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1.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608277

RESUMO

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a small cyclic peptide expressed in all mammals, mainly in the hypothalamus. MCH acts as a robust integrator of several physiological functions and has crucial roles in the regulation of sleep-wake rhythms, feeding behaviour and metabolism. MCH signalling has a very broad endocrine context and is involved in physiological functions and emotional states associated with metabolism, such as reproduction, anxiety, depression, sleep and circadian rhythms. MCH mediates its functions through two receptors (MCHR1 and MCHR2), of which only MCHR1 is common to all mammals. Owing to the wide variety of MCH downstream signalling pathways, MCHR1 agonists and antagonists have great potential as tools for the directed management of energy balance disorders and associated metabolic complications, and translational strategies using these compounds hold promise for the development of novel treatments for obesity. This Review provides an overview of the numerous roles of MCH in energy and glucose homeostasis, as well as in regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic circuits that encode the hedonic component of food intake.

2.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Autophagy-related gene 3 (ATG3) is an enzyme mainly known for its actions in the LC3 lipidation process, which is essential for autophagy. Whether ATG3 plays a role in lipid metabolism or contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. METHODS: By performing a liver proteomic analysis from mice with genetic manipulation of hepatic p63, a regulator of fatty acid metabolism, we identified ATG3 as a new target downstream of p63. ATG3 was evaluated in liver samples of patients with NAFLD. Further, genetic manipulation of ATG3 was performed in human hepatocyte cell lines, primary hepatocytes and in the liver of mice. RESULTS: ATG3 expression is induced in the liver of animal models and patients with NAFLD (both steatosis and NASH) compared with those without liver disease. Moreover, genetic knockdown of ATG3 in mice and human hepatocytes ameliorates p63- and diet-induced steatosis, while its overexpression increases the lipid load in hepatocytes. The inhibition of hepatic ATG3 improves fatty acid metabolism by reducing c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1), which increases sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), carnitine palmitoiltransferase I (CPT1a), and mitochondrial function. Hepatic knockdown of SIRT1 and CPT1a blunts the effects of ATG3 on mitochondrial activity. Unexpectedly, these effects are independent of an autophagic action. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings indicate that ATG3 is a novel protein implicated in the development of steatosis. LAY SUMMARY: We show that autophagy-related gene 3 (ATG3) contributes to the progression of NAFLD in humans and mice. Hepatic knockdown of ATG3 ameliorates the development of NAFLD, by stimulating SIRT1, CPT1a and mitochondrial function. Thus, ATG3 is an important factor implicated in steatosis.

3.
Oncogene ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588620

RESUMO

It is unclear how loss-of-function germline mutations in the widely-expressed co-chaperone AIP, result in young-onset growth hormone secreting pituitary tumours. The RET receptor, uniquely co-expressed in somatotrophs with PIT1, induces apoptosis when unliganded, while RET supports cell survival when it is bound to its ligand. We demonstrate that at the plasma membrane, AIP is required to form a complex with monomeric-intracellular-RET, caspase-3 and PKCδ resulting in PIT1/CDKN2A-ARF/p53-apoptosis pathway activation. AIP-deficiency blocks RET/caspase-3/PKCδ activation preventing PIT1 accumulation and apoptosis. The presence or lack of the inhibitory effect on RET-induced apoptosis separated pathogenic AIP variants from non-pathogenic ones. We used virogenomics in neonatal rats to demonstrate the effect of mutant AIP protein on the RET apoptotic pathway in vivo. In adult male rats altered AIP induces elevated IGF-1 and gigantism, with pituitary hyperplasia through blocking the RET-apoptotic pathway. In females, pituitary hyperplasia is induced but IGF-1 rise and gigantism are blunted by puberty. Somatotroph adenomas from pituitary-specific Aip-knockout mice overexpress the RET-ligand GDNF, therefore, upregulating the survival pathway. Somatotroph adenomas from patients with or without AIP mutation abundantly express GDNF, but AIP-mutated tissues have less CDKN2A-ARF expression. Our findings explain the tissue-specific mechanism of AIP-induced somatotrophinomas and provide a previously unknown tumorigenic mechanism, opening treatment avenues for AIP-related tumours.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5274, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489410

RESUMO

The classical dogma states that brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a major role in the regulation of temperature in neonates. However, although BAT has been studied in infants for more than a century, the knowledge about its physiological features at this stage of life is rather limited. This has been mainly due to the lack of appropriate investigation methods, ethically suitable for neonates. Here, we have applied non-invasive infrared thermography (IRT) to investigate neonatal BAT activity. Our data show that BAT temperature correlates with body temperature and that mild cold stimulus promotes BAT activation in newborns. Notably, a single short-term cold stimulus during the first day of life improves the body temperature adaption to a subsequent cold event. Finally, we identify that bone morphogenic protein 8B (BMP8B) is associated with the BAT thermogenic response in neonates. Overall, our data uncover key features of the setup of BAT thermogenesis in newborns.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Termogênese/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460

RESUMO

p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether thermogenesis and the hypothalamus may be involved in the physiopathology of experimental arthritis (EA). METHODS: EA was induced in Lewis male rats by intradermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Food intake, body weight, plasma cytokines, thermographic analysis, gene and protein expression of thermogenic markers in brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue and hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were analyzed. Virogenetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK was performed. RESULTS: We first demonstrate that EA is associated with increased BAT thermogenesis and browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) leading to elevated energy expenditure. Moreover, rats suffering EA show inhibition of hypothalamic AMPK, a canonical energy sensor modulating energy homeostasis at central level. Notably, specific genetic activation of AMPK in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH; a key site modulating energy metabolism) reverses the effect of EA on energy balance, brown fat and browning, as well as promoting an amelioration of the inflammatory status. CONCLUSION: Overall, these data indicate that EA promotes a central catabolic state that can be targeted and reversed by the activation of hypothalamic AMPK. This might open new therapeutic alternatives to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated metabolic comorbidities, improving RA-patients overall prognosis.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206176

RESUMO

Energy restriction is a first therapy in the treatment of obesity, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been completely clarified. We analyzed the effects of restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight loss, circulating gut hormone levels and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly distributed into four groups: two fed ad libitum a normal diet (ND) (N group) or a HFD (H group) and two subjected to a 25% caloric restriction of ND (NR group) or HFD (HR group) for 9 weeks. A 25% restriction of HFD over 9 weeks leads to a 36% weight loss with regard to the group fed HFD ad libitum accompanied by normal values in adiposity index and food efficiency ratio (FER). This restriction also carried the normalization of NPY, AgRP and POMC hypothalamic mRNA expression, without changes in CART. Caloric restriction did not succeed in improving glucose homeostasis but reduced HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, 25% restriction of HFD reduced adiposity and improved metabolism in experimental obesity, without changes in glycemia. Restriction of the HFD triggered the normalization of hypothalamic NPY, AgRP and POMC expression, as well as ghrelin and leptin levels.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
8.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(9): 659-671, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294513

RESUMO

In the field of thyroid hormone (TH) action on energy balance, huge advances have been achieved in the past decade, from human, animal, and in vitro studies. A key achievement was the demonstration of the TH 'central' metabolic action, which was recently discovered in rodent models and challenged the previous 'peripheral' paradigm. In this opinion, we dissect and try to unify the two paradigms, from analyzing the respective bench models to extrapolating the possible translational bedside implications.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 669980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149618

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder leading to malnutrition and, ultimately, to energy wasting and cachexia. Rodents develop activity-based anorexia (ABA) when simultaneously exposed to a restricted feeding schedule and allowed free access to running wheels. These conditions lead to a life-threatening reduction in body weight, resembling AN in human patients. Here, we investigate the effect of ABA on whole body energy homeostasis at different housing temperatures. Our data show that ABA rats develop hyperactivity and hypophagia, which account for a massive body weight loss and muscle cachexia, as well as reduced uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but increased browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Increased housing temperature reverses not only the hyperactivity and weight loss of animals exposed to the ABA model, but also hypothermia and loss of body and muscle mass. Notably, despite the major metabolic impact of ABA, none of the changes observed are associated to changes in key hypothalamic pathways modulating energy metabolism, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Overall, this evidence indicates that although temperature control may account for an improvement of AN, key hypothalamic pathways regulating thermogenesis, such as AMPK and ER stress, are unlikely involved in later stages of the pathophysiology of this devastating disease.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 670357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927698

RESUMO

Objective: Angiopoietin-like protein 3(ANGPTL3) is an important regulator of lipoprotein metabolism in the fed state by inhibiting the enzyme lipoprotein lipase in oxidative tissues. However, the possible role of ANGPTL3 throughout gestation and its relationship with hormonal and biochemical variables are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determinate serum ANGPTL3 level in healthy non-pregnant women, during healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: Serum ANGPTL3 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women (n = 52) and women with mild preeclampsia (n = 21), and women at three months postpartum (n = 20) and healthy non-pregnant women (n = 20). The results obtained were correlated with biochemical, hormonal and anthropometric variables and insulin resistance indices. Results: Levels of ANGPTL3 were not different between the follicular and the luteal phases of the cycle in healthy non-pregnant women. There was a significant reduction in serum ANGPTL3 levels from the first to the third trimester in healthy pregnant women compared with healthy non-pregnant and postpartum women (p <0.01). ANGPTL3 levels do not differ significantly during the three trimesters of pregnancy neither in healthy women nor in preeclamptic women. The serum levels of ANGPTL3 in women who developed preeclampsia are not statistically different from those observed in healthy pregnant women in each trimester of pregnancy. A significant lineal positive correlation was observed between serum ANGPTL3 levels and triglyceride (P =0.0186, r =0.52), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P =0.0224, r =0.50), and total cholesterol levels (P =0.0220, r =0.50) in healthy non-pregnant women (P 0.05). Besides, there were no significant correlations between serum ANGPTL3 and body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, leptin, or HOMA-IR (P >0.05). Conclusions: We describe for the first time the profile of ANGPTL3 throughout pregnancy and postpartum as well as and discussed about explore their potential contribution interactions with lipoprotein metabolism throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Thus, low levels of ANGPTL3 during pregnancy might favor lipid uptake in oxidative tissues as the main maternal energy source, while may helping to preserve glucose for use by the fetus and placenta.

11.
Redox Biol ; 41: 101945, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744652

RESUMO

Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is one of the seven mammalian sirtuin homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene that has emerged as an important player in the regulation of energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. However, its role in the hypothalamus has not been explored. Herein, we show that the genetic inhibition of SIRT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) induced a negative energy balance and improvement of several metabolic parameters. These effects are specific for POMC neurons, because ablation of SIRT3 in POMC, but not in AgRP neurons, decreased body weight and adiposity, increased energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, and induced browning in white adipose tissue (WAT). Notably, the depletion of SIRT3 in POMC neurons caused these effects in male mice fed a chow diet but failed to affect energy balance in males fed a high fat diet and females under both type of diets. Overall, we provide the first evidence pointing for a key role of SIRT3 in POMC neurons in the regulation of energy balance.


Assuntos
Pró-Opiomelanocortina , Sirtuína 3 , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546289

RESUMO

Several studies have reported that nicotine, the main bioactive component of tobacco, exerts a marked negative energy balance. Apart from its anorectic action, nicotine also modulates energy expenditure, by regulating brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. These effects are mainly controlled at the central level by modulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide systems and energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In this study, we aimed to investigate the kappa opioid receptor (κOR)/dynorphin signaling in the modulation of nicotine's effects on energy balance. We found that body weight loss after nicotine treatment is associated with a down-regulation of the κOR endogenous ligand dynorphin precursor and with a marked reduction in κOR signaling and the p70 S6 kinase/ribosomal protein S6 (S6K/rpS6) pathway in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). The inhibition of these pathways by nicotine was completely blunted in κOR deficient mice, after central pharmacological blockade of κOR, and in rodents where κOR was genetically knocked down specifically in the LHA. Moreover, κOR-mediated nicotine effects on body weight do not depend on orexin. These data unravel a new central regulatory pathway modulating nicotine's effects on energy balance.


Assuntos
Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/metabolismo , Nicotina/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dinorfinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Pharmacol Ther ; 219: 107693, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987056

RESUMO

Obesity has reached pandemic proportions and is associated with severe comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hepatic and cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancer types. However, the therapeutic options to treat obesity are limited. Extensive epidemiological studies have shown a strong relationship between smoking and body weight, with non-smokers weighing more than smokers at any age. Increased body weight after smoking cessation is a major factor that interferes with their attempts to quit smoking. Numerous controlled studies in both humans and rodents have reported that nicotine, the main bioactive component of tobacco, exerts a marked anorectic action. Furthermore, nicotine is also known to modulate energy expenditure, by regulating the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), as well as glucose homeostasis. Many of these actions occur at central level, by controlling the activity of hypothalamic neuropeptide systems such as proopiomelanocortin (POMC), or energy sensors such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, direct impact of nicotine on metabolic tissues, such as BAT, WAT, liver and pancreas has also been described. Here, we review the actions of nicotine on energy balance. The relevance of this interaction is interesting, because considering the restricted efficiency of obesity treatments, a possible complementary approach may focus on compounds with known pharmacokinetic profile and pharmacological actions, such as nicotine or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors signaling.

15.
Hepatology ; 73(2): 606-624, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. Although GPR55 has been linked to energy homeostasis in different organs, its specific role in lipid metabolism in the liver and its contribution to the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured (1) GPR55 expression in the liver of patients with NAFLD compared with individuals without obesity and without liver disease, as well as animal models with steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and (2) the effects of LPI and genetic disruption of GPR55 in mice, human hepatocytes, and human hepatic stellate cells. Notably, we found that circulating LPI and liver expression of GPR55 were up-regulated in patients with NASH. LPI induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and increased lipid content in human hepatocytes and in the liver of treated mice by inducing de novo lipogenesis and decreasing ß-oxidation. The inhibition of GPR55 and ACCα blocked the effects of LPI, and the in vivo knockdown of GPR55 was sufficient to improve liver damage in mice fed a high-fat diet and in mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet. Finally, LPI promoted the initiation of hepatic stellate cell activation by stimulating GPR55 and activation of ACC. CONCLUSIONS: The LPI/GPR55 system plays a role in the development of NAFLD and NASH by activating ACC.

16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(3): 502-514, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) was recently identified as an endogenous non-competitive allosteric antagonist of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). LEAP-2 blunts ghrelin-induced feeding and its plasma levels are modulated in response to nutritional status in humans. Despite the relevant role of ghrelin in childhood, puberty, and childhood obesity, the potential implication of LEAP-2 in these aspects remains totally unknown. We aimed to investigate the regulation of circulating plasma LEAP-2 in childhood and adolescent either lean or obese. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of LEAP-2 were analyzed in a cross-sectional study with lean and obese children and adolescents (n = 150). Circulating LEAP-2 levels were significantly higher in girls than in boys independently of whether they were obese or lean. In addition, LEAP-2 was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in pubertal than in prepubertal girls, while no changes were found in boys between both developmental stages. Moreover, in girls LEAP-2 was positively correlated with insulin, IGF-1, HOMA-IR and triglycerides and negatively with ghrelin. In boys, LEAP-2 was positively correlated with leptin and negatively with vitamin D levels. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a sexual dimorphism in LEAP-2 levels in children and adolescents. These changes and the higher levels during puberty imply that LEAP-2 may contribute to some of the biological adaptations occurring during pubertal development in terms of food intake, energy balance, growth rate, and puberty onset. Future studies assessing LEAP-2 levels in longitudinal studies and its implications in growth rate, puberty onset, and reproductive hormones will help to understand the relevance of this hormone in this stage of life.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21118, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273510

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine ANGPTL3 serum levels in healthy young lean and obese non-diabetic men during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and correlate them with anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters. A case-control study was carried out and 30 young obese non-diabetic (23.90 ± 3.84 years and BMI 37.92 ± 4.85 kg/m2) and 28 age-matched healthy lean (24.56 ± 3.50 years and BMI of 22.10 ± 1.72 kg/m2) men were included in this study. The primary outcome measures were serum basal ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL3-area under the curve (AUC) levels. The percentage of body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and biochemical, hormonal and insulin resistance indices were determined. Basal ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL3-AUC levels were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in young obese subjects compared with lean subjects and were positively and significantly associated with different anthropometric measurements. Fasting ANGPTL3 serum levels were positively correlated with fasting insulin, leptin, Leptin/Adiponectin index and triglyceride-glucose index. Moreover, ANGPTL3-AUC was negatively correlated with Matsuda index. In this regard, chronically high ANGPTL3 levels in young obese subjects might favor triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance to replenish triglyceride stores by white adipose tissue rather than oxidative tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316927

RESUMO

Since its discovery twenty-five years ago, the fat-derived hormone leptin has provided a revolutionary framework for studying the physiological role of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Leptin exerts pleiotropic effects on many metabolic pathways and is tightly connected with the liver, the major player in systemic metabolism. As a consequence, understanding the metabolic and hormonal interplay between the liver and adipose tissue could provide us with new therapeutic targets for some chronic liver diseases, an increasing problem worldwide. In this review, we assess relevant literature regarding the main metabolic effects of leptin on the liver, by direct regulation or through the central nervous system (CNS). We draw special attention to the contribution of leptin to the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and its progression to more advanced stages of the disease as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Likewise, we describe the contribution of leptin to the liver regeneration process after partial hepatectomy, the mainstay of treatment for certain hepatic malignant tumors.


Assuntos
Leptina/metabolismo , Regeneração Hepática , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Fígado/fisiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5808, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199701

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle promotes metabolic balance by regulating glucose uptake and the stimulation of multiple interorgan crosstalk. We show here that the catalytic activity of Vav2, a Rho GTPase activator, modulates the signaling output of the IGF1- and insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in that tissue. Consistent with this, mice bearing a Vav2 protein with decreased catalytic activity exhibit reduced muscle mass, lack of proper insulin responsiveness and, at much later times, a metabolic syndrome-like condition. Conversely, mice expressing a catalytically hyperactive Vav2 develop muscle hypertrophy and increased insulin responsiveness. Of note, while hypoactive Vav2 predisposes to, hyperactive Vav2 protects against high fat diet-induced metabolic imbalance. These data unveil a regulatory layer affecting the signaling output of insulin family factors in muscle.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Homeostase , Metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Glucose/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Musculares/citologia , Células Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
20.
Cell Metab ; 32(6): 951-966.e8, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080217

RESUMO

Childhood obesity, especially in girls, is frequently bound to earlier puberty, which is linked to higher disease burden later in life. The mechanisms underlying this association remain elusive. Here we show that brain ceramides participate in the control of female puberty and contribute to its alteration in early-onset obesity in rats. Postnatal overweight caused earlier puberty and increased hypothalamic ceramide content, while pharmacological activation of ceramide synthesis mimicked the pubertal advancement caused by obesity, specifically in females. Conversely, central blockade of de novo ceramide synthesis delayed puberty and prevented the effects of the puberty-activating signal, kisspeptin. This phenomenon seemingly involves a circuit encompassing the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ovarian sympathetic innervation. Early-onset obesity enhanced PVN expression of SPTLC1, a key enzyme for ceramide synthesis, and advanced the maturation of the ovarian noradrenergic system. In turn, obesity-induced pubertal precocity was reversed by virogenetic suppression of SPTLC1 in the PVN. Our data unveil a pathway, linking kisspeptin, PVN ceramides, and sympathetic ovarian innervation, as key for obesity-induced pubertal precocity.

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