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1.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101940, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201924

RESUMO

We performed the first host-parasite survey of the Philippine crocodile, Crocodylus mindorensis, a critically endangered species for which ecological information is lacking. We collected by gastric lavage samples of the stomach contents of crocodiles (n = 10) residing at the Palawan Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Center in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines. The only parasite detected was an acanthocephalan, which was identified as Neorhadinorhynchus nudus (n = 68), a parasite typically found in the marine fish species consumed by three crocodile individuals. Given the known hosts of N. nudus, its parasitism of C. mindorensis in captivity is likely established by consumption of marine fish. Our findings have implications for the conservation management of C. mindorensis, particularly in terms of preventing introduction of parasites that could lead to development of infectious disease or alter the fitness of captive animals.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Jacarés e Crocodilos/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Filipinas
2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 129: 349-353, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28433248

RESUMO

In our recent publication (Sharma et al., 2017), we tested the hypothesis that eggs attached to the legs of male Podoctidae (Opiliones, Laniatores) constituted a case of paternal care, using molecular sequence data in tandem with multiple sequence alignments to test the prediction that sequences of the eggs and the adults that carried them would indicate conspecific identity. We discovered that the sequences of the eggs belonged to spiders, and thus rejected the paternal care hypothesis for these species. Machado and Wolff (2017) recently critiqued our work, which they regarded as a non-critical interpretation and over-reliance on molecular sequence data, and defended the traditional argument that the eggs attached to podoctids are in fact harvestman eggs. Here we show that additional molecular sequence data also refute the identity of the eggs as conspecific harvestman eggs, using molecular cloning techniques to rule out contamination. We show that individual gene trees consistently and reliably place the egg and adult sequences in disparate parts of the tree topology. Phylogenetic methods consistently place all egg sequences within the order Araneae (spiders). We submit that evidence for the paternal care hypothesis based on behavioral, morphological, and natural history approaches is either absent or insufficient for concluding that the eggs of podoctids are conspecific.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos , Filogenia , Animais , Masculino , Alinhamento de Sequência , Aranhas/genética
3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 106: 164-173, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27664345

RESUMO

The taxonomy and systematics of the armored harvestmen (suborder Laniatores) are based on various sets of morphological characters pertaining to shape, armature, pedipalpal setation, and the number of articles of the walking leg tarsi. Few studies have tested the validity of these historical character systems in a comprehensive way, with reference to an independent data class, i.e., molecular sequence data. We examined as a test case the systematics of Podoctidae, a family distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific. We tested the validity of the three subfamilies of Podoctidae using a five-locus phylogeny, and examined the evolution of dorsal shape as a proxy for taxonomic utility, using parametric shape analysis. Here we show that two of the three subfamilies, Ibaloniinae and Podoctinae, are non-monophyletic, with the third subfamily, Erecananinae, recovered as non-monophyletic in a subset of analyses. Various genera were also recovered as non-monophyletic. As first steps toward revision of Podoctidae, the subfamilies Erecananinae Roewer, 1912 and Ibaloniinae Roewer, 1912 are synonymized with Podoctinae Roewer, 1912 new synonymies, thereby abolishing unsubstantiated subfamilial divisions within Podoctidae. We once again synonymize the genus Paralomanius Goodnight & Goodnight, 1948 with Lomanius Roewer, 1923 revalidated. We additionally show that eggs carried on the legs of male Podoctidae are not conspecific to the males, falsifying the hypothesis of paternal care in this group.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos/classificação , Animais , Aracnídeos/anatomia & histologia , Aracnídeos/genética , Aracnídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Teorema de Bayes , Citocromos c/classificação , Citocromos c/genética , Citocromos c/metabolismo , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Masculino , Óvulo/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Zookeys ; (624): 1-132, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27833422

RESUMO

We summarize all available amphibian and reptile species distribution data from the northeast Mindanao faunal region, including small islands associated with this subcenter of endemic vertebrate biodiversity. Together with all publicly available historical information from biodiversity repositories, we present new data from several major herpetological surveys, including recently conducted inventories on four major mountains of northeast Mindanao, and adjacent islands of Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, and Siargao. We present species accounts for all taxa, comment on unresolved taxonomic problems, and provide revisions to outdated IUCN conservation status assessments in cases where our new data significantly alter earlier classification status summaries. Together, our comprehensive analysis of this fauna suggests that the greater Mindanao faunal region possesses distinct subcenters of amphibian and reptile species diversity, and that until this area is revisited and its fauna and actually studied, with on-the-ground field work including targeted surveys of species distributions coupled to the study their natural history, our understanding of the diversity and conservation status of southern Philippine herpetological fauna will remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the northeast Mindanao geographical area (Caraga Region) appears to have the highest herpetological species diversity (at least 126 species) of any comparably-sized Philippine faunal subregion.

5.
Zootaxa ; 4139(2): 248-60, 2016 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27470802

RESUMO

We describe a new species of lizard in the genus Pseudogekko from Sibuyan and Tablas islands in the Romblon Island Group of the central Philippines. The new species is diagnosed from other Philippine Pseudogekko by body size and shape, color pattern, and multiple differences in scale characteristics. Pseudogekko isapa sp. nov. has been collected only twice from leaves of shrubs in forested habitat on Sibuyan and Tablas islands. The distinctive new species of false gecko is undoubtedly endemic to this single, isolated island group. The fact that populations of such a distinctive new species of Pseudogekko has escaped notice of herpetologists on the reasonably well-studied and largely protected Sibuyan Island further emphasizes the secretive and forest-dependent habits of Philippine false geckos. These characteristics of their behavior and natural history render them difficult to study and challenge biologists' efforts to accurately assess their conservation status.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Ilhas , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filipinas
6.
Zootaxa ; 4132(1): 15-29, 2016 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395649

RESUMO

We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Lagartos/fisiologia , Masculino , Filipinas , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 94(Pt B): 531-536, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26477738

RESUMO

Recent higher-level frog phylogenetic analyses have included a few members of the endemic Philippine frog genus Sanguirana. Although the monophyly of the group has never been disputed, the recent phylogenetically-supported inclusion of the Palawan Wood Frog (Sanguirana sanguinea) in this clade was highly unexpected. In addition, species boundaries and relationships remain unclear and new species continue to be discovered. We estimate the phylogeny for this endemic Philippine genus using two mitochondrial gene regions and six nuclear loci and complete sampling for all known species. We use a time-calibrated Bayesian estimate of phylogeny and model-testing approach to biogeographic inference to infer ancestral areas and probable means of diversification. These analyses identify Sanguirana as an additional clade for which the 'Out-of-Palawan' biogeographic scenario is unambiguously preferred. This study lends additional support to recent work suggesting that a substantial portion of Philippine vertebrate megadiversity originated via colonization of the archipelago from the Palawan microcontinent, with subsequent invasion of oceanic islands (e.g., range expansion over Huxley's Modification of Wallace's Line), numerous instances of overwater dispersal, and geographic radiation across the archipelago.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Animais , Anuros/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Genes Mitocondriais , Ilhas , Filipinas , Filogenia , Ranidae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Zootaxa ; 4020(2): 357-74, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624104

RESUMO

Recent investigations into the species diversity of false geckos (genus Pseudogekko Taylor) have revealed several cryptic species, highlighting the need for a more thorough understanding of diversity within this enigmatic genus of endemic Philippine geckos. Newly available genetic data reveal that two of the four currently recognized species are complexes of multiple deeply divergent evolutionary lineages. In this paper we evaluate species diversity in one of these complexes, P. brevipes Boettger, and describe one additional new species. For nearly a century, P. brevipes has been recognized as a single, "widespread" species with a geographic range spanning two major faunal regions and several island groups. Poor understanding of this species has persisted due to both limited sampling and its apparent rarity. We evaluate both morphological and genetic data to define species limits in P. brevipes, and find character-based evidence to justify the recognition of two unique evolutionary lineages, one of which we describe as a new species (P. atiorum sp. nov.). The species included in this study have allopatric distributions and differ from congeners by numerous diagnostic characters of external morphology, and therefore should be recognized as full species in accordance with lineage-based species concepts. This newly described species increases the total number of species of Pseudogekko to seven.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filipinas , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4048(2): 191-210, 2015 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624745

RESUMO

We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filipinas
10.
Zootaxa ; 3847(3): 388-412, 2014 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25112346

RESUMO

We review the recent discovery of multiple populations of the enigmatic, semi-aquatic Sphenomorphus Group skink, Parvoscincus leucospilos Peters, and investigate the morphological and genetic diversity of isolated, allopatric populations of this unique skink. Our investigations support the recognition of four unique evolutionary lineages distributed across Luzon Island in the Philippines, three of which are herein described as new species (P. tikbalangi sp. nov., P. manananggalae sp. nov., and P. duwendorum sp. nov.). All four recognized species are genetically divergent in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, and morphologically distinct. The description of three new Luzon Island endemic species adds to the growing body of literature suggesting that mechanisms driving the accumulation of vertebrate diversity in the Philippines may vary regionally across the archipelago. 


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/classificação , Gryllidae/classificação , Lagartos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Variação Genética , Gafanhotos/anatomia & histologia , Gafanhotos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gryllidae/anatomia & histologia , Gryllidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
11.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104340, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25136854

RESUMO

Establishment of conservation priorities for primates is a particular concern in the island archipelagos of Southeast Asia, where rates of habitat destruction are among the highest in the world. Conservation programs require knowledge of taxonomic diversity to ensure success. The Philippine tarsier is a flagship species that promotes environmental awareness and a thriving ecotourism economy in the Philippines. However, assessment of its conservation status has been impeded by taxonomic uncertainty, a paucity of field studies, and a lack of vouchered specimens and genetic samples available for study in biodiversity repositories. Consequently, conservation priorities are unclear. In this study we use mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action. The distribution of Philippine tarsier genetic diversity is neither congruent with expectations based on biogeographical patterns documented in other Philippine vertebrates, nor does it agree with the most recent Philippine tarsier taxonomic arrangement. We identify three principal evolutionary lineages that do not correspond to the currently recognized subspecies, highlight the discovery of a novel cryptic and range-restricted subcenter of genetic variation in an unanticipated part of the archipelago, and identify additional geographically structured genetic variation that should be the focus of future studies and conservation action. Conservation of this flagship species necessitates establishment of protected areas and targeted conservation programs within the range of each genetically distinct variant of the Philippine tarsier.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Tarsiidae/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/química , Núcleo Celular/genética , Ecossistema , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Especiação Genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filipinas , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tarsiidae/classificação
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 72: 35-41, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24389467

RESUMO

Widespread, co-distributed species with limited relative dispersal abilities represent compelling focal taxa for comparative phylogeography. Forest vertebrates in island archipelagos often exhibit pronounced population structure resulting from limited dispersal abilities or capacity to overcome marine barriers to dispersal. The exceptionally diverse Old World tree frogs of the family Rhacophoridae have colonized the forested island archipelagos of Southeast Asia on multiple occasions, entering the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines via a "stepping stone" mode of dispersal along elongate island chains, separated by a series of marine channels. Here we evaluate the prediction that two tightly co-distributed Philippine rhacophorids colonized the archipelago during concomitant timescales and in the same, linear, "island-hopping" progression. We use a new multilocus dataset, utilize dense genetic sampling from the eastern arc of the Philippines, and we take a model-based phylogeographic approach to examining the two species for similar topological patterns of diversification, genetic structure, and timescales of diversification. Our results support some common mechanistic predictions (a general south-to-north polarity of colonization) but not others (timescale for colonization and manner and degree of lineage diversification), suggesting differing biogeographic scenarios of geographical diffusion through the archipelago and unique and idiosyncratic ecological capacities and evolutionary histories of each species.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Animais , Ecossistema , Filipinas , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Evolution ; 67(12): 3556-72, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24299408

RESUMO

An accurate understanding of species diversity is essential to studies across a wide range of biological subdisciplines. However, delimiting species remains challenging in evolutionary radiations where morphological diversification is rapid and accompanied by little genetic differentiation or when genetic lineage divergence is not accompanied by morphological change. We investigate the utility of a variety of recently developed approaches to examine genetic and morphological diversity, and delimit species in a morphologically conserved group of Southeast Asian lizards. We find that species diversity is vastly underestimated in this unique evolutionary radiation, and find an extreme case where extensive genetic divergence among lineages has been accompanied by little to no differentiation in external morphology. Although we note that different conclusions can be drawn when species are delimited using molecular phylogenetics, coalescent-based methods, or morphological data, it is clear that the use of a pluralistic approach leads to a more comprehensive appraisal of biodiversity, and greater appreciation for processes of diversification in this biologically important geographic region. Similarly, our approach demonstrates how recently developed methodologies can be used to obtain robust estimates of species limits in "nonadaptive" or "cryptic" evolutionary radiations.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Lagartos/genética , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Variação Genética , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
14.
Evolution ; 67(9): 2631-46, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24033172

RESUMO

Living amphibians exhibit a diversity of ecologies, life histories, and species-rich lineages that offers opportunities for studies of adaptive radiation. We characterize a diverse clade of frogs (Kaloula, Microhylidae) in the Philippine island archipelago as an example of an adaptive radiation into three primary habitat specialists or ecotypes. We use a novel phylogenetic estimate for this clade to evaluate the tempo of lineage accumulation and morphological diversification. Because species-level phylogenetic estimates for Philippine Kaloula are lacking, we employ dense population sampling to determine the appropriate evolutionary lineages for diversification analyses. We explicitly take phylogenetic uncertainty into account when calculating diversification and disparification statistics and fitting models of diversification. Following dispersal to the Philippines from Southeast Asia, Kaloula radiated rapidly into several well-supported clades. Morphological variation within Kaloula is partly explained by ecotype and accumulated at high levels during this radiation, including within ecotypes. We pinpoint an axis of morphospace related directly to climbing and digging behaviors and find patterns of phenotypic evolution suggestive of ecological opportunity with partitioning into distinct habitat specialists. We conclude by discussing the components of phenotypic diversity that are likely important in amphibian adaptive radiations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Anuros/genética , Ecótipo , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/classificação , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filipinas , Filogenia , Filogeografia , População/genética
15.
Zookeys ; (266): 1-120, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23653519

RESUMO

We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

16.
PLoS One ; 6(8): e23179, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21887238

RESUMO

The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36° latitude, 111° longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Geografia , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 61(2): 333-50, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21757017

RESUMO

We investigated phylogeography of Philippine slender toads (genus Ansonia) and used a temporal framework for diversification, statistical tests of alternate topologies, and Bayesian approaches to test previous hypotheses concerning dispersal to, and colonization routes within, the southern Philippine island of Mindanao. Two species of Ansonia previously have been documented, with ranges separated by an east-west split corresponding to the approximate boundaries of Mindanao's paleoisland precursors. We present new mtDNA sequence data (1946 bp from genes encoding ND1, 16S rRNA and tRNALeu) for 105 Ansonia specimens sampled from 20 localities on Mindanao Island. Our data suggest that Philippine Ansonia is composed of at least eight, well-supported population lineages, structured into a minimum of four highly divergent mtDNA clades. One clade corresponds to Ansonia mcgregori, a range-restricted species apparently limited to the distal portion of the Zamboanga Peninsula of western Mindanao. Two morphologically indistinguishable, but genetically divergent, lineages possibly are undescribed cryptic species from western Mindanao. We recognize the five remaining lineages as Ansonia muelleri pending data from morphology or bioacoustics that might diagnose separate species among these lineages. Regardless of their species status, the five allopatric lineages of A. muelleri should be viewed as important genetic units for future genetic conservation planning.


Assuntos
Bufonidae/genética , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Bufonidae/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional , Funções Verossimilhança , Filipinas , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 59(1): 53-65, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21255665

RESUMO

The spectacular, virtually endemic radiation of Philippine semi-fossorial skinks of the genus Brachymeles represent one of the few radiations of scincid lizards to possess both fully limbed and limbless species. And yet, nothing is known of the phylogenetic relationships of this exceptional group. Morphologically similar body plans have made it difficult to assess species-level diversity, and the genus has long been recognized as one of the more modest radiations of southeast Asian lizards. However, recent large-scale survey efforts have resulted in the discovery of numerous new species, and taxonomic studies indicate that the diversity within the genus Brachymeles is grossly underestimated. In this study we provide the first robust estimate of phylogenetic relationships within the genus Brachymeles using a multi-locus dataset and nearly complete taxonomic sampling. We provide statistical tests of monophyly for all polytypic species and two widespread limb-reduced species and our results indicate wholesale deviations from past summaries and taxonomic evaluations of the genus. With few exceptions, we are able to reject the monophyly of all polytypic and widespread species, thereby validating the need for large-scale taxonomic revisions. Our results reveal that the limbless, monotypic, genus Davewakeum is nested within Brachymeles. Mapping of body form on our preferred phylogenetic tree suggests that limb-reduction and digit loss has occurred on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. A Bayesian reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates strong statistical support for a minimum of five major dispersal events that have given rise to a major component of the observed species diversity on separate Pleistocene aggregate island platforms of the archipelago.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Lagartos/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Genes Mitocondriais , Geografia , Lagartos/classificação , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filipinas , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
PLoS One ; 5(8): e12090, 2010 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20711504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complex history of Southeast Asian islands has long been of interest to biogeographers. Dispersal and vicariance events in the Pleistocene have received the most attention, though recent studies suggest a potentially more ancient history to components of the terrestrial fauna. Among this fauna is the enigmatic archaeobatrachian frog genus Barbourula, which only occurs on the islands of Borneo and Palawan. We utilize this lineage to gain unique insight into the temporal history of lineage diversification in Southeast Asian islands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data, multiple fossil calibration points, and likelihood and Bayesian methods, we estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times for Barbourula. We determine the sensitivity of focal divergence times to specific calibration points by jackknife approach in which each calibration point is excluded from analysis. We find that relevant divergence time estimates are robust to the exclusion of specific calibration points. Barbourula is recovered as a monophyletic lineage nested within a monophyletic Costata. Barbourula diverged from its sister taxon Bombina in the Paleogene and the two species of Barbourula diverged in the Late Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The divergences within Barbourula and between it and Bombina are surprisingly old and represent the oldest estimates for a cladogenetic event resulting in living taxa endemic to Southeast Asian islands. Moreover, these divergence time estimates are consistent with a new biogeographic scenario: the Palawan Ark Hypothesis. We suggest that components of Palawan's terrestrial fauna might have "rafted" on emergent portions of the North Palawan Block during its migration from the Asian mainland to its present-day position near Borneo. Further, dispersal from Palawan to Borneo (rather than Borneo to Palawan) may explain the current day disjunct distribution of this ancient lineage.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Animais , Ásia , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 57(2): 598-619, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20601009

RESUMO

Southeast Asia's widespread species offer unique opportunities to explore the effects of geographical barriers to dispersal on patterns of vertebrate lineage diversification. We analyzed mitochondrial gene sequences (16S rDNA) from a geographically widespread sample of 266 Southeast Asian tree frogs, including 244 individuals of Polypedates leucomystax and its close relatives. Our expectation was that lineages on island archipelagos would exhibit more substantial geographic structure, corresponding to the geological history of terrestrial connectivity in this region, compared to the Asian mainland. Contrary to predictions, we found evidence of numerous highly divergent lineages from a limited area on the Asian mainland, but fewer lineages with shallower divergences throughout oceanic islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. Surprisingly and in numerous instances, lineages in the archipelagos span distinct biogeographical provinces. Phylogeographic analyses identified four major haplotype clades; summary statistics, mismatch distributions, and Bayesian coalescent inference of demography provide support for recent range expansion, population growth, and/or admixture in the Philippine and some Sulawesi populations. We speculate that the current range of P. leucomystax in Southeast Asia is much larger now than in the recent past. Conversion of forested areas to monoculture agriculture and transportation of agricultural products between islands may have facilitated unprecedented population and range expansion in P. leucomystax throughout thousands of islands in the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , Filogeografia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Indonésia , Filipinas
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