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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530447

RESUMO

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral-spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is a rare disorder originating from abnormal development of the first and second branchial arch. The clinical phenotype is extremely heterogeneous with ear anomalies, hemifacial microsomia, ocular defects, and vertebral malformations being the main features. MYT1, AMIGO2, and ZYG11B gene variants were reported in a few OAVS patients, but the etiology remains largely unknown. A multifactorial origin has been proposed, including the involvement of environmental and epigenetic mechanisms. To identify the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to OAVS, we evaluated the DNA-methylation profiles of 41 OAVS unrelated affected individuals by using a genome-wide microarray-based methylation approach. The analysis was first carried out comparing OAVS patients with controls at the group level. It revealed a moderate epigenetic variation in a large number of genes implicated in basic chromatin dynamics such as DNA packaging and protein-DNA organization. The alternative analysis in individual profiles based on the searching for Stochastic Epigenetic Variants (SEV) identified an increased number of SEVs in OAVS patients compared to controls. Although no recurrent deregulated enriched regions were found, isolated patients harboring suggestive epigenetic deregulations were identified. The recognition of a different DNA methylation pattern in the OAVS cohort and the identification of isolated patients with suggestive epigenetic variations provide consistent evidence for the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous disorder.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565183

RESUMO

We show causal association between ALDH1A2 variants and a novel, severe multiple congenital anomaly syndrome in humans that is neonataly lethal due to associated pulmonmary hypoplasia and respiratory failure. In two families, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous missense variants in ALDH1A2. ALDH1A2 is involved in conversion of retinol (vitamin A) into retinoic acid, which is an essential regulator of diaphragm and cardiovascular formation during embryogenesis. Reduced retinoic acid causes cardiovascular, diaphragmatic and associated pulmonary defects in several animal models, matching the phenotype observed in our patients. In-silico protein modelling showed probable impairment of ALDH1A2 for three of the four substitutions. In vitro studies show reduction of retinoic acid. Few pathogenic variants in genes encoding components of the retinoic signalling pathway have been described to date, likely due to embryonic lethality. Thus, this study contributes significantly to knowledge of the role of this pathway in human diaphragm and cardiovascular development and disease. Some clinical features in our patients are also seen in Fryns syndrome (MIM# 229850), Syndromic Microphthalmia 9 (MIM# 601186), and DiGeorge syndrome (MIM# 188400). Patients with similar clinical features who are genetically undiagnosed should be tested for recessive ALDH1A2 deficient malformation syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442900

RESUMO

Feingold Syndrome type 1 (FS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder due to a loss of function mutations in the MYCN gene. FS1 is generally clinically characterized by mild learning disability, microcephaly, short palpebral fissures, short stature, brachymesophalangy, hypoplastic thumbs, as well as syndactyly of toes, variably associated with organ abnormalities, the most common being gastrointestinal atresia. In current literature, more than 120 FS1 patients have been described, but diagnostic criteria are not well agreed upon, likewise the genotype-phenotype correlations are not well understood. Here, we describe 11 FS1 patients, belonging to six distinct families, where we have identified three novel MYCN mutations along with three pathogenetic variants, the latter which have already been reported. Several patients presented a mild phenotype of the condition and they have been diagnosed as being affected only after segregation analyses of the MYCN mutation identified in the propositus. We also describe here the first ever FS1 patient with severe intellectual disability having a maternally inherited MYCN variant together with an additional GNAO1 mutation inherited paternally. Mutations in the GNAO1 gene are associated with a specific form of intellectual disability and epilepsy, thus the finding of two different rare diseases in the same patient could explain his severe phenotype. Therein, a thorough investigation is merited into the possibility that additional variants in patients with a MYCN mutation and severe phenotype do exist. Finally, in order to guarantee a more reliable diagnosis of FS1, we suggest using both major and minor clinical-molecular diagnostic criteria.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 115-133, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308444

RESUMO

Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) is a member of a small family of multifunctional cell surface-anchored glycoproteins functioning as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors. Here we report that bi-allelic inactivating variants in SCUBE3 have pleiotropic consequences on development and cause a previously unrecognized syndromic disorder. Eighteen affected individuals from nine unrelated families showed a consistent phenotype characterized by reduced growth, skeletal features, distinctive craniofacial appearance, and dental anomalies. In vitro functional validation studies demonstrated a variable impact of disease-causing variants on transcript processing, protein secretion and function, and their dysregulating effect on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We show that SCUBE3 acts as a BMP2/BMP4 co-receptor, recruits the BMP receptor complexes into raft microdomains, and positively modulates signaling possibly by augmenting the specific interactions between BMPs and BMP type I receptors. Scube3-/- mice showed craniofacial and dental defects, reduced body size, and defective endochondral bone growth due to impaired BMP-mediated chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, recapitulating the human disorder. Our findings identify a human disease caused by defective function of a member of the SCUBE family, and link SCUBE3 to processes controlling growth, morphogenesis, and bone and teeth development through modulation of BMP signaling.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Brain Sci ; 10(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187326

RESUMO

7q11.23 Microduplication (dup7q11.23) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder due to a recurring 1.5 to 1.8 Mb duplication of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome critical region. Dup7q11.23 has been associated with several neuro-behavioral characteristics such as low cognitive and adaptive functioning, expressive language impairment, anxiety problems and autistic features. In the present study, we analyze the clinical features of ten individuals in which array-CGH detected dup7q11.23, spanning from 1.4 to 2.1 Mb. The clinical characteristics associated with dup7q11.23 are discussed with respect to its reciprocal deletion. Consistent with previous studies, we confirm that individuals with dup7q11.23 syndrome do not have a homogeneous clinical profile, although some recurring dysmorphic features were found, including macrocephaly, prominent forehead, elongated palpebral fissures, thin lip vermilion and microstomia. Minor congenital malformations include patent ductus arteriosus, cryptorchidism and pes planus. A common finding is hypotonia and joint laxity, resulting in mild motor delay. Neuropsychological and psychodiagnostic assessment confirm that mild cognitive impairment, expressive language deficits and anxiety are recurring neurobehavioral features. New insights into adaptive, psychopathological and neurodevelopmental profiles are discussed.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098373

RESUMO

Williams-Beurens syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a recurrent 7q11.23 microdeletion. Clinical characteristics include typical facial dysmorphisms, weakness of connective tissue, short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability and distinct behavioral phenotype. Cardiovascular diseases are common due to haploinsufficiency of ELN gene. A few cases of larger or smaller deletions have been reported spanning towards the centromeric or the telomeric regions, most of which included ELN gene. We report on three patients from two unrelated families, presenting with distinctive WBS features, harboring an atypical distal deletion excluding ELN gene. Our study supports a critical role of CLIP2, GTF2IRD1, and GTF2I gene in the WBS neurobehavioral profile and in craniofacial features, highlights a possible role of HIP1 in the autism spectrum disorder, and delineates a subgroup of WBS individuals with an atypical distal deletion not associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular defects.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788663

RESUMO

RASopathies are caused by variants in genes encoding components or modulators of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan syndrome is the most common entity among this group of disorders and is characterized by heart defects, short stature, variable developmental delay, and typical facial features. Heterozygous variants in SOS2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS, have recently been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome. The number of published cases with SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is still limited and little is known about genotype-phenotype correlations. We collected previously unpublished clinical and genotype data from 17 individuals carrying a disease-causing SOS2 variant. Most individuals had one of the previously reported dominant pathogenic variants; only four had novel changes at the established hotspots for variants that affect protein function. The overall phenotype of the 17 patients fits well into the spectrum of Noonan syndrome and is most similar to the phenotype observed in patients with SOS1-related Noonan syndrome, with ectodermal anomalies as common features and short stature and learning disabilities as relatively infrequent findings compared to the average Noonan syndrome phenotype. The spectrum of heart defects in SOS2-related Noonan syndrome was consistent with the known spectrum of cardiac anomalies in RASopathies, but no specific heart defect was particularly predominating. Notably, lymphatic anomalies were extraordinarily frequent, affecting more than half of the patients. We therefore conclude that SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is associated with a particularly high risk of lymphatic complications that may have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life.

9.
Genes Brain Behav ; 19(7): e12687, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658356

RESUMO

Increasing evidence links heterozygosity for NRXN1 gene deletions to a clinically wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. However, to date, the neurocognitive and social communication features of children carrying this genomic rearrangement have not been assessed in detail. The cognitive and behavioral profiles of five children carrying a heterozygous NRXN1 deletion were investigated through systematic assessment of the cognitive and developmental levels, adaptive profile and presence of behavioral symptoms and autistic features. Furthermore, four transmitting parents were assessed by means of cognitive, psychopathological and parental stress tests. A below-average cognitive level was documented in all children, and defective adaptive levels were observed in four of them. Three of the five children were diagnosed as having autism spectrum disorder in comorbidity with intellectual disability/global developmental delay, with a major impairment in social communication skills. The remaining two children presented with isolated intellectual disability and an unclassifiable neurodevelopmental disorder, respectively. This study provide data contributing to a more accurate characterization of the neurobehavioral phenotype of individuals carrying heterozygous NRXN1 deletions. This analysis indicates that these structural rearrangements are associated with a variable expression of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cast some doubts about the incomplete penetrance of the disorder.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(9): 103996, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622958

RESUMO

Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by a coarse facial appearance, macrocephaly, hypertrichosis, skeletal and cardiovascular anomalies and caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in ABCC9 and KCNJ8, encoding subunits of heterooctameric ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. CS shows considerable clinical overlap with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS), a rare condition with coarse facial features, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, intellectual disability of variable degree, and hypoplasia or aplasia of terminal phalanges and/or nails. ZLS is caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in KCNH1 or KCNN3, and gain-of-function KCNK4 variants underlie the clinically similar FHEIG (facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth) syndrome; KCNH1, KCNN3 and KCNK4 encode potassium channels. Within our research project on ZLS, we performed targeted Sanger sequencing of ABCC9 in 15 individuals tested negative for a mutation in the ZLS-associated genes and found two individuals harboring a heterozygous pathogenic ABCC9 missense variant. Through a collaborative effort, we identified a total of nine individuals carrying a monoallelic ABCC9 variant: five sporadic patients and four members of two unrelated families. Among the six detected ABCC9 missense variants, four [p.(Pro252Leu), p.(Thr259Lys), p.(Ala1064Pro), and p.(Arg1197His)] were novel. Systematic assessment of the clinical features in the nine cases with an ABCC9 variant highlights the significant clinical overlap between ZLS and CS that includes early developmental delay, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, joint laxity, and hypoplasia of terminal phalanges and nails. Gain of K+ channel activity possibly accounts for significant clinical similarities of CS, ZLS and FHEIG syndrome and defines a new subgroup of potassium channelopathies.

11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 108: 107097, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402703

RESUMO

Seizure threshold 2 (SZT2) gene mutations have been associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs). Following a literature review, we collected 22 patients and identified the main clinical features related to SZT2 variants that are epilepsy with onset within the first years of life, intellectual disability (ID), macrocephaly with dysmorphic facial features, corpus callosum (CC) shape abnormalities, and cortical migration disorders. Moreover, we identified the c.7825T>G homozygous missense variant in SZT2 in two female siblings presenting with focal seizures, mild-moderate ID, behavioral disturbances, and facial dysmorphisms. Interictal Electroencephalogram (EEG) and ictal EEG were both informative and revealed, respectively, temporal bilateral asynchronous slow and epileptiform abnormalities and a focal onset in both of them. Neuroimaging study revealed a thick and abnormally shaped CC. Seizure threshold 2 has been identified as a component of the KICSTOR complex, a newly recognized protein complex involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. mTOR signaling dysregulation represents common pathogenetic mechanisms that can explain the presence of both epileptogenesis and ID. Even if few cases had been reported, a new clinical phenotype is emerging, and recent hypothesis of hyperactivation of mTORC1 signaling might also open to targeted treatments, challenging an early diagnosis as of paramount importance.

12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 61, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404184

RESUMO

Atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD) represents a quite common congenital heart defect (CHD) accounting for 7.4% of all cardiac malformations. AVCD is a very heterogeneous malformation that can occur as a phenotypical cardiac aspect in the context of different genetic syndromes but also as an isolated, non-syndromic cardiac defect. AVCD has also been described in several pedigrees suggesting a pattern of familiar recurrence. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques are proved to be a powerful tool to establish the molecular heterogeneity of AVCD.Given the complexity of cardiac embryology, it is not surprising that multiple genes deeply implicated in cardiogenesis have been described mutated in patients with AVCD. This review attempts to examine the recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of this complex CHD in the setting of genetic syndromes or in non-syndromic patients.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(6): 1342-1350, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319738

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality in Down syndrome (DS) are mainly related to congenital heart defects (CHDs). While CHDs with high prevalence in DS (typical CHDs), such as endocardial cushion defects, have been extensively described, little is known about the impact of less common CHDs (atypical CHDs), such as aortic coarctation and univentricular hearts. In our single-center study, we analyzed, in observational, retrospective manner, data regarding cardiac features, surgical management, and outcomes of a cohort of DS patients. Literature review was performed to investigate previously reported studies on atypical CHDs in DS. Patients with CHDs were subclassified as having typical or atypical CHDs. Statistical analysis was performed for comparison between the groups. The study population encompassed 859 DS patients, 72.2% with CHDs, of which 4.7% were atypical. Statistical analysis showed a significant excess in multiple surgeries, all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality in patients with atypical CHDs (p = .0067, p = .0038, p = .0001, respectively). According to the Kaplan-Meier method, survival at 10 and 40 years was significantly higher in typical CHDs (99 and 98% vs. 91 and 84%, log rank <0.05). Among atypical CHDs, it seems that particularly multiple complex defects in univentricular physiology associate with a worse outcome. This may be due to the surgical difficulty in managing univentricular hearts with multiple defects concurring to the clinical picture or to the severity of associated defects themselves. Further studies need to address this specific issue, also considering the higher pulmonary pressures, infective complications, and potential comorbidities in DS patients.

14.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 120, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Clinical hallmarks include hypotonia, ataxia, facial dysmorphism, abnormal eye movement, irregular breathing pattern cognitive impairment and, the molar tooth sign is the pathognomonic midbrain-hindbrain malformation on magnetic resonance imaging. The disorder is predominantly caused by biallelic mutations in more than 30 genes encoding proteins with a pivotal role in morphology and function of the primary cilium. Oligogenic inheritance or occurrence of genetic modifiers has been suggested to contribute to the variability of the clinical phenotype. We report on a family with peculiar clinical spectrum Joubert syndrome molecularly and clinically dissecting a complex phenotype, in which hypogonadism, pituitary malformation and growth hormone deficiency occur as major features. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7 year-old male was enrolled in a dedicated "Undiagnosed Patients Program" for a peculiar form of Joubert syndrome complicated by iris and retinochoroidal coloboma, hypogonadism pituitary malformation, and growth hormone deficiency. The molecular basis of the complex phenotype was investigated by whole exome sequencing. The concomitant occurrence of homozygosity for mutations in KIF7 and KIAA0556 was identified, and the assessment of major clinical features associated with mutations in these two genes provided evidence that these two independent events represent the cause underlying the complexity of the present clinical phenotype. CONCLUSION: Beside the clinical variability of Joubert syndrome, co-occurrence of mutations in ciliopathy-associated genes may contribute to increase the clinical complexity of the trait.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(5): 1073-1083, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124548

RESUMO

KBG syndrome (MIM #148050) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, distinct craniofacial anomalies, macrodontia of permanent upper central incisors, skeletal abnormalities, and short stature. This study describes clinical features of 28 patients, confirmed by molecular testing of ANKRD11 gene, and three patients with 16q24 deletion encompassing ANKRD11 gene, diagnosed in a single center. Common clinical features are reported, together with uncommon findings, clinical expression in the first years of age, distinctive associations, and familial recurrences. Unusual manifestations emerging from present series include juvenile idiopathic arthritis, dysfunctional dysphonia, multiple dental agenesis, idiopathic precocious telarche, oral frenula, motor tics, and lipoma of corpus callosum, pilomatrixoma, and endothelial corneal polymorphic dystrophy. Facial clinical markers suggesting KBG syndrome before 6 years of age include ocular and mouth conformation, wide eyebrows, synophrys, long black eyelashes, long philtrum, thin upper lip. General clinical symptoms leading to early genetic evaluation include developmental delay, congenital malformations, hearing anomalies, and feeding difficulties. It is likely that atypical clinical presentation and overlapping features in patients with multiple variants are responsible for underdiagnosis in KBG syndrome. Improved knowledge of common and atypical features of this disorder improves clinical management.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: KIAA0586 variants have been associated to short-rib thoracic dysplasia, an autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathy characterized by a narrow thorax, short limbs, and radiological skeletal abnormalities. PATIENT CONCERNS: Patients 1 and 2 were two Roma Gypsy siblings presenting thoracic dysplasia and a combination of oral cavity anomalies. DIAGNOSIS: A custom NGS gene panel, including genes associated to skeletal ciliopathies, identified the homozygous KIAA0586 splicing variant c.1815G>A (p.Gln605Gln) in both siblings, confirming the clinical diagnosis of short-rib-polydactyly. INTERVENTION: Patients were transferred to neonatal intensive care unit and received life-support treatment. OUTCOMES: Patients 1 and 2 died after few hours and 1 month of birth, respectively, because of respiratory failure related with the disease. CONCLUSION: We report two patients affected by short-rib polydactyly syndrome and overlapping phenotype with oral-facial-digital syndrome associated with the c.1815G>A variant in KIAA0586, suggesting a quite peculiar genotype-phenotype correlation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/complicações , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Síndrome de Costela Curta e Polidactilia/complicações , Síndrome de Costela Curta e Polidactilia/genética , Ciliopatias , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Fenótipo , Roma , Irmãos
17.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 129: 109790, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786483

RESUMO

In this report, we describe a novel, probably pathogenic hemizygous variant c.870G > T (p.Lys290Asn) in the POU3F4 gene in two deaf brothers from one Italian family with identical inner ear abnormalities specific to X-linked deafness-2 (DFNX2). In addition, we performed homology modeling to predict the effect of the missense variant on the protein structure showing a possible disruption of the normal folding. The identification of pathogenic variants causing X-linked recessive deafness will improve molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling, and knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of hearing loss among Italian individuals. Taken together, we recommend preoperative gene mutation analysis in patients who have DFNX2 diagnosed on the basis of characteristic radiological findings, in order to provide with better prognostic information, the risk of recurrence, and improved rehabilitation options. Finally, the present work strengthens the hypothesis that DFNX-2 could be considered as a syndromic deafness, since mixed hearing loss is associated with other dysfunctions of the neuropsychological profile of the patients.


Assuntos
Surdez/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Fatores do Domínio POU/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores do Domínio POU/química , Linhagem , Dobramento de Proteína , Irmãos
18.
Brain Sci ; 9(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703437

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is a rare multisystem developmental disorder caused by ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 (ANKRD11) gene haploinsufficiency, resulting from either intragenic loss-of-function mutations or microdeletions encompassing the gene. Concerning the behavioral phenotype, a limited amount of research has been focused on attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autistic-like features, anxiety and impairments in emotion regulation, and no study has provided a systematic assessment. The aim of the present work is to investigate the psychopathological profile in children, adolescents, and young adults with KBG syndrome. Seventeen subjects with molecularly confirmed diagnoses were evaluated to investigate cognitive abilities and psychopathological features. Parametric and nonparametric indexes were used to describe the patient cohort according to type and distribution of specific measures. The KBG subjects were characterized by a low mean IQ score, with a distribution characterized by a variability similar to that occurring in the general population. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders were computed as well as the corresponding confidence intervals to compare their prevalence to that reported for the general population. The KBG subjects were characterized by higher prevalence of obsessive-compulsive, tic, depressive and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a peculiar aspect characterizing the psychopathological profile of KBG patients, which does not seem to be related to the cognitive level. The present study provides new relevant information towards the definition of a psychopathological phenotype of KBG syndromes useful to plan a better treatment for patients.

19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487937

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and type of congenital heart disease (CHD) and the associated mutation spectrum in a large series of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and correlate the mutation type with the presence and subgroups of cardiac defects. The study cohort included 493 individuals with molecularly confirmed diagnosis of NF1 for whom cardiac evaluation data were available. CHD was reported in 62/493 (12.6%) patients. Among these patients, 23/62 (37.1%) had pulmonary valve stenosis/dysplasia, 20/62 (32.3%) had mitral valve anomalies, and 10/62 (16.1%) had septal defects. Other defects occurred as rare events. In this NF1 subcohort, three subjects carried a whole-gene deletion, while 59 were heterozygous for an intragenic mutation. A significantly increased prevalence of non-truncating intragenic mutations was either observed in individuals with CHD (22/59, 37.3%) or with pulmonary valve stenosis (13/20, 65.0%), when compared to individuals without CHD (89/420, 21.2%) (p = 0.038) or pulmonary valve stenosis (98/459, 21.4%) (p = 0.002). Similarly, patients with non-truncating NF1 mutations displayed two- and six-fold higher risk of developing CHD (odds ratio = 1.9713, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1162-3.4814, p = 0.0193) and pulmonary valve stenosis (odds ratio = 6.8411, 95% CI: 2.6574-17.6114, p = 0.0001), respectively. Noteworthy, all but one patient (19/20, 95.0%) with pulmonary valve stenosis, and 18/35 (51.4%) patients with other CHDs displayed Noonan syndrome (NS)-like features. Present data confirm the significant frequency of CHD in patients with NF1, and provide further evidence for a higher than expected prevalence of NF1 in-frame variants and NS-like characteristics in NF1 patients with CHD, particularly with pulmonary valve stenosis.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Mutação , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromatose 1/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Prevalência
20.
Front Physiol ; 10: 813, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333483

RESUMO

Numerous microbial root symbionts are known to induce different levels of enhanced plant protection against a variety of pathogens. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that beneficial microbes are able to induce plant systemic resistance that confers some degree of protection against insects. Here, we report how treatments with the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride strain P1 in tomato plants induce responses that affect pest insects with different feeding habits: the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) and the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). We observed that the tomato plant-Trichoderma P1 interaction had a negative impact on the development of moth larvae and on aphid longevity. These effects were attributed to a plant response induced by Trichoderma that was associated with transcriptional changes of a wide array of defense-related genes. While the impact on aphids could be related to the up-regulation of genes involved in the oxidative burst reaction, which occur early in the defense reaction, the negative performance of moth larvae was associated with the enhanced expression of genes encoding for protective enzymes (i.e., Proteinase inhibitor I (PI), Threonine deaminase, Leucine aminopeptidase A1, Arginase 2, and Polyphenol oxidase) that are activated downstream in the defense cascade. In addition, Trichoderma P1 produced alterations in plant metabolic pathways leading to the production and release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are involved in the attraction of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi, thus reinforcing the indirect plant defense barriers. Our findings, along with the evidence available in the literature, indicate that the outcome of the tripartite interaction among plant, Trichoderma, and pests is highly specific and only a comprehensive approach, integrating both insect phenotypic changes and plant transcriptomic alterations, can allow a reliable prediction of its potential for plant protection.

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