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1.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 173, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381066

RESUMO

A commentary to "Hertegård, S., Nagubothu, S.R., Malmström, E. et al. Treatment of vocal fold scarring with autologous bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells - first phase I/II human clinical study. Stem Cell Res Ther 11, 128 (2020)" concerning the surgical intervention including a scar resection, the use of the Voice Handicap Index, the surgical and regulatory points of view regarding the inclusion of patients with laryngeal carcinomas history, and the side effects of bone marrow harvesting.

2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256495

RESUMO

Background: Better understanding of the contribution of donor aging and comorbidity factors of expanded criteria donors (ECD) to the clinical outcome of a transplant is a challenge in kidney transplantation. We investigated whether the features of donor-derived stromal vascular fraction of perirenal adipose tissue (PRAT-SVF) could be indicative of the deleterious impact of the ECD microenvironment on a renal transplant. Methods: A comparative analysis of cellular components, transcriptomic and vasculogenic profiles was performed in PRAT-SVF obtained from 22 optimal donors and 31 ECD deceased donors. We then investigated whether these parameters could be associated with donor aging and early allograft dysfunction. Results: When compared with the PRAT-SVF of non-ECD donors, ECD PRAT-SVF displayed a lower proportion of stromal cells, a higher proportion of inflammatory NK cells. The global RNA sequencing approach indicated a differential molecular signature in the PRAT-SVF of ECD donors characterized by the over-expression of CXCL1 and IL1-ß inflammatory transcripts. The vasculogenic activity of PRAT-SVF was highly variable but was not significantly affected in marginal donors. Periorgan recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and NK cells in PRAT-SVF was associated with donor aging. The presence of NK cell infiltrates was associated with lower PRAT-SVF angiogenic activity and with early allograft dysfunction evaluated on day 7 and at 1 month post-transplant. Conclusions: Our results indicate that human NK cell subsets are differentially recruited in the periorgan environment of aging kidney transplants. We provide novel evidence that PRAT-SVF represents a non-invasive and timely source of donor material with potential value to assess inflammatory features that impact organ quality and function.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053141

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with scarred vocal folds, whether congenitally or after phonosurgery, often exhibit dysphonia that negatively affects daily life and is difficult to treat. The autologous adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF) is a readily accessible source of cells with angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and regenerative properties. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and tolerability of local injections of autologous ADSVF in patients with scarred vocal folds. Design, Setting, and Participants: CELLCORDES (Innovative Treatment for Scarred Vocal Cords by Local Injection of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction) is a prospective, open-label, single-arm, single-center, nonrandomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up and patient enrollment from April 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017. Eight patients with severe dysphonia attributable to vocal fold scarring associated with a congenital malformation or resulting from microsurgical sequelae (voice handicap index score >60 of 120) completed the study. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2018, to January 1, 2019. Interventions: Injection of ADSVF into 1 or 2 vocal folds. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were feasibility and the number and severity of adverse events associated with ADSVF-based therapy. The secondary outcomes were changes in vocal assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, self-evaluation of dysphonia, and quality of life at 1, 6, and 12 months after cell therapy. Results: Seven women and 1 man (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [10.4] years) were enrolled in this study. Adverse events associated with liposuction and ADSVF injection occurred; most of them resolved spontaneously. One patient received minor treatment to drain local bruising, and another experienced a minor contour defect at the liposuction site. At 12 months, the voice handicap index score was improved in all patients, with a mean (SD) improvement from baseline of 40.1 (21.5) points. Seven patients (88%) were considered to be responders, defined as improvement by 18 points or more in the voice handicap index score (the minimum clinically important difference). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that autologous ADSVF injection in scarred vocal folds is feasible and tolerable. The findings require confirmation in a randomized clinical trial with a larger population. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02622464.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022257

RESUMO

Initially discovered in human melanoma, CD146/MCAM is expressed on many tumors and is correlated with cancer progression and metastasis. However, targeting CD146 remains challenging since it is also expressed on other cell types, as vessel cells, where it displays important physiological functions. We previously demonstrated that CD146 is shed as a soluble form (sCD146) that vectorizes the effects of membrane CD146 on tumor angiogenesis, growth and survival. We thus generated a novel monoclonal antibody, the M2J-1 mAb, which specifically targets sCD146, but not membrane CD146, and counteracts these effects. In our study, we analyzed the effects of sCD146 on the dissemination and the associated procoagulant phenotype in two highly invasive human CD146-positive cancer cell lines (ovarian and melanoma). Results show that sCD146 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, favored the generation of cancer stem cells and increased the membrane expression of tissue factor. Treatment of cancer cells with sCD146 in two experimental models (subcutaneous xenografting and intracardiac injection of cancer cells in nude mice) led to increased tumor dissemination and procoagulant activity. The M2J-1 mAb drastically reduced metastasis but also procoagulant activity, in particular by decreasing the number of circulating tumor microparticles, and blocked the relevant signaling pathways as demonstrated by RNA expression profiling experiments. Thus, our findings demonstrate that sCD146 mediates important pro-metastatic and procoagulant effects in two CD146-positive tumors. Targeting sCD146 with the newly generated M2J-1 mAb could constitute an innovative strategy for preventing dissemination and thromboembolism in many CD146-positive tumors.

5.
Cancer Res ; 80(2): 291-303, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727628

RESUMO

Platelets promote metastasis, however, their role in tumor growth remains controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of platelet interactions with colorectal tumor cells. Platelets extravasated into the tumor microenvironment and interacted with tumor cells in a cadherin-6-dependent manner. The interaction induced platelet spreading, release of their granule content, and the generation of three types of microparticles (iMP) that expressed platelet markers, tumor markers, or both. The presence of iMPs was confirmed in colorectal cancer tissue specimens. Platelets significantly reduced tumor growth and increased intratumoral macrophages. This was mediated by iMP recruitment of macrophages via the chemoattractants RANTES, MIF, CCL2, and CXCL12 and activation of their tumor cell killing capacity through IFNγ and IL4, which led to cell-cycle arrest of tumor cells in a p21-dependent manner. In contrast, in the bloodstream, iMPs activated endothelial cells and platelets and induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells, promoting metastasis. Altogether, these results indicate that depending on the environment, local or bloodstream, the consequences of the interactions between platelets and a tumor may promote or prevent cancer progression. SIGNIFICANCE: Tumor cell interaction with platelets produces chimeric extracellular vesicles that suppress primary tumor growth by activating tumor-eliminating macrophages, while promoting metastasis through EMT and endothelial activation.

6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(3): 609-623, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet P2Y12 antagonist ticagrelor reduces mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to clopidogrel, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because activated platelets, leukocytes, and endothelial cells release proinflammatory and prothrombotic extracellular vesicles (EVs), we hypothesized that the release of EVs is more efficiently inhibited by ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel. OBJECTIVES: We compared EV concentrations and EV procoagulant activity in plasma of patients after AMI treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. METHODS: After percutaneous coronary intervention, 60 patients with first AMI were randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel. Flow cytometry was used to determine concentrations of EVs from activated platelets (CD61+ , CD62p+ ), fibrinogen+ , phosphatidylserine (PS+ ), leukocytes (CD45+ ), endothelial cells (CD31+ , 146+ ), and erythrocytes (CD235a+ ) in plasma at randomization, after 72 hours and 6 months of treatment. A fibrin generation test was used to determine EV procoagulant activity. RESULTS: Concentrations of platelet, fibrinogen+ , PS+ , leukocyte, and erythrocyte EVs increased 6 months after AMI compared to the acute phase of AMI (P ≤ .03). Concentrations of platelet EVs were lower on ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel after 6 months (P = .03). Concentrations of fibrinogen+ , PS+ , and leukocyte EVs were lower on ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel both after 72 hours and 6 months (P ≤ .03). Concentrations of endothelial EVs and EV procoagulant activity did not differ between patient groups and over time (P ≥ .17). CONCLUSIONS: Ticagrelor attenuates the increase of EV concentrations in plasma after acute myocardial infarction compared to clopidogrel. The ongoing release of EVs despite antiplatelet therapy might explain recurrent thrombotic events after AMI and worse clinical outcomes on clopidogrel compared to ticagrelor.

7.
Platelets ; 31(1): 26-32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585111

RESUMO

Activated platelets contribute to thrombosis and inflammation by the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) exposing P-selectin, phosphatidylserine (PS) and fibrinogen. P2Y12 receptor antagonists are routinely administered to inhibit platelet activation in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), being a combined antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory therapy. The more potent P2Y12 antagonist ticagrelor improves cardiovascular outcome in patients after AMI compared to the less potent clopidogrel, suggesting that greater inhibition of platelet aggregation is associated with better prognosis. The effect of ticagrelor and clopidogrel on the release of EVs from platelets and other P2Y12-exposing cells is unknown. This study compares the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel on (1) the concentrations of EVs from activated platelets (primary end point), (2) the concentrations of EVs exposing fibrinogen, exposing PS, from leukocytes and from endothelial cells (secondary end points) and (3) the procoagulant activity of plasma EVs (tertiary end points) in 60 consecutive AMI patients. After the percutaneous coronary intervention, patients will be randomized to antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor (study group) or clopidogrel (control group). Blood will be collected from patients at randomization, 48 hours after randomization and 6 months following the index hospitalization. In addition, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers will be enrolled in the study to investigate the physiological concentrations and procoagulant activity of EVs using recently standardized protocols and EV-dedicated flow cytometry. Concentrations of EVs will be determined by flow cytometry. Procoagulant activity of EVs will be determined by fibrin generation test. The compliance and response to antiplatelet therapy will be assessed by impedance aggregometry. We expect that plasma from patients treated with ticagrelor (1) contains lower concentrations of EVs from activated platelets, exposing fibrinogen, exposing PS, from leukocytes and from endothelial cells and (2) has lower procoagulant activity, when compared to patients treated with clopidogrel. Antiplatelet therapy effect on EVs may identify a new mechanism of action of ticagrelor, as well as create a basis for future studies to investigate whether lower EV concentrations are associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients treated with P2Y12 antagonists.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem
8.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739569

RESUMO

Innovative therapies based on autologous adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASC) are currently being evaluated for treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although paracrine angiogenic and antifibrotic effects are considered the predominant mechanisms of ASC therapeutic potential, the impact of SSc on ASC paracrine functions remains controversial. In this study, phenotype, senescence, differentiation potential, and molecular profile were determined in ASC from SSc patients (SSc-ASC) (n = 7) and healthy donors (HD-ASC) (n = 7). ASC were co-cultured in indirect models with dermal fibroblasts (DF) from SSc patients or endothelial cells to assess their pro-angiogenic and antifibrotic paracrine effects. The angiogenic activity of endothelial cells was measured in vitro using tube formation and spheroid assays. DF collagen and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) content were quantified after five days of co-culture with ASC. Differentiation capacity, senescence, and mRNA profiles did not differ significantly between SSc-ASC and HD-ASC. SSc-ASC retained the ability to stimulate angiogenesis through paracrine mechanisms; however, functional assays revealed reduced potential compared to HD-ASC. DF fibrosis markers were significantly decreased after co-culture with SSc-ASC. Together, these results indicate that SSc effects do not significantly compromise the angiogenic and the antifibrotic paracrine properties of ASC, thereby supporting further development of ASC-based autologous therapies for SSc treatment.

9.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 45(6): 569-575, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382305

RESUMO

Cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) is frequent and constitutes the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer. High platelet count is one of independent predictive factors of cancer-associated VTE. Besides the implication of platelets in cancer-associated VTE, recent clinical and experimental evidences support that platelets play several roles in the progression of malignancies and inversely, cancer can also influence platelet count and activity. The objective of this report is to review the current literature regarding the role of platelets in cancer through experimental results and population-based studies. Platelets are implicated in cancer progression and metastasis through proangiogenic factors (growth factors and signaling pathways), antiangiogenic factors (angiostatin, endostatin, thrombospondin-1), and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, platelets are involved in cancer-associated thrombosis and thus tumor cell-induced platelet activation, through anionic phospholipids on their surface, released soluble factors, such as P-selectin, CD40 ligand, platelet factor 4, thrombospondin-1 or beta-thromboglobulin, tumor cell procoagulant proteins (tissue factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), and microparticles. Due to these different mechanisms, platelets may represent a potential therapeutic target. The main current treatments against platelets are: (1) acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, nonselective cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitors, which are associated with decreased cancer incidence and better overall survival and (2) irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12 subtype which decreases cancer incidence. Platelets are key players in tumor growth, metastasis, and cancer-associated thrombosis. This multifaceted role identifies them as a relevant therapeutic target for prevention of cancer occurrence and treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/sangue , Humanos
10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1805, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417569

RESUMO

Platelets are small anucleate cells present in the blood stream, their typical role in primary hemostasis has been well-described. However, new evidence suggests that they have critically important roles in cancer progression and inflammation. Cancer cells can activate platelets, thus using them as physical shields from blood shear forces and natural killer (NK) cells. The activated platelets may also regulate hematopoietic and immune cell migration toward the tumor site; therefore, contributing to the cancer-associated inflammation. The activation of platelets by cancer cells may also contribute to metastasis and cancer progression by stimulating deep venous thrombosis and neutrophil extracellular trap formations (NETs) that "hide" cancer cells. We strived to review the current literature to dissect the role of platelets in cancer-associated thrombosis and tumor microenvironment inflammation.

11.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 45(6): 593-603, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430786

RESUMO

Microvesicles (MVs) are small membrane enclosed structures released into the extracellular space by virtually all cell types. Their composition varies according to the cell origin and the stimulus which caused their formation. They harbor functional molecules and participate in intercellular communication. Endothelium, inflammatory cells, and cancer cells produce procoagulant MVs which contribute to cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) in animal models. The tissue factor (TF) conveyed by these MVs was shown to play a key role in different animal models of experimental CAT. Alternatively, other molecular mechanisms involving polyphosphates or phosphatidylethanolamine could also be involved. In clinical practice, an association between an increase in the number of TF-positive or the procoagulant activity of these MVs and the occurrence of CAT has indeed been demonstrated in pancreatic-biliary cancers, suggesting that they could behave as a biomarker predictive for CAT. However, to date, this association was not confirmed in other types of cancer. Potential causes explaining this limited associated between MVs and CAT are (1) the diversity of mechanisms associating MVs and different types of cancer; (2) a more complex role of MVs in hemostasis integrating their anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activity; and (3) the lack of sensitivity, reproducibility, and standardization of current methodologies permitting measurement of MVs. Each of these hypotheses constitutes an interesting exploration path for a future reassessment of the clinical interest of the MVs in CAT.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/patologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Trombose/patologia
12.
Thromb Res ; 182: 64-74, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The TF-FVIIa complex is the primary activator of coagulation. Elevated levels of microvesicle (MV) bearing tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity are detectable in patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. Several methods have been described to measure MV TF activity but they are hampered by limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this work was to increase the sensitivity of the MV TF activity assay (called Chapel Hill assay). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Improvements of the MV TF activity assay included i/ speed and time of centrifugation, ii/ use of a more potent inhibitory anti-TF antibody iii/ use of FVII and a fluorogenic substrate to increase specificity. RESULTS: The specificity of the MV TF activity assay was demonstrated by the absence of activity on MV derived from a knock-out-TF cell line using an anti-human TF monoclonal antibody called SBTF-1, which shows a higher TF inhibitory effect than the anti-human TF monoclonal antibody called HTF-1. Experiments using blood from healthy individuals, stimulated or not by LPS, or plasma spiked with 3 different levels of MV, demonstrated that the new assay was more sensitive and this allowed detection of MV TF activity in platelet free plasma (PFP) samples from healthy individuals. However, the assay was limited by an inter-assay variability, mainly due to the centrifugation step. CONCLUSIONS: We have improved the sensitivity of the MV TF activity assay without losing specificity. This new assay could be used to evaluate levels of TF-positive MV as a potential biomarker of thrombotic risk in patients.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10299, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311940

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection promotes a generalized activation of host responses that involves not only CD4 T cells, but also cells of the microenvironment, which are not directly infected, such as endothelial cells. The mechanisms triggering HIV-1-associated vascular alterations remain poorly understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), implicated in cell-to-cell communication, have been recently described as carriers of microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we show that miR-146b-5p is upregulated in both CD4 T cells, CD4 T cell-derived EVs and circulating EVs obtained from antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1-infected patients. We further demonstrate that EVs from T cell line overexpressing miR-146b-5p mimics (miR-146b-EVs): 1) protect their miRNA cargo from RNase degradation, 2) transfer miR-146b-5p mimics into endothelial cells and 3) reduce endothelial inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo in the lungs of mice through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB-responsive molecules. These data advance our understanding on chronic inflammatory responses affecting endothelial homeostasis, in infectious and non-infectious diseases and pave the way for potential new anti-inflammatory strategies.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212608

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication for cancer patients. VTE-associated risk varies according to the type of tumor disease. Head and neck cancer is a common cancer worldwide, and most tumors are squamous cell carcinomas due to tobacco and alcohol abuse. The risk of VTE associated with head and neck (H&N) cancer is considered empirically low, but despite the high incidence of H&N cancer, few data are available on this cancer; thus, it is difficult to state the risk of VTE. Our review aims to clarify this situation and tries to assess the real VTE risk associated with H&N cancer. We report that most clinical studies have concluded that there is a very low thrombosis risk associated with H&N cancer. Even with the biases that often exist, this clinical review seems to confirm that the risk of VTE was empirically hypothesized. Furthermore, we highlight that H&N cancer has all the biological features of a cancer associated with a high thrombosis risk, including a strong expression of procoagulant proteins, modified thrombosis/fibrinolysis mechanisms, and secretions of procoagulant microparticles and procoagulant cytokines. Thus, this is a paradoxical situation, and some undiscovered mechanisms that could explain this clinical biological ambivalence might exist.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1208, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249568

RESUMO

Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) play a major role in the regulation of humoral immune responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FCGR2A and FCGR3A can impact the expression level, IgG affinity and function of the CD32 and CD16 FcγRs in response to their engagement by the Fc fragment of IgG. The CD16 isoform encoded by FCGR3A [158V/V] controls the intensity of antibody-dependent cytotoxic alloimmune responses of natural killer cells (NK) and has been identified as a susceptibility marker predisposing patients to cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplant. This study aimed to investigate whether FCGR2A and FCGR3A polymorphisms can also be associated with the clinical outcome of lung transplant recipients (LTRs). The SNPs of FCGR2A ([131R/H], rs1801274) and FCGR3A ([158V/F], rs396991) were identified in 158 LTRs and 184 Controls (CTL). The corresponding distribution of genotypic and allelic combinations was analyzed for potential links with the development of circulating donor-specific anti-HLA alloantibodies (DSA) detected at months 1 and 3 after lung transplant (LTx), the occurrence of acute rejection (AR) and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and the overall survival of LTRs. The FCGR3A [158V/V] genotype was identified as an independent susceptibility factor associated with higher rates of AR during the first trimester after LTx (HR 4.8, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 2.37-9.61), but it could not be associated with the level of CD16- mediated NK cell activation in response to the LTR's DSA, whatever the MFI intensity and C1q binding profiles of the DSA evaluated. The FCGR2A [131R/R] genotype was associated with lower CLAD-free survival of LTRs, independently of the presence of DSA at 3 months (HR 1.8, p = 0.024, 95% CI 1.08-3.03). Our data indicate that FCGR SNPs differentially affect the clinical outcome of LTRs and may be of use to stratify patients at higher risk of experiencing graft rejection. Furthermore, these data suggest that in the LTx setting, specific mechanisms of humoral alloreactivity, which cannot be solely explained by the complement and CD16-mediated pathogenic effects of DSA, may be involved in the development of acute and chronic lung allograft rejection.

17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(6): 1026-1033, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070478

RESUMO

CD146 (cluster of differentiation 146) is an adhesion molecule that is expressed by different cells constituting vessels, particularly endothelial cells. The last 30 years of research in this field have shown that CD146 plays a key role in the control of several vessel functions. Three forms of CD146 have been described, including 2 transmembrane isoforms and a soluble protein that is detectable in the plasma. These CD146 forms mediate pleiotropic functions through homophilic and heterophilic interactions with proteins present on surrounding partners. Several studies used neutralizing antibodies, siRNA, or genetically modified mice to demonstrate the involvement of CD146 in the regulation of angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and leukocyte transmigration. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of the roles of CD146 in vascular homeostasis and diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígeno CD146/genética , Permeabilidade Capilar/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Homeostase/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 130: 76-87, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928429

RESUMO

AIMS: The progression of atherosclerosis is based on the continued recruitment of leukocytes in the vessel wall. The previously described role of CD146 in leukocyte infiltration suggests an involvement for this adhesion molecule in the inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the role of CD146 in leukocyte recruitment by using an experimental model of atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The role of CD146 was explored in atherosclerosis by crossing CD146-/- mice with ApoE-/- mice. CD146 -/-/ApoE -/- and ApoE -/- mice were fed a Western diet for 24 weeks and were monitored for aortic wall thickness using high frequency ultrasound. The arterial wall was significantly thicker in CD146-deficient mice. After 24 weeks of Western diet, a significant increase of atheroma in both total aortic lesion and aortic sinus of CD146-null mice was observed. In addition, atherosclerotic lesions were more inflammatory since plaques from CD146-deficient mice contained more neutrophils and macrophages. This was due to up-regulation of RANTES secretion by macrophages in CD146-deficient atherosclerotic arteries. This prompted us to further address the function of CD146 in leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation by using a second experimental model of peritonitis induced by thioglycollate. Neutrophil recruitment was significantly increased in CD146-deficient mice 12 h after peritonitis induction and associated with higher RANTES levels in the peritoneal cavity. In CD146-null macrophages, we also showed that increased RANTES production was dependent on constitutive inhibition of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, Maraviroc, a RANTES receptor antagonist, was able to reduce atherosclerotic lesions and neutrophilia in CD146-deficient mice to the same level as that found in ApoE -/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that CD146 deficiency is associated with the upregulation of RANTES production and increased inflammation of atheroma, which could influence the atherosclerotic plaque fate. Thus, these data identify CD146 agonists as potential new therapeutic candidates for atherosclerosis treatment.

20.
J Autoimmun ; 100: 120-130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930069

RESUMO

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic vasculitis. Although initially described to have antibacterial properties, increasing evidence suggests that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have a detrimental role in both autoimmune diseases and acute lung injury. We investigated whether NETs could be detected in a murine model of pristane-induced lupus DAH and contribute to lung injury. Such NETs might constitute a therapeutic target. NETs were characterized by immunofluorescence staining of DNA, neutrophil elastase and citrullinated histones. Evaluation of lung injury was performed by haematoxylin-eosin staining and a quantification program. Clinical status of the mice was assessed by measurement of arterial oxygen saturation and survival curves after recombinant human deoxyribonuclease-1 (Rh-DNase-1) inhalations or polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) depletion. Pristane was found to promote NETs formation in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of mice with Rh-DNase-1 inhalations cleared NETs and reduced lung injury. Clinical status improved significantly, with increased arterial oxygenation and survival. Following PMN depletion, NETs were absent with a subsequent reduction of lung injury and improved arterial oxygenation. These results support a pathogenic role of PMNs and NETs in lung injury during pristane-induced DAH. Targeting NETs with Rh-DNase-1 inhalations could constitute an interesting adjuvant therapy in human DAH.

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