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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(3): 3697-3708, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886648

RESUMO

Utilization of high-capacity alloying anodes is a promising yet extremely challenging strategy in building high energy density alkali-ion batteries (AIBs). Excitingly, it was very recently found that the (de-)sodiation of tin (Sn) can be a highly reversible process in specific glyme electrolytes, enabling high specific capacities close to the theoretical value of 847 mA h g-1. The unique solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on Sn electrodes, which allows highly reversible sodiation regardless of the huge volume expansion, is herein demonstrated according to a series of in situ and ex situ characterization techniques. The SEI formation process mainly involves NaPF6 decomposition and the polymerization/oligomerization of the glyme solvent, which is induced by the catalytic effect of tin, specifically. This work provides a paradigm showing how solvent, salt, and electrode materials synergistically mediate the SEI formation process and obtains new insights into the unique interfacial chemistry between Na-alloying electrodes and glyme electrolytes, which is highly enlightening in building high energy density AIBs.

2.
ChemSusChem ; 12(12): 2609-2619, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896892

RESUMO

Aluminum is an appealing anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to its low cost, environmental benignity, high specific capacity, and lower relative volume expansion compared with other alloying materials. However, both, the working and capacity fading processes are not yet consistently and comprehensively understood, which has largely hindered its development. In this study, the electrochemical alloying process of aluminum anodes with lithium is systematically studied by the combination of several in situ and ex situ techniques, providing new insights into phase transitions, electrode dynamics, and surface chemistry. Particular attention is paid to the role of the Li-rich alloys (Li1+x Al). Its existence on the surface of the Al electrode is unexpectedly observed, and its growth in the electrode bulk is found to be strictly correlated with cell failure. Interestingly, cell failure can be delayed by choosing an appropriate electrolyte. This work contributes to a solid and comprehensive understanding of the puzzling Al (de-)lithiation processes, which is fundamental and highly enlightening for future research work on Al and other alloyed anodes.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5115, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504910

RESUMO

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are one of the most promising candidates for next-generation battery technologies. Despite recent significant progress in the development of efficient electrolytes, an on-going challenge for realization of rechargeable magnesium batteries remains to overcome the sluggish kinetics caused by the strong interaction between double charged magnesium-ions and the intercalation host. Herein, we report that a magnesium battery chemistry with fast intercalation kinetics in the layered molybdenum disulfide structures can be enabled by using solvated magnesium-ions ([Mg(DME)x]2+). Our study demonstrates that the high charge density of magnesium-ion may be mitigated through dimethoxyethane solvation, which avoids the sluggish desolvation process at the cathode-electrolyte interfaces and reduces the trapping force of the cathode lattice to the cations, facilitating magnesium-ion diffusion. The concept of using solvation effect could be a general and effective route to tackle the sluggish intercalation kinetics of magnesium-ions, which can potentially be extended to other host structures.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(2): 1662-1671, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256594

RESUMO

Two approaches of engineering surface structures of V-Ti-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys are presented, which enable improved tolerance toward gaseous oxygen (O2) impurities in hydrogen (H2) gas. Surface modification is achieved through engineering lanthanum (La)- or nickel (Ni)-rich surface layers with enhanced cyclic stability in an H2/O2 mixture. The formation of a Ni-rich surface layer does not improve the cycling stability in H2/O2 mixtures. Mischmetal (Mm, a mixture of La and Ce) agglomerates are observed within the bulk and surface of the alloy when small amounts of this material are added during arc melting synthesis. These agglomerates provide hydrogen-transparent diffusion pathways into the bulk of the V-Ti-Cr-Fe hydrogen storage alloy when the remaining oxidized surface is already nontransparent for hydrogen. Thus, the cycling stability of the alloy is improved in an O2-containing hydrogen environment as compared to the same alloy without addition of Mm. The obtained surface-engineered storage material still absorbs hydrogen after 20 cycles in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture, while the original material is already deactivated after 4 cycles.

5.
ChemSusChem ; 11(3): 562-573, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171938

RESUMO

Increasing the environmental benignity of lithium-ion batteries is one of the greatest challenges for their large-scale deployment. Toward this end, we present herein a strategy to enable the aqueous processing of high-voltage LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LNMO) cathodes, which are considered highly, if not the most, promising for the realization of cobalt-free next-generation lithium-ion cathodes. Combining the addition of phosphoric acid with the cross-linking of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by means of citric acid, aqueously processed electrodes with excellent performance are produced. The combined approach offers synergistic benefits, resulting in stable cycling performance and excellent coulombic efficiency (98.96 %) in lithium-metal cells. Remarkably, this approach can be easily incorporated into standard electrode preparation processes with no additional processing step.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Química Verde , Compostos de Lítio/química , Manganês/química , Níquel/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Difração de Pó , Água/química
6.
ACS Omega ; 3(9): 11290-11299, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459238

RESUMO

Here, we provide a deeper insight into the state of sulfur confined in ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) and clarify its electrochemical reaction mechanism with lithium by corroborating the results obtained using various experimental techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, in situ Raman spectroscopy, and in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In combination, these results indicate that sulfur in UMC exists as linear polymeric sulfur rather than smaller allotropes. The electrochemical reactivity of lithium with sulfur confined in UMC (pore size ≤0.7 nm) is different from that of sulfur confined in microporous carbon (≤2 nm, or ultramicroporous carbon containing significant amount of micropores) and mesoporous carbon (>2 nm). The observed quasi-solid-state reaction of lithium with sulfur in UMC with a single voltage plateau during the discharge/charge process is due to the effective separation of solvent molecules from the active material. The size of carbon pores plays a vital role in determining the reaction path of lithium with sulfur confined in UMC.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(32): 26797-26804, 2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731318

RESUMO

Tin oxide (SnO) is considered one of the most promising metal oxides for utilization as anode material in sodium ion batteries (SIBs), because of its ease of synthesis, high specific gravimetric capacity, and satisfactory cycling performance. However, to aim at practical applications, the Coulombic efficiency during cycling needs to be further improved, which requires a deeper knowledge of its working mechanism. Here, a microflower-shaped SnO material is synthesized by means of an ultrafast ionic liquid-assisted microwave method. The as-prepared SnO anode active material exhibits excellent cycling performance, good Coulombic efficiency as well as a large capacity delivered at low potential, which is fundamental to maximize the energy output of SIBs. These overall merits were never reported before for pure SnO anodes (i.e., not in a composite with, for example, graphene). Additionally, by combining ex situ XRD and XPS, it is clearly demonstrated for the first time that the Sn-Na alloy, which is formed during the initial sodium sodiation, desodiates in two successive but fully separated steps. Totally different from the previous report, the pristine SnO phase is not regenerated upon desodiation up to 3 V vs Na/Na+. The newly disclosed reaction route provides an alternative view of the complex reaction mechanism of these families of metal oxides for sodium ion batteries.

8.
ACS Sens ; 2(4): 522-530, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723185

RESUMO

Well-characterized silane layers are essential for optimized attachment of (bio)molecules enabling reliable chem/biosensor performance. Herein, binding properties and orientation of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane layers at crystalline sapphire (0001) surfaces were determined by water contact angle measurements, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy measurements suggest an almost perpendicular arrangement of the MPTMS molecules to the substrate surface. Adhesion force studies between a silicon nitride AFM tip and modified sapphire, gold, and silicon dioxide substrates were investigated by peak force tapping atomic force microscopy and used to define the silane binding properties on these surfaces. As expected, the Al-O-Si bond was determined to be responsible for the layer formation at the sapphire substrate surface.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(35): 10341-10346, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627132

RESUMO

The novel functionalized porphyrin [5,15-bis(ethynyl)-10,20-diphenylporphinato]copper(II) (CuDEPP) was used as electrodes for rechargeable energy-storage systems with an extraordinary combination of storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. The ability of CuDEPP to serve as an electron donor or acceptor supports various energy-storage applications. Combined with a lithium negative electrode, the CuDEPP electrode exhibited a long cycle life of several thousand cycles and fast charge-discharge rates up to 53 C and a specific energy density of 345 Wh kg-1 at a specific power density of 29 kW kg-1 . Coupled with a graphite cathode, the CuDEPP anode delivered a specific power density of 14 kW kg-1 . Whereas the capacity is in the range of that of ordinary lithium-ion batteries, the CuDEPP electrode has a power density in the range of that of supercapacitors, thus opening a pathway toward new organic electrodes with excellent rate capability and cyclic stability.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 10(12): 2668-2676, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425668

RESUMO

Hard carbons are currently the most widely used negative electrode materials in Na-ion batteries. This is due to their promising electrochemical performance with capacities of 200-300 mAh g-1 and stable long-term cycling. However, an abundant and cheap carbon source is necessary in order to comply with the low-cost philosophy of Na-ion technology. Many biological or waste materials have been used to synthesize hard carbons but the impact of the precursors on the final properties of the anode material is not fully understood. In this study the impact of the biomass source on the structural and electrochemical properties of hard carbons is unraveled by using different, representative types of biomass as examples. The systematic structural and electrochemical investigation of hard carbons derived from different sources-namely corncobs, peanut shells, and waste apples, which are representative of hemicellulose-, lignin- and pectin-rich biomass, respectively-enables understanding and interlinking of the structural and electrochemical properties.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lignina/química , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Sódio/química , Resíduos , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos
11.
ChemSusChem ; 9(13): 1670-9, 2016 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27254109

RESUMO

Morphologically optimized LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LMNO-0) particles were treated with LiNbO3 to prepare a homogeneously coated material (LMNO-Nb) as cathode in batteries. Graphite/LMNO-Nb full cells present a twofold higher cycling life than cells assembled using uncoated LMNO-0 (graphite/LMNO-0 cell): Graphite/LMNO-0 cells achieve 80 % of the initial capacity after more than 300 cycles whereas for graphite/LMNO-Nb cells this is the case for more than 600 cycles. Impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal significantly lower film and charge-transfer resistances for graphite/LMNO-Nb cells than for graphite/LMNO-0 cells during cycling. Reduced resistances suggest slower aging related to film thickening and increase of charge-transfer resistances when using LMNO-Nb cathodes. Tests at 45 °C confirm the good electrochemical performance of the investigated graphite/LMNO cells while the cycling stability of full cells is considerably lowered under these conditions.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio/química , Nióbio/química , Eletroquímica , Grafite/química , Óxidos/química
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(25): 16087-100, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27299469

RESUMO

A comparative and in-depth investigation on the reactivity of various Li-based electrolytes and of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed at graphite electrode is carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical simulation test, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The electrolytes investigated include LiX (X = PF6, TFSI, TDI, FSI, and FTFSI), dissolved in EC-DMC. The reactivity and SEI nature of electrolytes containing the relatively new imide (LiFSI and LiFTFSI) and imidazole (LiTDI) salts are evaluated and compared to those of well-researched LiPF6(-) and LiTFSI-based electrolytes. The thermal reactivity of LixC6 in the various electrolytes is found to be in the order of LiFSI > LiTDI > LiTFSI > LiFTFSI > LiPF6 and LiFSI > LiFTFSI > LiPF6 > LiTFSI > LiTDI in terms of onset exothermic temperature and total heat generated, respectively. Surface and depth-profiling XPS analysis of the SEI formed with the diverse electrolyte formulations provide insight into the differences and similarities (composition, thickness, and evolution, etc.) emanating from the structure of the various salt anions.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(22): 13993-4003, 2016 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27183004

RESUMO

A study of the reactions of liquid acetone and toluene on transition metal hydrides, which can be used in thermal energy or hydrogen storage applications, is presented. Hydrogen is confined in TiFe, Ti0.95Zr0.05Mn1.49V0.45Fe0.06 ("Hydralloy C5"), and V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 after contact with acetone. Toluene passivates V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 completely for hydrogen desorption while TiFe is only mildly deactivated and desorption is not blocked at all in the case of Hydralloy C5. LaNi5 is inert toward both organic liquids. Gas chromatography (GC) investigations reveal that CO, propane, and propene are formed during hydrogen desorption from V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 in liquid acetone, and methylcyclohexane is formed in the case of liquid toluene. These reactions do not occur if dehydrogenated samples are used, which indicates an enhanced surface reactivity during hydrogen desorption. Significant amounts of carbon-containing species are detected at the surface and subsurface of acetone- and toluene-treated V40Fe8Ti26Cr26 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The modification of the surface and subsurface chemistry and the resulting blocking of catalytic sites is believed to be responsible for the containment of hydrogen in the bulk. The surface passivation reactions occur only during hydrogen desorption of the samples.

14.
ChemSusChem ; 9(11): 1290-8, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159254

RESUMO

A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Química Verde , Lítio/química , Segurança , Dietil Pirocarbonato/análogos & derivados , Dietil Pirocarbonato/química , Dioxolanos/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Eletrodos , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Temperatura
15.
ChemSusChem ; 9(10): 1112-7, 2016 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27098345

RESUMO

The aqueous processing of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes has the potential to notably decrease the battery processing costs and paves the way for a sustainable and environmentally benign production (and recycling) of electrochemical energy storage devices. Although this concept has already been adopted for the industrial production of LIB graphite anodes, the performance decay of cathode electrodes based on transition metal oxides processed in aqueous environments is still an open issue. In this study, we show that the addition of small quantities of phosphoric acid into the cathodic slurry yields Li[Ni0.33 Mn0.33 Co0.33 ]O2 electrodes that have an outstanding electrochemical performance in lithium-ion cells.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Lítio/química , Manganês/química , Níquel/química , Óxidos/química , Água/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletroquímica , Eletrodos
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(13): 4285-90, 2016 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924132

RESUMO

A novel room temperature rechargeable battery with VOCl cathode, lithium anode, and chloride ion transporting liquid electrolyte is described. The cell is based on the reversible transfer of chloride ions between the two electrodes. The VOCl cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189 mAh g(-1) . A reversible capacity of 113 mAh g(-1) was retained even after 100 cycles when cycled at a high current density of 522 mA g(-1) . Such high cycling stability was achieved in chloride ion batteries for the first time, demonstrating the practicality of the system beyond a proof of concept model. The electrochemical reaction mechanism of the VOCl electrode in the chloride ion cell was investigated in detail by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirm reversible deintercalation-intercalation of chloride ions in the VOCl electrode.

17.
Nanoscale ; 8(6): 3296-306, 2016 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26542750

RESUMO

Here we report for the first time the development of a Mg rechargeable battery using a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite as the cathode, a Mg-carbon composite as the anode and a non-nucleophilic Mg based complex in tetraglyme solvent as the electrolyte. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposites are prepared through a new pathway by the combination of thermal and chemical precipitation methods. The Mg/S cell delivers a higher reversible capacity (448 mA h g(-1)), a longer cyclability (236 mA h g(-1) at the end of the 50(th) cycle) and a better rate capability than previously described cells. The dissolution of Mg polysulfides to the anode side was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of a graphene-sulfur composite cathode electrode, with the properties of a high surface area, a porous morphology, a very good electronic conductivity and the presence of oxygen functional groups, along with a non-nucleophilic Mg electrolyte gives an improved battery performance.

18.
Chemphyschem ; 16(14): 2943-52, 2015 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26272080

RESUMO

The electronic and chemical (adsorption) properties of bimetallic Ag/Pt(111) surfaces and their modification upon surface alloy formation, that is, during intermixing of Ag and Pt atoms in the top atomic layer upon annealing, were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and, using CO as probe molecule, by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), respectively. The surface alloys are prepared by deposition of sub-monolayer Ag amounts on a Pt(111) surface at room temperature, leading to extended Ag monolayer islands on the substrate, and subsequent annealing of these surfaces. Surface alloy formation starts at ≈600-650 K, which is evidenced by core-level shifts (CLSs) of the Ag(3d5/2 ) signal. A distinct change of the CO adsorption properties is observed when going to the intermixed PtAg surface alloys. Most prominently, we find the growth of a new desorption feature at higher temperature (≈550 K) in the TPD spectra upon surface alloy formation. This goes along with a shift of the COad -related IR bands to lower wave number. Surface alloy formation is almost completed after heating to 700 K.

19.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12146, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173723

RESUMO

Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(24): 22430-5, 2014 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25419861

RESUMO

We report a new type of rechargeable chloride ion battery using vanadium oxychloride (VOCl) as cathode and magnesium or magnesium/magnesium chloride (MgCl2/Mg) as anode, with an emphasis on the VOCl-MgCl2/Mg full battery. The charge and discharge mechanism of the VOCl cathode has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements, demonstrating the chloride ion transfer during cycling. The VOCl cathode can deliver a reversible capacity of 101 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 10 mA g(-1) and a capacity of 60 mAh g(-1) was retained after 53 cycles in this first study.

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