Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 161
Filtrar
1.
Ann Emerg Med ; 75(2): 147-158, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668571

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Older adults with syncope are commonly treated in the emergency department (ED). We seek to derive a novel risk-stratification tool to predict 30-day serious cardiac outcomes. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of older adults (≥60 years) with unexplained syncope or near syncope who presented to 11 EDs in the United States. Patients with a serious diagnosis identified in the ED were excluded. We collected clinical and laboratory data on all patients. Our primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality or serious cardiac outcome. RESULTS: We enrolled 3,177 older adults with unexplained syncope or near syncope between April 2013 and September 2016. Mean age was 73 years (SD 9.0 years). The incidence of the primary outcome was 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9% to 6.5%). Using Bayesian logistic regression, we derived the FAINT score: history of heart failure, history of cardiac arrhythmia, initial abnormal ECG result, elevated pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T. A FAINT score of 0 versus greater than or equal to 1 had sensitivity of 96.7% (95% CI 92.9% to 98.8%) and specificity 22.2% (95% CI 20.7% to 23.8%), respectively. The FAINT score tended to be more accurate than unstructured physician judgment: area under the curve 0.704 (95% CI 0.669 to 0.739) versus 0.630 (95% CI 0.589 to 0.670). CONCLUSION: Among older adults with syncope or near syncope of potential cardiac cause, a FAINT score of zero had a reasonably high sensitivity for excluding death and serious cardiac outcomes at 30 days. If externally validated, this tool could improve resource use for this common condition.

3.
Cardiol Rev ; 27(6): 314-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584473

RESUMO

Chest pain is a common complaint encountered by Emergency Medicine physicians in the emergency department (ED). History taking, electrocardiograms, and cardiac biomarkers are the mainstays of the evaluation process of patients who present to the ED with symptoms of an acute coronary syndrome. Cardiac troponin is the primary biomarker used for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. In January 2017, high sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTns) were approved for use in the United States. These markers have increased sensitivity and can more rapidly detect myocardial injury, making them very useful in the ED. However, despite improved sensitivity, elevations in hs-cTn can occur in a large number of patients who are not currently experiencing an acute myocardial infarction. As a result, it is important that clinicians understand the value of serial cardiac biomarker measurements and how to incorporate hs-cTn levels below the limit of detection into clinical decision-making. A large percentage of these low-risk patients end up having negative cardiac work-ups. This article will include a discussion on how to utilize common risk stratification tools in the ED to identify cohorts of patients suitable for discharge without additional testing. ED physicians must understand the limitations and benefits of hs-cTn levels and how to incorporate the information obtained from these biomarkers into risk scores in order to strengthen disposition decisions and safely discharge patients from the ED.

4.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 18(3): 121-124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a common diagnosis in the emergency department (ED). Missing this diagnosis may lead to increased morbidity or mortality. With improved cardiac biomarkers tests, it is unknown if that has decreased the prevalence of ACS diagnoses in ED patients who were recently evaluated in the ED. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of ED patients who were diagnosed with ACS and seen in the ED 7 and 30 days before that visit in North Texas between 2009 and 2015. The demographics and temporal trends of missed ACS rates are described. Logistic regression was used to evaluate if any factors (ie, age, ethnicity, sex, insurance status) were significant. RESULTS: Between December 26, 2008 and June 29, 2015, there were 24,914 diagnoses of ACS in the ED. The overall prevalence of patients diagnosed with ACS 7 days after their ED visit was 3.2% and 8.8% at 30 days. For patients diagnosed with ACS 7 days and 30 days after an ED visit, the most common initial ED diagnoses were nonspecific chest pain (57.7%), atherosclerotic disease (19.5%), and heart failure (12.8%). Between 2009 and 2015, there was no overall change in the rate of ACS diagnoses in patients seen 7 or 30 days before an ED visit. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of missed ACS in the North Texas region at 7 and 30 days after the initial ED visit is low and has not changed over the past several years.

5.
Ann Emerg Med ; 74(2): 260-269, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080027

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Many adults with syncope are hospitalized solely for observation and testing. We seek to determine whether hospitalization versus outpatient management for older adults with unexplained syncope is associated with a reduction in postdisposition serious adverse events at 30 days. METHODS: We performed a propensity score analysis using data from a prospective, observational study of older adults with unexplained syncope or near syncope who presented to 11 emergency departments (EDs) in the United States. We enrolled adults (≥60 years) who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients with a serious diagnosis identified in the ED. Clinical and laboratory data were collected on all patients. The primary outcome was rate of post-ED serious adverse events at 30 days. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,492 older adults with syncope and no serious ED diagnosis from April 2013 to September 2016. Mean age was 73 years (SD 8.9 years), and 51% were women. The incidence of serious adverse events within 30 days after the index visit was 7.4% for hospitalized patients and 3.19% for discharged patients, representing an unadjusted difference of 4.2% (95% confidence interval 2.38% to 6.02%). After propensity score matching on risk of hospitalization, there was no statistically significant difference in serious adverse events at 30 days between the hospitalized group (4.89%) and the discharged group (2.82%) (risk difference 2.07%; 95% confidence interval -0.24% to 4.38%). CONCLUSION: In our propensity-matched sample of older adults with unexplained syncope, for those with clinical characteristics similar to that of the discharged cohort, hospitalization was not associated with improvement in 30-day serious adverse event rates.

6.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(12): 2215-2223, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common chief complaint among older adults in the Emergency Department (ED), and orthostatic vital signs are often a part of their evaluation. We assessed whether abnormal orthostatic vital signs in the ED are associated with composite 30-day serious outcomes in older adults presenting with syncope. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults ≥ 60 years who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients lost to follow up. We used the standard definition of abnormal orthostatic vital signs or subjective symptoms of lightheadedness upon standing to define orthostasis. We determined the rate of composite 30-day serious outcomes, including those during the index ED visit, such as cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, cardiac intervention, new diagnosis of structural heart disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hemorrhage/anemia requiring transfusion, with major traumatic injury from fall, recurrent syncope, and death) between the groups with normal and abnormal orthostatic vital signs. RESULTS: The study cohort included 1974 patients, of whom 51.2% were male and 725 patients (37.7%) had abnormal orthostatic vital signs. Comparing those with abnormal to those with normal orthostatic vital signs, we did not find a difference in composite 30-serious outcomes (111/725 (15.3%) vs 184/1249 (14.7%); unadjusted odds ratio, 1.05 [95%CI, 0.81-1.35], p = 0.73). After adjustment for gender, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), history of arrhythmia, dyspnea, hypotension, any abnormal ECG, physician risk assessment, medication classes and disposition, there was no association with composite 30-serious outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 0.82 [95%CI, 0.62-1.09], p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of older adult patients presenting with syncope who were able to have orthostatic vital signs evaluated, abnormal orthostatic vital signs did not independently predict composite 30-day serious outcomes.

7.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(2): 369-375, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881559

RESUMO

Introduction: In the context of the upcoming single accreditation system for graduate medical education resulting from an agreement between the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), American Osteopathic Association and American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, we saw the opportunity for charting a new course for emergency medicine (EM) scholarly activity (SA). Our goal was to engage relevant stakeholders to produce a consensus document. Methods: Consensus building focused on the goals, definition, and endpoints of SA. Representatives from stakeholder organizations were asked to help develop a survey regarding the SA requirement. The survey was then distributed to those with vested interests. We used the preliminary data to find areas of concordance and discordance and presented them at a consensus-building session. Outcomes were then re-ranked. Results: By consensus, the primary role(s) of SA should be the following: 1) instruct residents in the process of scientific inquiry; 2) expose them to the mechanics of research; 3) teach them lifelong skills, including search strategies and critical appraisal; and 4) teach them how to formulate a question, search for the answer, and evaluate its strength. To meet these goals, the activity should have the general elements of hypothesis generation, data collection and analytical thinking, and interpretation of results. We also determined consensus on the endpoints, and acceptable documentation of the outcome. Conclusion: This consensus document may serve as a best-practices guideline for EM residency programs by delineating the goals, definitions, and endpoints for EM residents' SA. However, each residency program must evaluate its available scholarly activity resources and individually implement requirements by balancing the ACGME Review Committee for Emergency Medicine requirements with their own circumstances.


Assuntos
Acreditação/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Consenso , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estados Unidos
8.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(5): 528-538, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An estimated 1.2 million annual emergency department (ED) visits for syncope/near syncope occur in the United States. Cardiac biomarkers are frequently obtained during the ED evaluation, but the prognostic value of index high-sensitivity troponin (hscTnT) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if hscTnT and NT-proBNP drawn in the ED are independently associated with 30-day death/serious cardiac outcomes in adult patients presenting with syncope. METHODS: A prespecified secondary analysis of a prospective, observational trial enrolling participants ≥ age 60 presenting with syncope, at 11 United States hospitals, was conducted between April 2013 and September 2016. Exclusions included seizure, stroke, transient ischemic attack, trauma, intoxication, hypoglycemia, persistent confusion, mechanical/electrical invention, prior enrollment, or predicted poor follow-up. Within 3 hours of consent, hscTnT and NT-proBNP were collected and later analyzed centrally using Roche Elecsys Gen 5 STAT and 2010 Cobas, respectively. Primary outcome was combined 30-day all-cause mortality and serious cardiac events. Adjusting for illness severity, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, variations between primary outcome and biomarkers were estimated, adjusting absolute risk associated with ranges of biomarkers using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. RESULTS: The cohort included 3,392 patients; 367 (10.8%) experienced the primary outcome. Adjusted absolute risk for the primary outcome increased with hscTnT and NT-proBNP levels. HscTnT levels ≤ 5 ng/L were associated with a 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%-5%) outcome risk, and hscTnT > 50 ng/L, a 29% (95% CI = 26%-33%) risk. NT-proBNP levels ≤ 125 ng/L were associated with a 4% (95% CI = 4%-5%) risk, and NT-proBNP > 2,000 ng/L a 29% (95% CI = 25%-32%) risk. Likelihood ratios and predictive values demonstrated similar results. Sensitivity analyses excluding ED index serious outcomes demonstrated similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: hscTnT and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of 30-day death and serious outcomes in older ED patients presenting with syncope.

9.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(5): 395-403, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copeptin in combination with troponin has been shown to have incremental value for the early rule-out of myocardial infarction, but its performance in Black patients specifically has never been examined. In light of a potential for wider use, data on copeptin in different relevant cohorts are needed. This is the first study to determine whether copeptin is equally effective at ruling out myocardial infarction in Black and Caucasian races. METHODS: This analysis of the CHOPIN trial included 792 Black and 1075 Caucasian patients who presented to the emergency department with chest pain and had troponin-I and copeptin levels drawn. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine patients were diagnosed with myocardial infarction (54 Black and 95 Caucasian). The negative predictive value of copeptin at a cut-off of 14 pmol/l (as in the CHOPIN study) for myocardial infarction was higher in Blacks (98.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 96.2-99.1%) than Caucasians (94.1%, 95% CI 92.1-95.7%). The sensitivity at 14 pmol/l was higher in Blacks (83.3%, 95% CI 70.7-92.1%) than Caucasians (53.7%, 95% CI 43.2-64.0%). After controlling for age, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease and body mass index in a logistic regression model, the interaction term had a P value of 0.03. A cut-off of 6 pmol/l showed similar sensitivity in Caucasians as 14 pmol/l in Blacks. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify a difference in the performance of copeptin to rule out myocardial infarction between Blacks and Caucasians, with increased negative predictive value and sensitivity in the Black population at a cut-off of 14 pmol/l. This also holds true for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and, although numbers were small, similar trends exist in the normal troponin population. This may have significant implications for early rule-out strategies using copeptin.

10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(5): 869-872, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361153

RESUMO

Almost 20% of patients with syncope will experience another event. It is unknown whether recurrent syncope is a marker for a higher or lower risk etiology of syncope. The goal of this study is to determine whether older adults with recurrent syncope have a higher likelihood of 30-day serious clinical events than patients experiencing their first episode. METHODS: This study is a pre-specified secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective, observational study conducted at 11 emergency departments in the US. Adults 60 years or older who presented with syncope or near syncope were enrolled. The primary outcome was occurrence of 30-day serious outcome. The secondary outcome was 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia. In multivariate analysis, we assessed whether prior syncope was an independent predictor of 30-day serious events. RESULTS: The study cohort included 3580 patients: 1281 (35.8%) had prior syncope and 2299 (64.2%) were presenting with first episode of syncope. 498 (13.9%) patients had 1 prior episode while 771 (21.5%) had >1 prior episode. Those with recurrent syncope were more likely to have congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, previous diagnosis of arrhythmia, and an abnormal ECG. Overall, 657 (18.4%) of the cohort had a serious outcome by 30 days after index ED visit. In multivariate analysis, we found no significant difference in risk of events (adjusted odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.31; p = 0.387). CONCLUSION: In older adults with syncope, a prior history of syncope within the year does not increase the risk for serious 30-day events.


Assuntos
Síncope/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síncope/epidemiologia
11.
Ann Emerg Med ; 73(3): 274-280, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529112

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Controversy remains in regard to the risk of adverse events for patients presenting with syncope compared with near-syncope. The purpose of our study is to describe the difference in outcomes between these groups in a large multicenter cohort of older emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: From April 28, 2013, to September 21, 2016, we conducted a prospective, observational study across 11 EDs in adults (≥60 years) with syncope or near-syncope. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect information during their index visit and at 30-day follow-up. Our primary outcome was the incidence of 30-day death or serious clinical events. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant demographic or historical variables. RESULTS: A total of 3,581 patients (mean age 72.8 years; 51.6% men) were enrolled in the study. There were 1,380 patients (39%) presenting with near-syncope and 2,201 (61%) presenting with syncope. Baseline characteristics revealed a greater incidence of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, previous arrhythmia, nonwhite race, and presenting dyspnea in the near-syncope compared with syncope cohort. There were no differences in the primary outcome between the groups (near-syncope 18.7% versus syncope 18.2%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified no difference in 30-day serious outcomes for patients with near-syncope (odds ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.14) compared with syncope. CONCLUSION: Near-syncope confers risk to patients similar to that of syncope for the composite outcome of 30-day death or serious clinical event.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Síncope/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síncope/diagnóstico
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(4): 685-689, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common chief complaint in the ED, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a routine diagnostic tool in the evaluation of syncope. We assessed whether increasingly prolonged QTc intervals are associated with composite 30-day serious outcomes in older adults presenting to the ED with syncope. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults 60 years or older who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients presenting without an ECG, measurement of QTc, non-sinus rhythm, bundle branch block or those without 30-day follow-up. We categorized QTc cutoffs into values of <451; 451-470; 471-500, and >500 ms. We determined the rate of composite 30-day serious outcomes including ED serious outcomes and 30-day arrhythmias not identified in ED. RESULTS: The study cohort included 2609 patients. There were 1678 patients (64.3%) that had QTc intervals <451 ms; 544 (20.8%) were 451-470 ms; 302 (11.6%) were 471-500 ms, and 85 (3.3%) had intervals >500 ms. Composite 30-day serious outcomes was associated with increasingly prolonged QTc intervals (13.0%, 15.3%, 18.2%, 22.4%, p = 0.01), but this association did not persist in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of older patients presenting with syncope, increased QTc interval was a marker of but was not independently predictive of composite 30-day serious outcomes.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síncope/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
14.
J Hosp Med ; 13(12): 823-828, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syncope is a common reason for visiting the emergency department (ED) and is associated with significant healthcare resource utilization. OBJECTIVE: To develop a risk-stratification tool for clinically significant findings on echocardiography among older adults presenting to the ED with syncope or nearsyncope. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study from April 2013 to September 2016. SETTING: Eleven EDs in the United States. PATIENTS: We enrolled adults (=60 years) who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was a clinically significant finding on TTE. Clinical, electrocardiogram, and laboratory variables were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of significant findings on echocardiography. RESULTS: A total of 3,686 patients were enrolled. Of these, 995 (27%) received echocardiography, and 215 (22%) had a significant finding on echocardiography. Regression analysis identified five predictors of significant finding: (1) history of congestive heart failure, (2) history of coronary artery disease, (3) abnormal electrocardiogram, (4) high-sensitivity troponin-T >14 pg/mL, and 5) N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide >125 pg/mL. These five variables make up the ROMEO (Risk Of Major Echocardiography findings in Older adults with syncope) criteria. The sensitivity of a ROMEO score of zero for excluding significant findings on echocardiography was 99.5% (95% CI: 97.4%-99.9%) with a specificity of 15.4% (95% CI: 13.0%-18.1%). CONCLUSIONS: If validated, this risk-stratification tool could help clinicians determine which syncope patients are at very low risk of having clinically significant findings on echocardiography. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01802398.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Síncope/etiologia , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
AEM Educ Train ; 2(2): 115-120, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051078

RESUMO

Emergency medicine (EM) continues to grow as an academic specialty. Like most specialties, a large number of academic emergency physicians are focused on education of our graduate student learners. For promotion, clinician-educators (CEs) are required to produce scholarly work and disseminate knowledge. Although promotion requirements may vary by institution, scholarly work is a consistent requirement. Due to the clinical constraints of working in the emergency department, the unique interactions emergency physicians have with their learners, and early adoption of alternative teaching methods, EM CEs' scholarly work may not be adequately described in a traditional curriculum vitae. Using a rubric of established domains around the academic work of CEs, this article describes some of the ways EM educators address these domains. The aim of the article is to provide a guide for academic department leadership, CEs, and promotion committees about the unique ways EM has addressed the work of the CE.

16.
Acad Emerg Med ; 25(9): 995-1003, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization for low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is common, expensive, and of questionable benefit. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine if low-risk PE patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) on rivaroxaban require fewer hospital days compared to standard of care (SOC). METHODS: Multicenter, open-label randomized trial in low-risk PE defined by Hestia criteria. Adult subjects were randomized to early ED discharge on rivaroxaban or SOC. Primary outcome was total number of initial hospital hours, plus hours of hospitalization for bleeding or venous thromboembolism (VTE), 30 days after randomization. A 90-day composite safety endpoint was defined as major bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and mortality. RESULTS: Of 114 randomized subjects, 51 were early discharge and 63 were SOC. Of 112 (98.2%) receiving at least one dose of study drug, 99 (86.8%) completed the study. Initial hospital LOS was 4.8 hours versus 33.6 hours, with a mean difference of -28.8 hours (95% confidence interval [CI] = -42.55 to -15.12 hours) for early discharge versus SOC, respectively. At 90 days, mean total hospital days (for any reason) were less for early discharge than SOC, 19.2 hours versus 43.2 hours, with a mean difference of 26.4 hours (95% CI = -46.97 to -3.34 hours). At 90 days, there were no bleeding events, recurrent VTE, or deaths. The composite safety endpoint was similar in both groups, with a difference in proportions of 0.005 (95% CI = -0.18 to 0.19). Total costs were $1,496 for early discharge and $4,234 for SOC, with a median difference of $2,496 (95% CI = -$2,999 to -$2,151). CONCLUSIONS: Low-risk ED PE patients receiving early discharge on rivaroxaban have similar outcomes to SOC, but fewer total hospital days and lower costs over 30 days.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/economia , Padrão de Cuidado/economia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2018 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Syncope and near-syncope are common in patients with dementia and a leading cause of emergency department (ED) evaluation and subsequent hospitalization. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical trajectory and short-term outcomes of patients who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope and were assessed by their ED provider to have dementia. METHODS: This multisite prospective cohort study included patients 60 years of age or older who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope between 2013 and 2016. We analyzed a subcohort of 279 patients who were identified by the treating ED provider to have baseline dementia. We collected comprehensive patient-level, utilization, and outcomes data through interviews, provider surveys, and chart abstraction. Outcome measures included serious conditions related to syncope and death. RESULTS: Overall, 221 patients (79%) were hospitalized with a median length of stay of 2.1 days. A total of 46 patients (16%) were diagnosed with a serious condition in the ED. Of the 179 hospitalized patients who did not have a serious condition identified in the ED, 14 (7.8%) were subsequently diagnosed with a serious condition during the hospitalization, and an additional 12 patients (6.7%) were diagnosed postdischarge within 30 days of the index ED visit. There were seven deaths (2.5%) overall, none of which were cardiac-related. No patients who were discharged from the ED died or had a serious condition in the subsequent 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with perceived dementia who presented to the ED with syncope or near-syncope were frequently hospitalized. The diagnosis of a serious condition was uncommon if not identified during the initial ED assessment. Given the known iatrogenic risks of hospitalization for patients with dementia, future investigation of the impact of goals of care discussions on reducing potentially preventable, futile, or unwanted hospitalizations while improving goal-concordant care is warranted.

19.
Acad Emerg Med ; 25(3): 293-300, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients at low risk for acute coronary syndrome are frequently admitted for observation and cardiac testing, resulting in substantial burden and cost to the patient and the health care system. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this investigation was to measure the effect of the Chest Pain Choice (CPC) decision aid on overall health care utilization as well as utilization of specific services both during the index emergency department (ED) visit and in the subsequent 45 days. METHODS: This was a planned secondary analysis of data from a pragmatic multicenter randomized trial of shared decision making in adults presenting to the ED with chest pain who were being considered for observation unit admission for cardiac stress testing or coronary computed tomography angiography. The trial compared an intervention group engaged in shared decision making facilitated by the CPC decision aid to a control group receiving usual care. Hospital-level billing data were used to measure utilization for the index ED visit and during the following 45 days. Patients in both groups also were asked to keep a diary recording health care utilization over the same 45-day period. Outcomes assessed included length of time in the ED and observation, ED visits, office visits, hospitalizations, testing, imaging, and procedures. RESULTS: Of the 898 patients included in the original trial, we were able to contact 834 (92.9%) patients for 45-day health care diary review. There was no difference in patient-reported health care utilization between the study arms. Hospital-level billing data were obtained for all 898 (100%) patients. During the initial ED visit the length of stay (LOS) was similar, and there was no difference in the frequency of observation unit admission between study arms. However, the mean observation unit LOS was 95 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 40.8-149.8) shorter in the CPC arm and the mean number of tests was lower in the CPC arm (decrease in 19.4 imaging studies per 100 patients, 95% CI = 15.5-23.3). When evaluating the entire encounter and follow-up period, the intervention arm underwent fewer tests (decrease in 125.6 tests per 100 patients, 95% CI = 29.3-221.6). More specifically, there were fewer advanced cardiac imaging tests completed (25.8 fewer per 100 patients, 95% CI = 3.74-47.9) in the intervention arm. CONCLUSIONS: Shared decision making in low-risk chest pain can lead to decreased diagnostic testing without worsening outcomes measured over 45 days.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos
20.
Ann Emerg Med ; 71(4): 452-461.e3, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275946

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Cardiac arrhythmia is a life-threatening condition in older adults who present to the emergency department (ED) with syncope. Previous work suggests the initial ED ECG can predict arrhythmia risk; however, specific ECG predictors have been variably specified. Our objective is to identify specific ECG abnormalities predictive of 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmias in older adults presenting to the ED with syncope. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study at 11 EDs in adults aged 60 years or older who presented with syncope or near syncope. We excluded patients with a serious cardiac arrhythmia diagnosed during the ED evaluation from the primary analysis. The outcome was occurrence of 30-day serous cardiac arrhythmia. The exposure variables were predefined ECG abnormalities. Independent predictors were identified through multivariate logistic regression. The sensitivities and specificities of any predefined ECG abnormality and any ECG abnormality identified on adjusted analysis to predict 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia were also calculated. RESULTS: After exclusion of 197 patients (5.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7% to 6.2%) with serious cardiac arrhythmias in the ED, the study cohort included 3,416 patients. Of these, 104 patients (3.0%; 95% CI 2.5% to 3.7%) had a serious cardiac arrhythmia within 30 days from the index ED visit (median time to diagnosis 2 days [interquartile range 1 to 5 days]). The presence of nonsinus rhythm, multiple premature ventricular conductions, short PR interval, first-degree atrioventricular block, complete left bundle branch block, and Q wave/T wave/ST-segment abnormalities consistent with acute or chronic ischemia on the initial ED ECG increased the risk for a 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia. This combination of ECG abnormalities had a similar sensitivity in predicting 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmia compared with any ECG abnormality (76.9% [95% CI 67.6% to 84.6%] versus 77.9% [95% CI 68.7% to 85.4%]) and was more specific (55.1% [95% CI 53.4% to 56.8%] versus 46.6% [95% CI 44.9% to 48.3%]). CONCLUSION: In older ED adults with syncope, approximately 3% receive a diagnosis of a serious cardiac arrhythmia not recognized on initial ED evaluation. The presence of specific abnormalities on the initial ED ECG increased the risk for 30-day serious cardiac arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Síncope/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Síncope/epidemiologia , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA