer in solution demonstrates a larger decrease in lithium motion in DMSO than in water, even though the bulk viscosity in water increases far more rapidly. This study sheds light on the important parameters for optimizing polyelectrolyte solution transport in different solvents.

4.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(7): 1250-1260, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403073

RESUMO

Nonaqueous polyelectrolyte solutions have been recently proposed as high Li+ transference number electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. However, the atomistic phenomena governing ion diffusion and migration in polyelectrolytes are poorly understood, particularly in nonaqueous solvents. Here, the structural and transport properties of a model polyelectrolyte solution, poly(allyl glycidyl ether-lithium sulfonate) in dimethyl sulfoxide, are studied using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the static structural analysis of Li+ ion pairing is insufficient to fully explain the overall conductivity trend, necessitating a dynamic analysis of the diffusion mechanism, in which we observe a shift from largely vehicular transport to more structural diffusion as the Li+ concentration increases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that despite the significantly higher diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion, the negatively charged polyion is responsible for the majority of the solution conductivity at all concentrations, corresponding to Li+ transference numbers much lower than previously estimated experimentally. We quantify the ion-ion correlations unique to polyelectrolyte systems that are responsible for this surprising behavior. These results highlight the need to reconsider the approximations typically made for transport in polyelectrolyte solutions.

5.
ACS Omega ; 4(2): 4296-4303, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459634

RESUMO

Forward osmosis (FO) has emerged as a new technology for desalination and exhibits potentials for applications where reverse osmosis is incapable or uneconomical for treating streams with high salinity or fouling propensity. However, most of current draw agents in FO are salts and difficult to be recycled cost- and energy-effectively. In this work, we demonstrate a new and facile approach to efficiently recover water from the FO process with enhanced water purity by using a binary ion liquid/hydrogel system. The hybrid ion liquid/hydrogel draw solution system demonstrated in this work synergistically leverages the thermoresponsive properties of both the ionic liquid (IL) and hydrogel to improve the overall FO performance. Our findings corroborate that the hydrogel mitigates the water flux decline of the IL as the draw agent and provide a ready route to contiguously and effectively regenerate water from the FO process. Such a route allows for an efficient recovery of water from the draw solute/water mixture with enhanced water purity, compared with conventional thermal treating of lower critical solution temperature IL draw solute/water. Furthermore, hydrogels can be used in a continuous and readily recyclable process to recover water without heating the entire draw solute/water mixture. Our design principles open the door to use low-grade/waste heat or solar energy to regenerate draw agents and potentially reduce energy in the FO process considerably.

6.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(36): 8548-8559, 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130409

RESUMO

The structure and transport properties of electrolyte solutions of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) having salts of Li+ with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]-) or Na+ with [TFSI]- are investigated with polarizable molecular dynamics and experiments. Polarizable force fields for Li+ and Na+ with DME and [TFSI]- were developed based on quantum chemistry calculations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and thermodynamic liquid-state properties. Simulation results for density, viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and conductivity of the electrolytes all agree well with the trends and magnitudes of available experimental data for a wide range of salt concentrations. As the concentration of salt increases, the electrolytes become more viscous and molecular species become less mobile. Ionic conductivity does not change monotonically with salt concentration and exhibits a maximum between 0.5 and 1.0 M for both Li[TFSI] and Na[TFSI] electrolytes. Comparatively, both cations are solvated by 5-6 DME or [TFSI]- oxygen atoms and exhibit similar diffusivities and conductivities. The solvation shell of Na+ is found to be more weakly bound and to have a lower binding residence time than that of Li+. The transport of Li+ therefore is more vehicular, through the motion of the solvation shell, while the transport of Na+ is based more on exchange, through the replacement of solvating species. The atomistic insight provided by this work can be used as the basis for future rational design of improved electrolyte solvents for lithium-oxygen, sodium-oxygen, and lithium-sulfur batteries.

7.
ACS Nano ; 9(3): 2465-76, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25756653

RESUMO

The topology and transport behavior of the lamellar morphology self-assembled by block copolymers in thin films are shown to depend on the length scale over which they are characterized and can be described by percolation in a network under confinement. Gold nanowires replicating the lamellar morphology were fabricated via self-assembled poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) thin films and a lift-off pattern transfer process. The lamellar morphology exhibits long-range connectivity (macroscopic scale); however, characterization of electrical conduction over confined areas (5-500 µm) demonstrates a discrete probability of disconnection that arises due to the underlying network structure and a lack of self-similarity at these microscale dimensions. In particular, it is proved that the lamellar network morphology under confinement has a conductance that is nonlinear with channel length or width. The experimental results are discussed in terms of percolation theory, and a simple, two-dimensional Monte Carlo model is shown to predict the key trends in the network topology and conductance in lamellar block copolymers, including the dependencies on composition, extent of spatial confinement, and confinement geometry. These results highlight the need to exquisitely control or engineer the self-assembled nanostructured pathways formed by block copolymers to ensure consistent device performance for any application that depends upon percolating material, ionic, or electrical transport, especially when confined in any dimension. It is also concluded that the two most promising approaches for enhancing conductivity in block copolymer materials may be achieved either at the limits of (1) perfectly oriented, single-crystalline or (2) high defect density, polycrystalline microphase separated morphologies and that nanostructured systems with intermediate defect densities would be detrimental to transport in confined systems.

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