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1.
Environ Int ; 135: 105316, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported data about environmental exposures can lead to measurement error. OBJECTIVES: To validate the self-reported perception of proximity to industrial facilities. METHODS: MCC-Spain is a population-based multicase-control study of cancer in Spain that recruited incident cases of breast, colorectal, prostate, and stomach cancer. The participant's current residence and the location of the industries were geocoded, and the linear distance between them was calculated (gold standard). The epidemiological questionnaire included a question to determine whether the participants perceived the presence of any industry at ≤1 km from their residences. Sensitivity and specificity of individuals' perception of proximity to industries were estimated as measures of classification accuracy, and the area under the curve (AUC) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of misclassification were calculated as measures of discrimination. Analyses were performed for all cases and controls, and by tumor location, educational level, sex, industrial sector, and length of residence. Finally, aORs of cancer associated with real and self-reported distances were calculated to explore differences in the estimation of risk between these measures. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the questionnaire was limited (0.48) whereas specificity was excellent (0.89). AUC was sufficient (0.68). Participants with breast (aOR(95%CI) = 2.03 (1.67;2.46)), colorectal (aOR(95%CI) = 1.41 (1.20;1.64)) and stomach (aOR(95%CI) = 1.59 (1.20;2.10)) cancer showed higher risk of misclassification than controls. This risk was higher for lower educational levels (aOR15 years (95%CI) = 0.56 (0.36;0.85)). The use of self-reported proximity vs. real distance to industrial facilities biased the effect on cancer risk towards the nullity. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported distance to industrial facilities can be a useful tool for hypothesis generation, but hypothesis-testing studies should use real distance to report valid conclusions. The sensitivity of the question might be improved with a more specific formulation.

2.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 45-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence on green spaces and obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of access to green spaces and surrounding greenness with obesity in Spain. METHODS: We enrolled 2354 individuals 20-85 years from urban areas of seven provinces of Spain between 2008-13. Subjects were randomly selected population controls of the MCC-Spain case-control study. We geocoded current residences and defined exposures in a buffer of 300 m around them: i) access to green space, identified using Urban Atlas, and ii) levels of surrounding greenness, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We examined excess weight/obesity as binary outcomes based on body mass index and waist-hip ratio. We examined effect modification by genetic factors, sex and individual socio-economic status and mediation by physical activity and concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. To assess potential effect modification by genetic factors, we used a polygenic risk score based on obesity polymorphisms detected in genome-wide association studies. We used logistic mixed-effects models with a random effect for catchment area adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Access to green space was associated with a reduced risk of excess weight/obesity after adjusting for confounders [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.63, 1.07), p-value = 0.143; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.45, 1.01), p-value = 0.057]. In the stratified analysis, this association was only observed in women. Associations between surrounding greenness and excess weight/obesity were null or modest based on a 1 IQR increase in NDVI [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.99 (0.88, 1.11), p-value = 0.875; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.79, 1.05), p-value = 0.186]. The observed associations were not mediated by physical activity or air pollution. DISCUSSION: Access to green space may be associated with decreased risk of excess weight/obesity among women in Spain. Mechanisms explaining this association remain unclear.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878004

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation plays a role in the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and diet might modulate chronic inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and CLL. A total of 366 CLL cases and 1643 controls of the Spanish multicase-control (MCC) Spain study were included. The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) based on 30 items from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Overall, a modest, non-statistically significant, positive association was observed between CLL and E-DII scores (OR for a one-unit increase in E-DII: 1.05 (CI 95%: 0.99, 1.12), p-value = 0.09 and by tertiles: ORT2vsT1: 1.20 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.59); OR T3vsT1: 1.21 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.62), p trend = 0.21). These results were independent from disease severity (p-het: 0.70), time from diagnosis (p-het: 0.67) and CLL treatment received (p-het: 0.56). No interactions were detected. In conclusion, the consumption of a diet with high pro-inflammatory components was not significantly associated with CLL. Changes towards a more pro-inflammatory dietary pattern in younger generations not included here warrant future research.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10847, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350458

RESUMO

Antibodies to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG) have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Because SGG may correlate with impaired gut epithelia, we assessed the association of antibodies to bacterial flagellin C (FliC), a measure potentially related to this impairment, with CRC and the CRC-specific interaction with antibodies to SGG proteins. Antibodies to FliC and SGG pilus proteins Gallo2178 and Gallo2179 were measured in two independent studies, a combined study from Nijmegen and Detroit (93 CRC cases, 74 controls) and a replication data set including 576 cases and 576 controls from the Spanish multicenter multicase-control study (MCC-Spain). Logistic regression was applied to assess whether antibodies to FliC were associated with CRC and modified the association of antibodies to SGG proteins with CRC. Antibodies to FliC were associated with those to SGG Gallo2178 among CRC cases, resulting in an interaction in the association of antibodies to Gallo2178 with CRC (p = 0.007). This association was only present among individuals with high antibody responses to FliC (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45-4.06). In conclusion, our findings suggest that colorectal tumorigenesis could be accompanied by an impaired integrity of the epithelium that could result in associated increased antibody responses to bacterial proteins.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 79-88, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the recognized role of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC), there is still insufficient epidemiological evidence for the involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the relation of antibody profile and antibody reactivity intensity against four individual EBV proteins to GC risk. METHODS: We used information from 281 GC cases and 2071 age and sex frequency matched controls recruited in the frame of the MCC-Spain multicase-control study, between 2008 and 2013. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and environmental factors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Antibody responses to four EBV proteins (EBNA-1, ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were analyzed by multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression mixed models to evaluate the association of seropositivity and antibody reactivity against EBV proteins with GC, adjusting for GC risk factors. Stratified analyses by tumor location (cardia vs. non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal vs. diffuse) were done. RESULTS: Among controls, seropositivity for EA-D, ZEBRA, EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was 85%, 91%, 97% and 99%, respectively. Even though seropositivity for none of the studied proteins was associated with a higher GC risk, increasing antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was associated with higher OR of GC. This association was present for cardia and non-cardia cancer cases, and for intestinal and diffuse types. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that EBV may play a role in GC etiology, and highlight the importance of evaluating specific antibodies and the dose-response relations when studying widespread infections.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234427

RESUMO

Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60-2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99-1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26-1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oxirredução , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between dietary fat and fat subtype and breast cancer development. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study with 1181 cases of incident breast cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2012, and 1682 population controls frequency matched (by age, sex, and region) from the Spanish multicenter case-control study MCC-Spain. RESULTS: We found a significant protective effect in premenopausal women of total fat intake [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.31-0.86) highest versus lowest tertile], but no effect was observed in menopausal women [OR 1.15 95% CI (0.83-1.60)]. Analyzing by type of fat, this protective effect persisted only for the monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.32-0.82)]. In contrast, other fatty acids did not have a significant effect. In addition, a protection against risk of breast cancer was found when polyunsaturated fats were "substituted" by monounsaturated, maintaining the same total fat intake [OR 0.68 95% CI (0.47-0.99)]. Finally, analyzing by breast cancer subtype, we found no effect, except in premenopausal women where intake of moderate [OR 0.52 95% CI (0.33-0.82)] and high monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.47 95% CI (0.27-0.82)] maintains a protective effect against ER/PR + tumors. In contrast, in menopausal women, a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with higher risk of HER2 + tumors [OR 2.00 95% CI (0.97-4.13)]. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a differential effect of monounsaturated fatty acids according to menopausal status and breast cancer subtype.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813581

RESUMO

There are many different methods used to measure the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD), limiting comparison and interpretation of their results. The concordance between different methodologies has been questioned and their evaluation recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement among five indexes that measure adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The study population included healthy adults selected in the Multi-Case Control Spain (MCC-Spain) study recruited in 12 provinces. A total of 3640 controls were matched to cases by age and sex. To reach the aim, the following scores of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern were calculated: Mediterranean diet score (MDS), alternative Mediterranean diet (aMED), relative Mediterranean diet (rMED), dietary score (DS) and literature-based adherence score (LBAS). The relative frequency of subjects with a high level of adherence to a MD varied from 22% (aMED index) to 37.2% (DS index). Similarly, a high variability was observed for the prevalence of a low level of MD: from 24% (rMED) to 38.4% (aMED). The correlation among MDS, aMED and rMED indexes was moderate, except for MDS and aMED with a high coefficient of correlation 0.75 (95% CI 0.74⁻0.77). The Cohen's Kappa coefficient among indexes showed a moderate⁻fair concordance, except for MDS and aMED with a 0.56 (95% CI 0.55⁻0.59) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.66⁻0.68) using linear and quadratic weighting, respectively. The existing MD adherence indexes measured the same, although they were based on different constructing algorithms and varied in the food groups included, leading to a different classification of subjects. Therefore, concordance between these indexes was moderate or low.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 31(5): 593-598, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is more frequent among men, though the magnitude of the association might be inaccurate due to potential misclassification of lifetime infection and publication bias. Moreover, infection is common, and most studies are cross-sectional. Thus, prevalence ratios (PRs) may be easier to interpret than odds ratios (ORs). AIM: The aim of this study was to quantify the association between sex and H. pylori infection using controls from 14 studies from the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: H. pylori infection was defined based on IgG serum antibody titers or multiplex serology. Participants were also classified as infected if gastric atrophy was present, based on histological examination or serum pepsinogen (PG) levels (PG I≤70 and PG I/II ratio≤3). Summary ORs and PRs, adjusted for age, social class and smoking, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated through random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Men had significantly higher OR (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.70) and PR (PR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10) of infection, with stronger associations among hospital-based or older controls. Results were similar when considering the presence of gastric atrophy to define infection status, particularly among participants older than 65 years. CONCLUSION: This collaborative pooled-analysis supports an independent effect of sex on the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while minimizing misclassification of lifetime infection status and publication bias.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Atrofia , Feminino , Gastrite Atrófica/diagnóstico , Gastrite Atrófica/epidemiologia , Gastrite Atrófica/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4264, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862942

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in terms of fracture probability and disability. The aim of this ecological study is to identify the temporal trends in osteoporosis mortality in Spain from 1999 to 2015. Data on the Spanish population and number of deaths due to osteoporosis were obtained from the Spanish National Institute for Statistics. Age-adjusted mortality rates were estimated. Join point regression was used to identify the years when changes in mortality s and annual percentage change in mortality rates took place. Women presented a greater mortality rate decrease (p < 0.001), though this mortality difference by sex was reduced by half at the end of the period. The higher the age, the faster the mortality rate declined in women, while no clear pattern could be identified in men. In women, significant changes in trends were identified in three age groups (50-54, 60-64 and 80-84 years old). A sustained decrease in osteoporosis-associated mortality was found in women aged 75-79 and ≥85 years and men aged 60-64. In conclusion, mortality caused by osteoporosis in Spain is decreasing faster in the older age ranges especially in women.

13.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(4): 294-303, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489354

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) chronic infection causes severe digestive diseases, including gastric cancer, and certain strains entail a higher risk. Risk factors for this infection are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to describe the association of adult and childhood sociodemographic factors with the seroprevalence of H. pylori, and with CagA and VacA antigen-specific seropositivity among H. pylori-seropositive individuals in the Spanish adult population. Serum antibody reactivity to H. pylori proteins was evaluated using multiplex serology in 2555 population-based controls enrolled in the MCC-Spain study, a multicase-control study recruiting participants from 2008 to 2013 in different areas of Spain. H. pylori seroprevalence was defined as seropositivity against at least four bacterial proteins. Information on sociodemographics, lifestyles, and environmental exposures was collected through personal interviews. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models to assess the association of lifetime sociodemographic factors with H. pylori seroprevalence and with seropositivity for CagA and VacA. H. pylori seroprevalence was 87.2%. Seropositivity was statistically significantly higher in men, increased with age, BMI, and number of siblings, and decreased with education and socioeconomic family level at birth. Among H. pylori-seropositive individuals, seropositivity was 53.3% for CagA, 61.4% for VacA, and 38.8% for both CagA and VacA. Ever smokers had lower seroprevalence for CagA and VacA than never smokers. H. pylori seroprevalence among this Spanish adult population was high and one third of the population was seropositive for two well-known markers of gastric cancer risk: CagA and VacA. Sex, age, education, and BMI were associated with H. pylori seroprevalence.

14.
Environ Int ; 122: 389-399, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alkylphenolic compounds are chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties that have been widely used in industry with important changes in their usage over time. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effect of alkylphenolic compounds on human health. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds is associated with breast and prostate cancer. METHODS: We carried out a population-based case-control study including 1513 incident cases of breast cancer, 1095 of prostate cancer, and 3055 controls, frequency matched by sex, age and region. Occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds was estimated using a recently developed job-exposure matrix, which considered different scenarios of exposure and different subtypes of alkylphenolic compounds. RESULTS: History of occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds was modestly associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.48). Within the different scenarios, the occupational use of domestic tensioactives was positively associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02-1.60), while occupational exposure in other scenarios showed mostly a suggestion of a similar positive associations. Exposure to nonylphenol ethoxylates was positively associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00-1.47), while exposure to other compounds was uncommon. In general, we did not observe associations between alkylphenolic compounds and prostate cancer, except for a positive association among men occupationally exposed to cosmetic, hair and personal hygiene products. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a modest association between breast cancer risk and occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds, and no associations between these compounds and prostate cancer risk. These findings warrant further corroboration in other studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Fenóis/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(4): 1495-1505, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess if the associations found between three previously identified dietary patterns with breast, prostate and gastric cancer are also observed for colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that collected information of 1629 incident cases of CRC and 3509 population-based controls from 11 Spanish provinces. Western, Prudent and Mediterranean data-driven dietary patterns-derived in another Spanish case-control study-were reconstructed in MCC-Spain. Their association with CRC was assessed using mixed multivariable logistic regression models considering a possible interaction with sex. Risk by tumor site (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) was evaluated using multinomial regression models. RESULTS: While no effect of the Prudent pattern on CRC risk was observed, a high adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with increased CRC risk for both males [ORfourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 1.45 (1.11;1.91)] and females [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.07;2.09)] but seem to be confined to distal colon [ORfourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 2.02 (1.44;2.84)] and rectal [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.46 (1.05;2.01)] tumors. The protective effect of the Mediterranean dietary pattern against CRC was observed for both sexes [males: ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.71 (0.55;0.92); females: ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.56 (0.40;0.77)] and for all cancer sites: proximal colon [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.51;0.97)], distal colon [ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.65 (0.48;0.89)], and rectum (ORQ4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.60 (0.45;0.81)]. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with most of the associations previously found between these patterns and breast, prostate and gastric cancer risk and indicate that consuming whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish and avoiding red and processed meat, refined grains, sweets, caloric drinks, juices, convenience food, and sauces might reduce CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(6): 2229-2242, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies attempting to link dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant activity (NEAC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have reported mixed results. We examined this association in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study considering the likely influence of coffee and other dietary factors. METHODS: 1718 CRC cases and 3312 matched-controls provided information about diet through a validated 140-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary NEAC was estimated for three methods [total radical-trapping antioxidant parameters (TRAP), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and TEAC-ABTS] using published values of NEAC content in food, with and without coffee's NEAC. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated through unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary factors. RESULTS: Overall dietary intake of NEAC was significantly lower in cases compared to controls and associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk, in both men (ORQ5vsQ1 = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96 for FRAP) and women (ORQ5vsQ1 = 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-085 for FRAP), in multivariate models with and without the antioxidant contribution from coffee. The effect was similar for all the NEAC methods evaluated and for both colon and rectum. The association between dietary NEAC and CRC risk became non-significant when adjusting for fiber intake. However, intakes of NEAC and fiber were correlated. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that intake of an antioxidant-rich plant-based diet, both with and without NEAC from coffee, is associated with decreased CRC risk.

17.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 428-434, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association of colorectal cancer with environmental solar radiation and sun exposure behavior, considering phenotypic variables (eye color, hair color and skin phenotype), dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and socio-demographic factors. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter population-based frequency matched case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain), with 2140 CRC cases and 3950 controls. METHODS: Data were obtained through personal interviews using a structured epidemiological questionnaire that included socio-demographic data, residential history, environmental exposures, behavior, phenotypic and dietary information. An environmental-lifetime sun exposure score was constructed combining residential history and average daily solar radiation, direct and diffuse. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between different variables. A structural equation model was used to verify the associations of the conceptual model. RESULTS: We found a lower risk of CRC in subjects frequently exposed to sunlight during the previous summer and skin burning due to sun exposure. No association was observed in relation to the residential solar radiation scores. Subjects with light eye or light hair colors had a lower risk of CRC that those with darker colors. Dietary calcium and vitamin D were also protective factors, but not in the multivariate model. The structural equation model analysis suggested that higher sun exposure was associated with a decreased risk of CRC, as well as dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, and these factors are correlated among themselves and with environmental solar radiation and skin phenotypes. CONCLUSION: The results agree with previous observations that sun exposure, dietary vitamin D and calcium intake, and serum 25(OH)D concentration reduce the risk of CRC and indicate that these factors may be relevant for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/análise , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1134, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used despite their risk of gastrointestinal bleeding or cardiovascular events. We report the profile of people taking NSAIDs in Spain, and we include demographic factors, health-related behaviours and cardiovascular disease history. METHODS: Four thousand sixtyparticipants were selected using a pseudorandom number list from Family Practice lists in 12 Spanish provinces. They completed a face-to-face computerized interview on their NSAID consumption, demographic characteristics, body mass index, alcohol and tobacco consumption and medical history. In addition, participants completed a self-administered food-frequency and alcohol consumption questionnaire. Factors associated with ever and current NSAID consumption were identified by logistic regression. RESULTS: Women consumed more non-aspirin NSAIDs (38.8% [36.7-41.0]) than men (22.3 [20.5-24.2]), but men consumed more aspirin (11.7% [10.3-13.2]) than women (5.2% [4.3-6.3]). Consumption of non-aspirin NSAIDs decrease with age from 44.2% (39.4-49.1) in younger than 45 to 21.1% (18.3-24.2) in older than 75, but the age-pattern for aspirin usage was the opposite. Aspirin was reported by about 11% patients, as being twice as used in men (11.7%) than in women (5.2%); its consumption increased with age from 1.7% (< 45 years old) to 12.4% (≥75 years old). Aspirin was strongly associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors or established cardiovascular disease, reaching odds ratios of 15.2 (7.4-31.2) in women with acute coronary syndrome, 13.3 (6.2-28.3) in women with strokes and 11.1 (7.8-15.9) in men with acute coronary syndrome. Participants with cardiovascular risk factors or diseases consumed as much non-aspirin NSAID as participants without such conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Non-aspirin NSAIDs were more consumed by women and aspirin by men. The age patterns of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAIDs were opposite: the higher the age, the lower the non-aspirin NSAIDs usage and the higher the aspirin consumption. People with cardiovascular risk factors or diseases consumed more aspirin, but they did not decrease their non-aspirin NSAIDs usage.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201750, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Phototype has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, and it is yet unknown if it is related to other hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer or whether this association could be considered causal. METHODS: We examined the association between the phototype and breast and prostate cancers using a Mendelian randomization analysis. We studied 1,738 incident cases of breast cancer and another 817 cases of prostate cancer. To perform a Mendelian randomization analysis on the phototype-cancer relationship, a genetic pigmentation score was required that met the following criteria: (1) the genetic pigmentation score was associated with phototype in controls; (2) the genetic pigmentation score was not associated with confounders in the relationship between phototype and cancer, and (3) the genetic pigmentation score was associated with cancer only through its association with phototype. Once this genetic score is available, the association between genetic pigmentation score and cancer can be identified as the association between phototype and cancer. RESULTS: The association between the genetic pigmentation score and phototype in controls showed that a higher genetic pigmentation score was associated with fair skin, blond hair, blue eyes and the presence of freckles. Applying the Mendelian randomization analysis, we verified that there was no association between the genetic pigmentation score and cancers of the breast and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: Phototype is not associated with breast or prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(8): 1097-1106, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer mortality among women. Green spaces have been recently associated with reduced cancer mortality among women. Mechanisms explaining the beneficial effect of green spaces include increased levels of physical activity and reduced exposure to air pollution, which have been both associated with cancer development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between presence of urban green areas, presence of agricultural areas and surrounding greenness and risk of breast cancer, and to assess whether these associations are mediated by physical activity and/or air pollution levels. METHODS: We geocoded the current residence of 1129 breast cancer cases and 1619 controls recruited between 2008 and 2013 in ten provinces of Spain, as part of the MCC-Spain study. We assigned different indicators of exposure to green spaces in a buffer of 300 m, and in nested buffers of 100 m and 500 m around the residence: presence of urban green areas according to Urban Atlas, presence of agricultural areas according to CORINE Land Cover 2006, and surrounding greenness according to the average of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We used logistic mixed-effects regression models with a random effect for hospital adjusting for potential confounders. We explored the effect of several potential effect modifiers. We assessed mediation effect by physical activity and levels of air pollution. RESULTS: Presence of urban green areas was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer after adjusting for age, socio-economic status at individual and at area level, education, and number of children [OR (95%CI) = 0.65 (0.49-0.86)]. There was evidence of a linear trend between distance to urban green areas and risk of breast cancer. On the contrary, presence of agricultural areas and surrounding greenness were associated with increased risk of breast cancer [adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.33 (1.07-1.65) and adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.27 (0.92-1.77), respectively]. None of the associations observed were mediated by levels of physical activity or levels or air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: The association between green spaces and risk of breast cancer is dependent on land-use. The confirmation of these results in other settings and the study of potential mechanisms for the associations observed are needed to advance the understanding on the potential effects of green spaces on health.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Agricultura , Poluição do Ar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exercício , Feminino , Florestas , Jardins , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
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