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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 8, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse health outcomes are higher among Maasai children in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area compared to other co-located ethnic groups and regions of Tanzania. The Mama Kwanza Socioeconomic Health Initiative, a Canadian-Tanzanian partnership delivering healthcare at clinics in this region, gathered perceptions of mothers regarding breastfeeding and infant nutrition in order to inform culturally sensitive, realistic, and effective health promotion efforts. METHODS: A qualitative description approach was used in interviewing 30 Maasai mothers of infants zero to six months of age to explore their infant feeding practices, beliefs, knowledge, and recommendations to support breastfeeding. A local research team was trained to conduct and transcribe the interviews and assist with data interpretation. Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the interview transcripts. RESULTS: Lactation is universal in this culture with all the mothers planning to breastfeed for at least one year and most having initiated breastfeeding within one hour of birth. Lactation skills and knowledge are passed down intergenerationally from the elder women. None of the infants less than six months were exclusively breastfed, with a variety of liquid and semi-solid supplements given. Mothers perceived their milk alone was nutritionally insufficient with maternal dietary deficiencies cited as a factor. CONCLUSIONS: While there is a strong breastfeeding culture among the Maasai in Ngorongoro, intersectoral efforts are required to provide culturally respectful health education on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and to ensure the maternal dietary adequacy required to achieve this goal. The findings reinforce the importance of international health projects adapting health promotion initiatives to local realities and beliefs in efforts to improve maternal child health.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Canadá , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Percepção , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 15(1)2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791310

RESUMO

Abstract Background:Nursing students face the challenge of developing a comprehensive understanding of the complex role of the registered nurse across various clinical settings. Frameworks such as the "ways of knowing", help students conceptualize and critically reflect upon important processes in their professional learning. However, the academic language used to describe frameworks can be challenging. PURPOSE: This manuscript has two purposes. First, to briefly describe the historical climate influencing the development of nursing as a discipline. Second, two clinical practicum scenarios in acute care and community-based care are explored with the application of Carper's four fundamental ways of knowing in nursing (empirical, aesthetic, self-knowledge, ethical), and Chinn and Kramer's fifth, emancipatory, knowing as foundational to developing reflexivity in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: These practical descriptions and concrete examples can assist students in incorporating the five ways of knowing into their reflective practice and thereby more fully develop their construct of nursing.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Ética em Enfermagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Enfermagem
3.
Nurse Educ Today ; 65: 102-107, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustaining and strengthening nurses 'contributions to public and population health in the 21st century depends in part on nursing education. Clearly articulated entry-to-practice competencies will contribute to the capacity of undergraduate nursing education programs to prepare graduates to promote local, national and global population health. OBJECTIVES: The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing created the Public Health Task Force to develop consensus on core, national entry-to-practice competencies in public health nursing for undergraduate nursing students and to support these competencies with corresponding online teaching strategies. DESIGN: Delphi approach. PARTICIPANTS: Nurses with public health experience in education and practice, and representatives from other public health professional organizations across Canada. METHOD: The three-phased competency development included: 1) an environmental scan; 2) an iterative process to draft competencies; and 3) a modified Delphi process to confirm the final competency framework using face to face consultations and a survey. The knowledge translation strategy involved soliciting submissions of teaching strategies for peer-review and subsequent inclusion in an interactive online resource. RESULTS: 242 public health educators and practitioners participated in the consensus consultation. The final document outlined five competency statements with 19 accompanying indicators. A total of 123 teaching strategies were submitted for the online resource, of which 50 were accepted as exemplary teaching strategies. CONCLUSION: This competency development process can provide guidance for the development of competencies in other countries, thus strengthening public health nursing education globally. The decision to intentionally level the competencies to entry-to-practice, as opposed to an advanced level, enhanced their application to undergraduate nursing education. The development of the additional inventory of teaching strategies created a sustainable innovative resource for public health nursing educators and practitioners world-wide to support the adoption of entry-to-practice public health nursing competencies.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Saúde Pública/educação , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Canadá , Competência Clínica/normas , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Técnica Delfos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/tendências , Humanos
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 773, 2015 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the approaching sunset on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Tanzania continues with its final national push towards achievement of MDG #4 and MDG #5. The Mama Kwanza Socio-economic Health Initiative (MKSHI) was introduced in the hope of contributing to improving maternal, newborn, and child health in Arusha and Ngorongoro. The MKSHI project is a holistic, inter-sectoral approach to maternal, newborn, and child health which aligns with the Government of Tanzania's Vision 2025. At the project onset, a baseline assessment was conducted to launch ongoing benchmarking, monitoring, and evaluation of the project's impacts and implications. The aim of this baseline assessment was twofold. First it was to determine the state of maternal, newborn, and child health in the two project sites. Second it was to ensure that a baseline of key indicators was established as well as identification of unique indicators relevant to the populations of interest. RESULTS: The baseline study was a mixed methods approach to identify maternal, newborn, and child risk factors and indicators in the two target sites. This paper focuses on the qualitative methods and findings. The qualitative component included a series of five community dialogue meetings and thirty-seven individual/dyad interviews with women, providers, and stakeholders. Initially, community meetings were held as open dialogues on maternal, newborn, and child health issues, opportunities, and preferred futures. Individual/dyad interviews were held with women, providers, and stakeholders who held unique information or experiences. Both community dialogue and interview data was analysed for themes and guiding or critical comments. Three over-arching findings emerged: What took you so long to come? How do we know what you know? and How will it change for our daughters? CONCLUSIONS: Participant voices are vital in ensuring the achievement of local and global efforts and preferred futures for maternal, newborn, and child health services. This study contributes to the inclusion of women in all aspects of the planning, implementation, and delivery of maternal, newborn, and child health services in the target areas and beyond.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nurse Educ Today ; 35(8): 941-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25846198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For over 15 years the College of Nursing at the University of Saskatchewan has facilitated study abroad clinical placements in a number of countries to enhance student learning. Nursing students often find their study abroad experience to be a defining moment in their educational program, and in their personal and professional growth. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this research was to explore factors influencing nursing students' decisions to study abroad. DESIGN: A descriptive longitudinal design study was conducted using an online survey. SETTINGS: The Study Abroad Survey was distributed to all undergraduate and graduate nursing students, in all years of all programs, at all sites of the College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan in Saskatchewan, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1058 nursing students registered in the 2013-2014 academic year were surveyed. METHODS: The data were collected using an online survey administered by Campus Labs™ (2014). RESULTS: Students indicated that their interest in study abroad international experiences was high (84%), with many perceived benefits, but barriers to participation were also high for these students. Financial barriers topped the list (71%), followed by family responsibilities (30%) and job obligations (23%). CONCLUSION: The research highlights the factors behind student decision making related to international placements, and provides the basis for improvements to the College of Nursing's International Study Abroad Program (ISAP). Previous travel and international service learning, resulting in increased perceived value of a study abroad experience may prove to be the more significant factor influencing decision making, rather than financial barrier.


Assuntos
Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional/economia , Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Saskatchewan , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int Breastfeed J ; 10: 10, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25788970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early breastfeeding cessation is common in many regions of the world despite high breastfeeding initiation rates and strong evidence of the health benefits to both mother and infant. This research investigated mothers' perceived breastfeeding information needs in order to increase our understanding of this phenomenon. METHODS: Surveys were distributed by public health nurses in a health region in Western Canada to mothers who had initiated breastfeeding and whose infants were six to eleven months old to learn more about their infant feeding experiences during the birth to six month period. Two open-ended survey questions asked: (1) What support or advice did you receive that helped you with feeding your baby?" and (2) "What support or information on feeding your baby would you have found helpful but did not receive?" A total of 191 eligible mothers submitted a survey (response rate 35%) between January and October 2012. Qualitative description was used in analyzing the responses of the women who provided comments for the open-ended questions. RESULTS: While many mothers felt their information needs were met, others outlined important content areas where more information and guidance was desired. These areas included milk supply management, frequency/duration of feeds, proper latch and feeding positions, nipple care, expression/pumping, other nutrition sources, and realistic information regarding common breastfeeding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that several of the information gaps highlighted by respondents in this study closely align with commonly cited reasons for breastfeeding cessation including perceived insufficient milk supply, latching difficulties and nipple discomfort. The findings emphasize the need for lactation support with systematic measures to ensure breastfeeding mothers are universally provided with information on these key content areas. Lactation supports should reinforce critical information and seek feedback to ascertain that mothers have clearly understood the information provided. Ensuring mothers receive and understand key breastfeeding information is a modifiable factor in efforts to increase breastfeeding duration rates.

7.
Glob Qual Nurs Res ; 2: 2333393615611654, 2015 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28462320

RESUMO

Breastfeeding is acknowledged as optimal infant nutrition, yet despite high initiation rates, early cessation remains common. To understand why, we asked mothers in Western Canada how they felt about their breastfeeding experience. A total of 191 women (response rate 35%) responded to a survey distributed by public health nurses. While many women felt positive about their overall breastfeeding experience, others shared mixed or negative emotions. Several themes were evident: (a) Most women reported a variety of positive aspects beyond the health benefits, (b) lactation difficulties were commonly reported, and (c) diversity among the reflections highlights the uniqueness of each breastfeeding journey. The findings reaffirm the need for breastfeeding programs to holistically promote the range of positive aspects while providing realistic information on common challenges and strategies to overcome these. Mothers require individualized support that assesses psychosocial and emotional needs and offers encouragement, reassurance, and acknowledgment of the range of experiences.

8.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 8: Article 23, 2011 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22718669

RESUMO

Rapidly increasing enrollment in Canadian schools of nursing has triggered the development of innovative clinical placement sites. There are both opportunities and challenges inherent in the delivery of clinical nursing education in diverse community settings. As part of the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing's (CASN) ongoing work to assist its members and ensure baccalaureate graduates are prepared to meet the Canadian Community Health Nursing Standards of Practice at an entry-to-practice level, the CASN Sub-Committee on Public Health (funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada) conducted extensive national consultations with representatives from both academic and practice settings, as well as key national organizations. The resultant Guidelines for Quality Community Health Nursing Clinical Placements, released by CASN in 2010, aim to provide direction to Canadian schools of nursing and practice settings in addressing the challenges and opportunities arising from the changing context of community health nursing student clinical placements.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/educação , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Guias como Assunto , Preceptoria/normas , Comitês Consultivos , Canadá , Participação da Comunidade , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas
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