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1.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Spanish National Hip Fracture Registry (Registro Nacional de Fracturas de Cadera or RNFC) is a Spanish, prospective, multi- centric registry, commenced in 2017. The goal of this paper is to present the data from the first annual report and to compare them with autonomic registries and recent prospective multi-centric studies performed in Spain. METHODS: We included persons 75 years or older treated for fragility hip fractures in any of the centers participating in the RNFC between January and October 2017. The descriptive statistics of each variable used the mean (and standard deviation) or the median (and interquartile ranges) for the ordinal variables and the percentage for the categoric variables. A descriptive analysis of the casemix was performed and compared with available data from the aforementioned studies. RESULTS: The RNFC included 7.208 patients from 54 hospitals, with a mean age of 86.7 (SD 5.6) years; 75.4% were women, and 36.4% showed cognitive decline. Mean surgical delay was 75.7 (SD 63.6) hours, and length of stay averaged 10.9 (SD 6.7) days. Of the patients who lived at home (75.4%), less than half (37.0%) returned home at discharge. One-month mortality was 7.1%. Comparison with other studies showed important differences, especially regarding patients newly sent to nursing homes (7.7-29.4%) and with antiosteoporotic treatment at discharge (14.5-36.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The RNFC is the largest prospective database to date that offers data regarding the characteristics of patients hospitalized for hip fractures in Spain. Comparison with recent studies showed some important differences.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596961

RESUMO

Aromatase inhibitors have been associated with accelerated bone loss and an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Currently, bisphosphonates are recommended to reduce fracture risk in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fracture risk in breast cancer patients receiving aromatase inhibitors, compared to tamoxifen users, and to assess the effectiveness of oral bisphosphonates in reducing fracture risk. We performed an observational cohort study up to 10 years of follow-up. Data were extracted from primary care records in a population database. Women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2006 and 2015 and treated with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (n = 36,472) were stratified according to low (without osteoporosis diagnosis nor bisphosphonates exposure) or high (with osteoporosis and/or treated with bisphosphonates) fracture risk. Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR [95% CI]) of fracture from the propensity score-matched patients. Sensitivity analyses account for competing risk of death were performed (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] [95% CI]). In postmenopausal women, fracture risk in aromatase inhibitor users showed an HR 1.40 [95% CI,1.05 to 1.87] and SHR 1.48 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.98], compared to tamoxifen. Observing aromatase inhibitors patients at high risk of fracture, bisphosphonate-treated patients had an HR 0.73 [95% CI, 0.51 to 1.04] and SHR 0.69 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.98] compared to nontreated. In conclusion, fracture risk in postmenopausal women during aromatase inhibitor treatment, in real-life conditions, was >40% compared to tamoxifen, corroborating previous randomized controlled trials results. In high-risk patients, bisphosphonate users had lower significant fracture incidence during aromatase inhibitor therapy than nonbisphosphonate users. Monitoring fracture risk and related risk factors in aromatase inhibitor patients is advisable. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

3.
Adv Ther ; 36(10): 2811-2824, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increased biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) measured in serum are associated with bone loss, increased fracture risk and poor treatment adherence, but their role in clinical practice is presently unclear. The aim of this consensus group report is to provide guidance to clinicians on how to use BTMs in patient evaluation in postmenopausal osteoporosis, in fracture risk prediction and in the monitoring of treatment efficacy and adherence to osteoporosis medication. METHODS: A working group with clinical scientists and osteoporosis specialists was invited by the Scientific Advisory Board of European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO). RESULTS: Serum bone formation marker PINP and resorption marker ßCTX-I are the preferred markers for evaluating bone turnover in the clinical setting due to their specificity to bone, performance in clinical studies, wide use and relatively low analytical variability. BTMs cannot be used to diagnose osteoporosis because of low sensitivity and specificity, but can be of value in patient evaluation where high values may indicate the need to investigate some causes of secondary osteoporosis. Assessing serum levels of ßCTX-I and PINP can improve fracture prediction slightly, with a gradient of risk of about 1.2 per SD increase in the bone marker in addition to clinical risk factors and bone mineral density. For an individual patient, BTMs are not useful in projecting bone loss or treatment efficacy, but it is recommended that serum PINP and ßCTX-I be used to monitor adherence to oral bisphosphonate treatment. Suppression of the BTMs greater than the least significant change or to levels in the lower half of the reference interval in young and healthy premenopausal women is closely related to treatment adherence. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the currently available evidence indicates that the principal clinical utility of BTMs is for monitoring oral bisphosphonate therapy.

4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(10): 1375-1389, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the available approaches for bone strength assessment, osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture risk prediction, and to provide insights into radiofrequency echographic multi spectrometry (REMS), a non-ionizing axial skeleton technique. METHODS: A working group convened by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis met to review the current image-based methods for bone strength assessment and fracture risk estimation, and to discuss the clinical perspectives of REMS. RESULTS: Areal bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the consolidated indicator for osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture risk assessment. A more reliable fracture risk estimation would actually require an improved assessment of bone strength, integrating also bone quality information. Several different approaches have been proposed, including additional DXA-based parameters, quantitative computed tomography, and quantitative ultrasound. Although each of them showed a somewhat improved clinical performance, none satisfied all the requirements for a widespread routine employment, which was typically hindered by unclear clinical usefulness, radiation doses, limited accessibility, or inapplicability to spine and hip, therefore leaving several clinical needs still unmet. REMS is a clinically available technology for osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture risk assessment through the estimation of BMD on the axial skeleton reference sites. Its automatic processing of unfiltered ultrasound signals provides accurate BMD values in view of fracture risk assessment. CONCLUSIONS: New approaches for improved bone strength and fracture risk estimations are needed for a better management of osteoporotic patients. In this context, REMS represents a valuable approach for osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture risk prediction.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Consenso , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas , Humanos , Osteoartrite , Medição de Risco , Análise Espectral , Ultrassonografia
5.
Endocrinology ; 160(9): 2143-2150, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310275

RESUMO

Impact microindentation (IMI) measures bone material strength index (BMSi) in vivo. However, clinical risk factors that affect BMSi are largely unknown. This study investigated associations between BMSi and clinical risk factors for fracture in men. BMSi was measured using the OsteoProbe in 357 men (ages 33 to 96 years) from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Risk factors included age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), parental hip fracture, prior fracture, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), secondary osteoporosis, smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, medications, diseases, and low serum vitamin D levels. BMSi was negatively associated with age (r = -0.131, P = 0.014), weight (r = -0.109, P = 0.040), and BMI (r = -0.083, P = 0.001); no correlations were detected with BMD (r = 0.000, P = 0.998) or height (r = 0.087, P = 0.10). Mean BMSi values for men with and without prior fracture were 80.2 ± 6.9 vs 82.8 ± 6.1 (P = 0.024); parental hip fracture, 80.1 ± 6.1 vs 82.8 ± 6.9 (P = 0.029); and T2DM, 80.3 ± 8.5 vs 82.9 ± 6.6 (P = 0.059). BMSi did not differ in the presence vs absence of other risk factors. In multivariable models, mean (± SD) BMSi remained associated with prior fracture and parental hip fracture after adjusting for age and BMI: prior fracture (80.5 ± 1.1 vs 82.8 ± 0.4, P = 0.044); parental fracture (79.9 ± 1.2 vs 82.9 ± 0.4, P = 0.015). No other confounders were identified. We conclude that in men, BMSi discriminates prior fracture and parental hip fracture, which are both known to increase the risk for incident fracture. These findings suggest that IMI may be useful for identifying men who have an increased risk for fracture.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(1): 53-60, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127467

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The most frequent adverse effects of aromatase inhibitors (AI) are arthralgia and bone loss induction. These reduce the quality of life of patients and their adherence to the treatment. This study evaluates the early AI cessation caused by AI intolerance, and the evolution of joint pain and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during AI treatment until 1-year after AI completion. METHODS: Data of 910 women diagnosed with early breast cancer and candidates for AI were recruited in B-ABLE cohort. AI discontinuation was analyzed by survival analysis, including Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression. Patients were distributed in three groups of the study according to previous tamoxifen (TAM) exposure and length of AI treatment: TAM-2yAI, TAM-3yAI, and 5yAI. Evolution of joint pain and HRQoL in osteoporosis was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and ECOS-16 tests, respectively, from baseline to 1-year after AI completion through repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Risk of AI discontinuation was increased in patients previously exposed to tamoxifen compared to non-exposed (adjusted HR 5.30 [95% CI 2.23 to 12.57]). VAS and ECOS-16 scores of TAM-2yAI and TAM-3yAI groups increased during AI treatment, mainly during the first 3-12 months. After 1-year from AI completion, values tend to decrease to baseline levels. In 5yAI group, VAS and ECOS-16 levels increased at three months, and VAS remained significantly higher at 1-year post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: AI therapy increased joint pain and reduced HRQoL, mainly during the first year of treatment. Patients previously treated with tamoxifen experienced greater pain when they switched to AI therapy and had an excess risk of discontinuation during the first 12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03811509. Registered 28 January 2018-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03811509 .

7.
Bone ; 123: 39-47, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878523

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have repeatedly identified genetic variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fracture in non-coding regions of C7ORF76, a poorly studied gene of unknown function. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the causality and molecular mechanisms underlying the association. We re-sequenced the genomic region in two extreme BMD groups from the BARCOS cohort of postmenopausal women to search for functionally relevant variants. Eight selected variants were tested for association in the complete cohort and 2 of them (rs4342521 and rs10085588) were found significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD and nominally associated with osteoporotic fracture. cis-eQTL analyses of these 2 SNPs, together with SNP rs4727338 (GWAS lead SNP in Estrada et al., Nat Genet. 44:491-501, 2012), performed in human primary osteoblasts, disclosed a statistically significant influence on the expression of the proximal neighbouring gene SLC25A13 and a tendency on the distal SHFM1. We then studied the functionality of a putative upstream regulatory element (UPE), containing rs10085588. Luciferase reporter assays showed transactivation capability with a strong allele-dependent effect. Finally, 4C-seq experiments in osteoblastic cell lines showed that the UPE interacted with different tissue-specific enhancers and a lncRNA (LOC100506136) in the region. In summary, this study is the first one to analyse in depth the functionality of C7ORF76 genomic region. We provide functional regulatory evidence for the rs10085588, which may be a causal SNP within the 7q21.3 GWAS signal for osteoporosis.

8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 104(6): 631-640, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725167

RESUMO

Osteoporosis long-term treatment with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, has been associated with uncommon adverse effects, as atypical femoral fractures (AFF). Thus, treatment with teriparatide (TPTD; fragment of human parathyroid hormone; PTH1-34) has been proposed for such patients. Besides its anabolizing effect on bone, TPTD may affect stem-cell mobilization and expansion. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) were isolated from five women that had suffered AFF associated to bisphosphonate treatment, before and after 6 months of TPTD therapy. The presence of mesenchymal stromal cells (CD73, CD90 and CD105 positive cells), gene expression of NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4, proliferation, senescence and capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes were analyzed. After TPTD treatment, BMMNC positive cells for CD73, CD90 and CD105 increased from 6.5 to 37.5% (p < 0.05); NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 were upregulated, being statistically significant for NANOG (p < 0.05), and cells increased proliferative capacity more than 50% at day 7 (p < 0.05). Senescence was reduced 2.5-fold (p < 0.05), increasing differentiation capacity into osteoblasts and adipocytes, with more than twice mineralization capacity of extracellular matrix or fat-droplet formation (p < 0.05), respectively. Results show that TPTD treatment caused BMMNC "rejuvenation", increasing the number of cells in a more undifferentiated stage, with higher differentiation potency. This effect may favor TPTD anabolic action on bone in such patients with AFF, increasing osteoblast precursor cells. Such response could also arise in other osteoporotic patients treated with TPTD, without previous AFF. Furthermore, our data suggest that TPTD effect on stromal cells may have clinical implications for bone-regenerative medicine. Further studies may deepen on this potential.

9.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e023959, 2018 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The OsteoProbe measures Bone Material Strength Index (BMSi) of cortical bone in living humans using impact microindentation (IMI). Research using this minimally invasive technique is expanding yet, to-date, there have been no reports about its feasibility in the research setting. In this study, we assessed the feasibility and tolerability of using the OsteoProbe in men enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in a population-based study. SETTING: Barwon Statistical Division, southeastern Australia, 2016-2018. METHODS: For 252 of 345 consecutive participants (ages 33-96 years), BMSi was measured using the OsteoProbe at the mid-tibia. Immediately following measurement, each participant used a Visual Analogue Scale (0-10) to rate the level of discomfort that was anticipated and experienced, their initial reluctance towards the measurement and their willingness to repeat measurement. RESULTS: Reasons for non-measurement in 92 men were needle phobia (n=8), discomfort after first indentation (n=5), skin infections (n=21), excessive soft tissues around the mid-tibia region (n=56), inability to provide informed consent (n=2). Among 252 men who had IMI measures, the expectation for pain during measurement was low (1.54±1.56), as was actual pain experienced (0.38±0.71). Reluctance to undergo measurement was low (0.34±0.93). All participants indicated a willingness to have the measurement performed again. Mean (±SD) BMSi was 83.0±6.4 (range 62.3-93.0). CONCLUSION: In this study, the procedure was well accepted by participants suggesting that IMI testing with the OsteoProbe is feasible in a research setting.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso Cortical , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tíbia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Cortical/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/patologia
10.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0208131, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485349

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many cellular processes, including the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, and therefore, of bone turnover. MiR-320a is overexpressed in osteoporotic bone tissue but its role in osteoblast function is unknown. In the present study, functional assays were performed with the aim to elucidate the mechanism of miR-320a action in osteoblastic cells. MiR-320a was either overexpressed or inhibited in human primary osteoblasts (hOB) and gene expression changes were evaluated through microarray analysis. In addition, the effect of miR-320a on cell proliferation, viability, and oxidative stress in hOB was evaluated. Finally, matrix mineralization and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed in order to evaluate osteoblast functionality. Microarray results showed miR-320a regulation of a number of key osteoblast genes and of genes involved in oxidative stress. Regulation of osteoblast differentiation and ossification appeared as the best significant biological processes (PANTHER P value = 3.74E-05; and P value = 3.06E-04, respectively). The other enriched pathway was that of the cellular response to cadmium and zinc ions, mostly by the overexpression of metallothioneins. In hOBs, overexpression of miR-320a increased cell proliferation and oxidative stress levels whereas mineralization capacity was reduced. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-320a increased stress oxidation levels and was associated with reduced osteoblast differentiation and functionality, which could trigger an osteoporotic phenotype.

11.
Bone ; 120: 1-8, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268814

RESUMO

In randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with teriparatide, the number of patients with incident hip fractures was small and insufficiently powered to show statistically significant differences between groups. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of teriparatide in the reduction of hip and upper limb fractures in women and men with osteoporosis. A comprehensive search of databases until 22 November 2017 was conducted for RCTs of at least 6-month duration that reported non-spine fractures (hip, humerus, forearm, wrist), either as an efficacy or safety endpoint. Only RCTs that included patients with the approved treatment indications and dose for use of teriparatide were included; trials with off-label use of teriparatide were excluded. Two independent reviewers performed study selection and data extraction. Statistical procedures included Peto's method and Mantel-Haenszel with empirical correction, as most of the RCTs reported zero events in at least one of the treatment arms. Study results are expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Publication bias and heterogeneity were evaluated with standard statistical tests. Twenty-three RCTs were included, 19 with an active-controlled arm (representing 64.9% of the patients included in the control group) and 11 double-blind, representing data on 8644 subjects, 3893 of them treated with teriparatide. Mean age (SD) was 67.0 (4.5) years, median treatment duration 18 months (range: 6 to 24 months). A total of 34 incident hip, 31 humerus, 31 forearm, and 62 wrist fractures were included. Meta-analysis results showed an OR (95% CI) for hip fractures of 0.44 (0.22-0.87; p = 0.019) in patients treated with teriparatide compared with controls. The effects on the risk of humerus [1.02 (0.50-2.08)], forearm [0.53 (0.26-1.08)] and wrist fractures [1.21 (0.72-2.04)] were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). This meta-analysis provides evidence of efficacy of teriparatide in reducing hip fractures by 56% in patients with osteoporosis.

12.
Bone ; 117: 54-59, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223134

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) experience increased bone loss during their treatment. However, there is little information about bone mineral density (BMD) after completing AI-treatment. The present study aimed to assess BMD changes one year after AI-therapy completion. METHODS: Data were collected from 864 postmenopausal women treated with AI during 5 years (5y-AI group), or during 2-3 years after taking tamoxifen therapy (pTAM-AI group). Participants with osteoporosis were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BP). BMD changes in lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) between baseline, end of treatment, and at one year post-treatment were assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: At the end of AI-treatment, 382 patients had available BMD values and 316 also had post-treatment BMD values. As expected, BMD levels were decreased at AI-completion in non-BP treated patients. After one year, LS BMD increased in both groups (5y-AI: +2.11% [95%CI: 1.55 to 2.68], p < 0.001; pTAM-AI: +1.00% [95%CI: 0.49 to 1.51], p < 0.001) compared with the end of AI-therapy, while values at FN and TH remained stable. On the other hand, BMD values of BP-treated patients were increased or maintained at the end of AI-treatment and also at post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: At one year after AI-completion, FN and TH BMD remained reduced in non-BP treated women, while LS BMD was recovered in the 5y-AI group and partially recovered in the pTAM-AI group. BP treatment increased or maintained BMD values at the end of therapy and at one year post-treatment.

13.
Maturitas ; 116: 83-88, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the vitamin D status of postmenopausal women with early estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer and to compare it with that of healthy postmenopausal women from the same Mediterranean region. STUDY DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Data from 691 breast cancer (BC) patients in the B-ABLE cohort were analyzed after recent cancer intervention (recent-BC) or after a minimum of two years since this intervention (long-term-BC). Patients were also stratified by previous chemotherapy exposure (ChT+ and ChT-). Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (25(OH)D) were compared with data from 294 healthy women (non-BC) by linear regression to estimate ß-coefficients using non-BC participants as the reference group. Age, body mass index and season of blood extraction were selected as potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the recent-BC patients, 23.7% had 25(OH)D deficiency, compared with 17.7% of the long-term-BC group, and just 1.4% of the non-BC participants. Most of the women were located in the insufficient 25(OH)D category regardless of study group. BC patients had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than non-BC participants (adjusted ß-coefficients: -4.84 [95%CI -6.56 to -3.12] in recent-BC, and -2.05 [95%CI -4.96 to -0.14] in long-term-BC). Among BC patients, the lowest 25(OH)D levels were found in the recent-BC (ChT+) group (p < 0.001). No differences were found between the long-term-BC (ChT-), long-term-BC (ChT+) and recent-BC (ChT-) groups. Among the BC ChT+ patients, the recent-BC group had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than the long-term-BC group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Severely reduced 25(OH)D levels were detected in patients with breast cancer, particularly after recent chemotherapy. These 25(OH)D levels had partially recovered over the long term, but still remained much lower than in the healthy population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue
14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(12): 2091-2098, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184270

RESUMO

Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are a rare but potentially devastating event, often but not always linked to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying AFFs remain obscure, and there are no tests available that might assist in identifying those at high risk of AFF. We previously used exome sequencing to explore the genetic background of three sisters with AFFs and three additional unrelated AFF cases, all previously treated with BPs. We detected 37 rare mutations (in 34 genes) shared by the three sisters. Notably, we found a p.Asp188Tyr mutation in the enzyme geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a component of the mevalonate pathway, which is critical to osteoclast function and is inhibited by N-BPs. In addition, the CYP1A1 gene, responsible for the hydroxylation of 17ß-estradiol, estrone, and vitamin D, was also mutated in all three sisters and one unrelated patient. Here we present a detailed list of the variants found and report functional analyses of the GGPS1 p.Asp188Tyr mutation, which showed a severe reduction in enzyme activity together with oligomerization defects. Unlike BP treatment, this genetic mutation will affect all cells in the carriers. RNAi knockdown of GGPS1 in osteoblasts produced a strong mineralization reduction and a reduced expression of osteocalcin, osterix, and RANKL, whereas in osteoclasts, it led to a lower resorption activity. Taken together, the impact of the mutated GGPPS and the relevance of the downstream effects in bone cells make it a strong candidate for AFF susceptibility. We speculate that other genes such as CYP1A1 might be involved in AFF pathogenesis, which remains to be functionally proved. The identification of the genetic background for AFFs provides new insights for future development of novel risk assessment tools. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 96, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218380

RESUMO

We have characterised 997 hip fracture patients from a representative 45 Spanish hospitals, and followed them up prospectively for up to 4 months. Despite suboptimal surgical delays (average 59.1 hours), in-hospital mortality was lower than in Northern European cohorts. The secondary fracture prevention gap is unacceptably high at 85%. PURPOSE: To characterise inpatient care, complications, and 4-month mortality following a hip or proximal femur fracture in Spain. METHODS: Design: prospective cohort study. Consecutive sample of patients ≥ 50 years old admitted in a representative 45 hospitals for a hip or proximal femur fragility fracture, from June 2014 to June 2016 and followed up for 4 months post-fracture. Patient characteristics, site of fracture, in-patient care (including secondary fracture prevention) and complications, and 4-month mortality are described. RESULTS: A total of 997 subjects (765 women) of mean (standard deviation) age 83.6 (8.4) years were included. Previous history of fracture/s (36.9%) and falls (43%) were common, and 10-year FRAX-estimated major and hip fracture risks were 15.2% (9.0%) and 8.5% (7.6%) respectively. Inter-trochanteric (44.6%) and displaced intra-capsular (28.0%) were the most common fracture sites, and fixation with short intramedullary nail (38.6%) with spinal anaesthesia (75.5%) the most common procedures. Surgery and rehabilitation were initiated within a mean 59.1 (56.7) and 61.9 (55.1) hours respectively, and average length of stay was 11.5 (9.3) days. Antithrombotic and antibiotic prophylaxis were given to 99.8% and 98.2% respectively, whilst only 12.4% received secondary fracture prevention at discharge. Common complications included delirium (36.1 %) and kidney failure (14.1%), with in-hospital and 4-month mortality of 2.1% and 11% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite suboptimal surgical delay, post-hip fracture mortality is low in Spanish hospitals. The secondary fracture prevention gap is unacceptably high at > 85%, in spite of virtually universal anti-thrombotic and antibiotic prophylaxis.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203533, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increased fracture risk has been described as a complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical prediction models for general population have a limited predictive accuracy for fractures in T2DM patients. The aim was to develop and validate a clinical prediction tool for the estimation of 5-year hip and major fracture risk in T2DM patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort of newly diagnosed T2DM patients (n = 51,143, aged 50-85, 57% men) was extracted from the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP) database, containing computerized primary care records for >80% of the population of Catalonia, Spain (>6 million people). Patients were followed up from T2DM diagnosis until the earliest of death, transfer out, fracture, or end of study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the 5-year risk of hip and major fracture. Calibration and discrimination were assessed. Hip and major fracture incidence rates were 1.84 [95%CI 1.64 to 2.05] and 7.12 [95%CI 6.72 to 7.53] per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Both hip and major fracture prediction models included age, sex, previous major fracture, statins use, and calcium/vitamin D supplements; previous ischemic heart disease was also included for hip fracture and stroke for major fracture. Discrimination (0.81 for hip and 0.72 for major fracture) and calibration plots support excellent internal validity. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed prediction models have good discrimination and calibration for the estimation of both hip and major fracture risk in incident T2DM patients. These tools incorporate key T2DM macrovascular complications generally available in primary care electronic medical records, as well as more generic fracture risk predictors. Future work will focus on validation of these models in external cohorts.

17.
Bone ; 116: 290-294, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145341

RESUMO

Soon after kidney transplant (KT), a decrease in parathormone and bone mineral density (BMD) occur, but little is known on the impact of KT on novel bone quality parameters including trabecular bone score (TBS) and bone material strength index (BMSi). We aimed to study BMD, TBS and BMSi in the first year after KT, in patients not treated with any bone therapy. A cohort including 36 patients underwent KT on a low-glucocorticoid-dose protocol (5 mg daily-prednisone from post-operative-day 42 onwards) and was observed for 12 months prospectively. At 3 months, phosphorus and parathormone decreased, while calcium increased. We also observed at 3 months a transient mild 2.9% bone loss at femoral neck (BMD change 0.752 ±â€¯0.15 vs 0.730 ±â€¯0.15; p = 0.004), but no change at either spine or total hip. Both TBS and BMSi remained stable. At 12 months, lumbar (but not total hip or femoral neck) BMD slightly decreased by 2.1% vs baseline (0.950 ±â€¯0.15 vs 0.930 ±â€¯0.5; p = 0.046), while TBS and BMSi remained unmodified. In KT patients on low-dose glucocorticoids and no bone therapy, there were small BMD decreases at femoral neck (at 3 months) and lumbar spine (at 12 months), but no change in either TBS or BMSi. Low-dose post-KT glucocorticoid treatment shows limited impact on bone, supporting steroid-restrictive protocols.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10951, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026596

RESUMO

Numerous GWAS and candidate gene studies have highlighted the role of the Wnt pathway in bone biology. Our objective has been to study in detail the allelic architecture of three Wnt pathway genes: WNT16, DKK1 and SOST, in the context of osteoporosis. We have resequenced the coding and some regulatory regions of these three genes in two groups with extreme bone mineral density (BMD) (n = ∼50, each) from the BARCOS cohort. No interesting novel variants were identified. Thirteen predicted functional variants have been genotyped in the full cohort (n = 1490), and for ten of them (with MAF > 0.01), the association with BMD has been studied. We have found six variants nominally associated with BMD, of which 2 WNT16 variants predicted to be eQTLs for FAM3C (rs55710688, in the Kozak sequence and rs142005327, within a putative enhancer) withstood multiple-testing correction. In addition, two rare variants in functional regions (rs190011371 in WNT16b 3'UTR and rs570754792 in the SOST TATA box) were found only present in three women each, all with BMD below the mean of the cohort. Our results reinforce the higher importance of regulatory versus coding variants in these Wnt pathway genes and open new ways for functional studies of the relevant variants.

19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(8): 1397-1406, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694685

RESUMO

Over 12 months, romosozumab increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, resulting in increased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with low BMD (NCT00896532). Herein, we report the study extension evaluating 24 months of treatment with romosozumab, discontinuation of romosozumab, alendronate followed by romosozumab, and romosozumab followed by denosumab. Postmenopausal women aged 55 to 85 years with a lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), or femoral neck T-score ≤-2.0 and ≥-3.5 were enrolled and randomly assigned to placebo, one of five romosozumab regimens (70 mg, 140 mg, 210 mg monthly [QM]; 140 mg Q3M; 210 mg Q3M) for 24 months, or open-label alendronate for 12 months followed by romosozumab 140 mg QM for 12 months. Eligible participants were then rerandomized 1:1 within original treatment groups to placebo or denosumab 60 mg Q6M for an additional 12 months. Percentage change from baseline in BMD and bone turnover markers (BTMs) at months 24 and 36 and safety were evaluated. Of 364 participants initially randomized to romosozumab, placebo, or alendronate, 315 completed 24 months of treatment and 248 completed the extension. Romosozumab markedly increased LS and TH BMD through month 24, with largest gains observed with romosozumab 210 mg QM (LS = 15.1%; TH = 5.4%). Women receiving romosozumab who transitioned to denosumab continued to accrue BMD, whereas BMD returned toward pretreatment levels with placebo. With romosozumab 210 mg QM, bone formation marker P1NP initially increased after treatment initiation and gradually decreased to below baseline by month 12, remaining below baseline through month 24; bone resorption marker ß-CTX rapidly decreased after treatment, remaining below baseline through month 24. Transition to denosumab further decreased both BTMs, whereas after transition to placebo, P1NP returned to baseline and ß-CTX increased above baseline. Adverse events were balanced between treatment groups through month 36. These data suggest that treatment effects of romosozumab are reversible upon discontinuation and further augmented by denosumab. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(8): 1417-1421, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624726

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with a reduced life expectancy. The latest published evidence suggests an increased risk of fractures among T2DM patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of mortality as a competing risk in the study of the association between T2DM and hip fracture rates. Participants were all diagnosed T2DM patients registered in the Sistema de Información para el Desarrollo de la Investigación en Atención Primaria (SIDIAP) database aged 65 years and older; up to two non-T2DM were matched by age, sex, and primary care facility. We used Cox regression models to estimate cause-specific hazard ratio (HR) of death or hip fracture according to T2DM status. Fine and Gray models were then fitted to estimate the subhazard ratio (SHR) of hip fracture while accounting for competing risk with death and to estimate the probability of hip fracture within 5 years. A total of 55,891 T2DM and 103,093 matched non-T2DM patients were observed for a median of 8 years. Mortality was 48.8 per 1000 person years (py) in T2DM, and 33.8 per 1000 py in non-T2DM; hip fracture rates were 6.0 per 1000 py and 4.9 per 1000 py, respectively. Cox models confirmed a significant association for death and hip fracture: HR 1.51 (95% CI, 1.48 to 1.55), and HR 1.32 (95% CI, 1.24 to 1.40), respectively. Accounting for death as a competing event (Fine-Gray models), the association between T2DM and hip fracture risk remained statistically significant (SHR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.21) and the probability of a hip fracture within 5 years was 2.3% for TD2M and 1.9% for non-TD2M patients compared to 2.6% and 2.1% respectively using Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates. T2DM patients have a 50% increased mortality and, after adjusting for differential survival at 5 years, a 21% increased incidence of hip fracture when compared to matched non-T2DM. Failing to account for differential mortality leads to an overestimation of fracture risk. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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